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by: Favian Swaniawski

SPTPImmunology BIOL 493

Favian Swaniawski
GPA 3.82


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Class Notes
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This 26 page Class Notes was uploaded by Favian Swaniawski on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 493 at West Virginia University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 12 views. For similar materials see /class/202738/biol-493-west-virginia-university in Biology at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Lecture 2 Roots of Molecular Ecology August 23 2006 Plan for Today OThe quiz eek OHis rorical backdrop for molecular ecology OPreview and background for The readings Course Website 9 httpwww aswvu edusdifaziomolececol htm gt Accessible through my departmental page OLecture slides day of the lecture usually OUpdated reading list and links to papers OInformative links and other exciting material OPlease check reading assignment OAnd let me know if you didn39t get the email Interrupt and ask questions Challenge me Origins of Molecular Ecology l O Systematics classification of organisms into hierarchical groups OFirst molecular systematics study 1867 by Church phylogeny of the African Turaco based on Turacin OEcology grew out of systematics in part common roots Genetic Roots OSignificance of pus in molecular ecology O 1869 first DNA extraction quotLu ew Mendel O 1900 Mendel39s experiments 39rediscovered39 surge of r Magma membrane Interest In genetics Golgivesicms Mitochondrion Peroxisome OCell biology thriving 91903 Sutton Mendel39s quotfactorsquot are chromosomes Secretory that contain 39loci39 genes Kquot t vesicle v Q Clwlt m mlt2 S l md wm mi of eggm ez mm r ml UD U WHWQ DNA md pmm m H M HQQlt LHSS ggzm ai 1 Ham pmws dw mg mcg qas g m l pll l D pl lz Wm SQGS ll ll ll w Mr H H mm m n n HQ 1 u m mm H l mm Ll bUUU m fmm 6201th pcolrczm li limp ro dz m SQquot f lmm ms mews p s m om Gm amp mgm Alla fjlffcamm l 39 Eaams f l lv39ucg STN ws Terminology Allele for purple flowars Homologous pair at chromosomes Locus for flowercolor gene Allele for white owers alD imm39NIa q Layman Inc Evolutionary Theory and the Synthesis 1859 Darwin and Wallace OEvolution explored mainly in terms of morphology lacked mechanism ODiscovery of genetics eventually led to quotmodern synthesisquot providing mechanistic basis for evolutionary change 0 193039s Fisher Wright and Haldane spearheaded major theoretical advances tying population genetics to evolutionary change change in genetic composition of populations OFirst big controversy in genetics ClassicalBalance Classical Balance OFisher focused on the dynamics of allelic forms of genes importance of selection in determining variation argued that selection would quickly homogenize populations Classical view OWright focused more on processes of genetic drift and gene flow argued that diversity was likely to be quite high Balance view OProblem no way to accurately assess level of genetic variation in populations Morphological traits hide variation or exaggerate it What Controls Genetic Diversity of Populations 4 major evolutionary forces 391 Migration Only mutation can increase species diversity 0 9 Modes of selection on single genes SAAlt SAa lt 52121 or Saalt SAa lt SAA Directional One extreme genotype has the highest tness purifying selection Overdominance An intermediate genotype has the highest tness balancing selection Underdominance The two extremeg enotypes have the highest tness diversifying selection Fisherian View QFESWQWOQSS fmdw umc w C ammr cgm m a h M f g pmm r m g pmpw md m DEB16 mm ccr s m pmgcam p OUUCDDEUMW M jmmca u D PWQ d i m UC gt m S m gameac j cg Vm lt 3 m ltgtAM 11 Se cad m is dimes md 0 o o 0 N o E a E e a E s z 395 m g e a genotype space Genetic