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Ecology And Evolution

by: Favian Swaniawski

Ecology And Evolution BIOL 221

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Biology > BIOL 221 > Ecology And Evolution
Favian Swaniawski
GPA 3.82

James McGraw

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James McGraw
Class Notes
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Favian Swaniawski on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 221 at West Virginia University taught by James McGraw in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see /class/202732/biol-221-west-virginia-university in Biology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Lecture 2 Ecology is interdisciplinary Ftvyslcll ammonium Responxn ni urglnllm seminar It s a great way to make a living You can make a difference by improving the environment we live in and share with all other living things You can have ajob you enjoy 7 one that lets you play outside and call it work Jobs are available especially ifyou re good at what you 0 Career opportunities exist for ecologists On your own 39 39 quot 39 l it httpwfsctamuedujobboardindexhtm Read the profile ofat least one ecologist found at t efollowing site httpwwwesao edncationecologistsJoro le EcologistsPro leDirectory These sites are available at the Bio 221 web site Lecture 2 Assignment 1 By the next lecture write down the name of one of the ecologism whose profile you read along with one interesting thing you learned about them 22 help tl lmkspage art class web SIZE Bring this information with you to class It may be used as a quiz question Assignment 2 By the next lecture write down the following information about any job or internship opportunity that interests you on the job board web site 22 help tl lmkspage on Class web SIZE 1 Job title 2 Location 3 Agency otrening the job 4 Sal ary 5 Why you find it interesting Bring this information with you to class It may be used as a quiz question Major Ecological Lessons The natural world is diverse complex and interconnected The natural world is organized by physical and biological processes Natural systems recycle essential nutrients Natural systems are maintained and constrained by processing energy Good and bad 39 exist for every species Lecture 2 Major Ecological Lessons Ecological communities can recover from disturbance but not always All populations can grow exponentially No population grows without limits Nothing in biology makes sense except in the light of evolution Humans degend an and affect natural ecosystems The health of an economy cannot be separated from that of its natural support systems Lama 5mm 21mm 5217 Human Domination of Earth39s Ecosytems Vitousekbtal 1997 Science 277 4947499 60 40 20 I I I I r n WW mm Mann m mm Fisheries Percentage Change m Ymus armaumv 02 mmquot am Yamslum Cmvcsulmlmn mm imamquot w Lecture 2 The term ecosystem coined in 1935 The more fundamental conception is including not only t e rgaanm le but also the whole complex of physic factors forming what we the environment the habitat factors in the r 4 73 A prejudices force us to consider the organisms as the most important parts of these systems but certainly the inorganic factors are also parts and there is constant interchange of the most various kinds M39th39nnhnrtm LL I I I I rganic and inorganic These ecosystems as we may call them are of the most various kinds and sizes A G Tansley Practical problems with the ecosystem concept If all parts of the systems are to be treated in a similar manner What common denominator can be used to express their interdependence How big is an ecosystem Lecture 2 Energy and matter are exchanged between organisms and between organisms and their physical environment The mpth dynamzc vzewpuml as adopted 1 27 emphaszzzs m2 relanunsth of hm Cummumty um I Lindeman 1942 The Trophichynamic View oI Cedar Bog Lake Lizdmun m Lecture 2 Types of Systems I Open I Closed Biosphere II Results From Initial Mission 9911993 Oxygen decrease from 21 tn 14 Nitrnlls mddeincrmsa l m levelsthztthrmten human 1mm A higm frzninn nf species went Extinct Aupnusnamswem Extinct uth nflarge treeshemmehri le yhmxda puzth nhe mummy m repmdxae the EM 5 Life susminingpmemex then how can anyone bellsz goal Lecture 2 Ecosystems are Maintained by A continuous flow oi energy The continuous cycling oi essential materials Ecosystems provide a variety of services that benefit humans Moderation ofclimate Supply offood and fiber Pollination Pest control Waste puri cation Maintains a genetic library Recycles essential rnaterials Earth as an ecosystem Lecture 2 The fundamentals of energy 0 Energy Ability to produce change in the state or motion of matter 0 Energy comes in many interchangeable forms heat mechanical electrical chemical sound electromagnetic radiation powers the Ea 1it law of thermodynamics Energy is never created or destroyed Electromagnetic Radiation Travelling wave of energy 0 Travels at the speed of light 3x108 ms 0 Can travel through the vacuum of outerspace 0 Many types of EMR based on wavelength Energy content of EMR is related to its wavelength t x i 7x wavelength Lecture 2 Common types of EMR Type A Energy Content Radio 110 In Low Microwaves 001 03 m Infrared 071100 um Visible light 04071 um Ultraviolet 0104 um Xrays 105 102 High t i t m7 Electromagnetic Radiation cont 0 Everything with a temperature emits electromagnetic radiation StephanBoltzmann Law E at T 0 Wavelength of maximum emission depends on the temperature of the object low temp gt longer Am high temp gt shorter Am WmZ mm Daily Flux ofRadiation What does the area under each curve represent Wavelength um


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