Drift 9A sampling problem some alleles lost by random chance due to sampling quoterrorquot during reproduction OCan be counterbalanced by mutation selection gene flow GHEHAmN 1 GENERA I IOM 2 ENERMON 3 frequency of A 07 p 05 p 10 q frequency cl 1 03 q 00 fwwijl vpaarson szalizrut39c in39 39inJas a m um I a Drif r strongest in Small Populations 8 replicate populations initial p 05 Frequency A Frequency A Frequency A Frequency A 40 Generation Generation Genetic Drift art A The bo leneck effect Alleles in original population Alleles remaining after bottlene 0 Original Bottlenecking Surviving population quot39 event population eneck effect 1V in i F quoti 391 1 n s 39L n I 4 n a mi M quotu it J39lli if 515i h i 3 P as quotn 3 39 L 4 Hr gF L rFir Ff ii 15 m 35 I ii j J H w M 4 gquot L I I 7 u 71 7 HE 51 fa wwwpetsdoc compicfuaes Wileposea Genetic Drif39r Part B The founder effecf Change in allele frequencies when a new population arises from only a few individuals eq only a few fish are in rr39oduced info a lake eq only a few bir39ds make if To an island Scorpaenidae Li onfish Pferos volfans wwwfishbaseor g f I 239 7 I a l39 i It 39 U i Founder EffecT New A rlan ric population maybe from only 10 individuals Wright39s Shifting Balance Theorem Adaptive peak lt 3 ed nes51k A Trauey 66 I 4 W A U M Genet c 9 axis 1 Sewall Wright p 3 5 A Jig 25 U n M r 30 a m a 3g acquot mquot ltgtk gt7 u p dmu MUDm JLZU UUC S u 1UUW dcgsaygm UHUU H2 u WUUWS ltgt Eam39c jmm Spmmd f gwpwiw m mdgp Genetics vs Environment OMany advances made in evolutionary theory based on morphology OProblem was variation could be exaggerated gt Only variable 39loci39 scored gt Phenotype vs Genotype Varphenotype Vargenotype Varenvironment Heritability Vargenotype Varphenotype OPhenotypic plasticity organisms with the same genotype have different phenotypes under different conditions OSolution control environmental variance by raising organisms in common environment Genecology OStudy of intraspecific variation and genetic composition relative to the environment OIntroduced by Turesson in 1922 coined 39ecotype39a locally adapted population within a species Stanford group Jens Clausen cytology and genetics William Hiesey physiology David Keck botany taxonomy The Studies of Clausen Keck and Hiesey O Achillea anuosa exhibits clinal variation in natural populations across the elevational gradient in the Sierra Nevada f a l l 15 i 397 jg 39 3539 i V P m I t l V 1 i High3m l39uolurnno Lake T Achillea lanulosa mm my mm I l 39 Emmi Creek Timhcrlinc f Lucvining W00 y yarrow g Comm SIERRA NEVADA RANGE 3mm i1RI39rTBSIN PLATEM Clausen Jens Keck David D Hiesey William M 1948 Experimental studies on the nature of species 111 Environmental responses of climatic races of Achillea Publication 581 Washington DC Carnegie Institution of Washington Intraspeci c Adaptive Variation I00 YIMBERLINE Achlllan 39ncrugz39hs nZ wgig MATHEH Average p ant height cm E 53 Gregorio Ferry VaHey Lake Knighrs Aspen Tenaya BigHom Lake The rise of Neutral Theory OAdaptive variation exists but perhaps not driven by balancing or diversifying selection selectionists find a new foe Neutralists ONeutral Theory 1968 most genetic mutations are neutral therefore not subject to selection ODeleterious mutations quickly eliminated OAdvantageous mutations extremely rare OGenetic drift is most important force causing differentiation of populations role of chance OPurifying directional selection predominates Mos r Mutations are Neutral OWW gmo pmpow om of DNA 7 3 U mg n Uic xr ca foog g fog gdgo b om tart site for RNA synthesis 1 POQMIMS Genome E xary 539 3 3 cleavage and transcnpt addition of 75 noncoding poyA tail 15 introns Intron UTR PolyA tail 10 exons a i f O I uAn m7Gppp Intron excision exon ligation A FLS39N X39 1 n


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