New User Special Price Expires in

Let's log you in.

Sign in with Facebook


Don't have a StudySoup account? Create one here!


Create a StudySoup account

Be part of our community, it's free to join!

Sign up with Facebook


Create your account
By creating an account you agree to StudySoup's terms and conditions and privacy policy

Already have a StudySoup account? Login here


by: Favian Swaniawski

Limnology BIOL 362

Favian Swaniawski
GPA 3.82


Almost Ready


These notes were just uploaded, and will be ready to view shortly.

Purchase these notes here, or revisit this page.

Either way, we'll remind you when they're ready :)

Preview These Notes for FREE

Get a free preview of these Notes, just enter your email below.

Unlock Preview
Unlock Preview

Preview these materials now for free

Why put in your email? Get access to more of this material and other relevant free materials for your school

View Preview

About this Document

Class Notes
25 ?




Popular in Course

Popular in Biology

This 23 page Class Notes was uploaded by Favian Swaniawski on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to BIOL 362 at West Virginia University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/202739/biol-362-west-virginia-university in Biology at West Virginia University.


Reviews for Limnology


Report this Material


What is Karma?


Karma is the currency of StudySoup.

You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!

Date Created: 09/12/15
LIMNOLOGY SPRING 2009 BIOL 362 WMAN 446 Lecture 10 NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS CYCLING IN LAKES AND STREAMS 32709 Reguired Readings Dodds 2002 Chapter 13 and 16 in Freshwater Ecology Academic Press Allan 1995 Chaper 13 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall NITROGEN CYCLE I Nitrogen Sources and Sinks II Forms of Nitrogen N2 gas Nitrate Nitrite Ammonia DON PON WINDOW Ill The Important Processes Nitrogen Fixation Ammonia cation Nitri cation Denitri cation Uptake Excretion 39nrnUowgt IV The Nitrogen Cycle V Seasonal Distribution of Nitrogen in Lakes PHOSPHORUS CYCLE I Forms of Phosphorus A Soluble vs Particulate B Inorganic vs Organic C Phosphate Phosphorus Sediment Interactions A P Adsorption to Sediments B Oxidation Reduction of Sediments C Role of Macrophytes Ill Epilemnetic Cycling of Phosporus A Uptake by Phytoplankton B Cycling through Food Web C Loss of P from the Epilimnion NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS DYNAMICS N STREAMS I InputOutput Pathways WUOWP Groundwater and Soilwater Nitrate Canopy Throughfal DON PON POP Erosion of Sediments PP and DIP Nitrogen Fixation Rates are very low Importance of the Hydrologic Regime amp Season Constant supply of nutrients coming from upstream Nutrient Cycling within the Hyporheic Zone transfer of N among surface water biota detritus interstitial water and groundwater transfer of P among surface water biota detritus interstitial water and sediments Ill Nutrient Spiraling A B C ldealized Cycle one cycle is completed when a nutrient atom has in sequence been taken up by an organism from a dissolved available state passed through the food chain and returned to a dissolved available state for reuse Spiraling Because of the unidirectional flow of water cycling in streams has a spatial component which is a net downstream displacement for each cycle Spiraling Length Distance that a nutrient atom moves downstream during the storage cyclerelease sequence S V tC D Example Newbold et al 1983 Phosphorus cycling in a Tennessee stream Spiraling Length 190m 165m dissolved in water 25m uptake by fungi and bacteria associated with bio lm or detritus lt2m in consumers Dominant consumer was a snail low downstream displacement NITROGEN AND PHOSPHORUS LIMITATION I N and P Limitation of Primary Production in Lakes A Historical View Phosphorus is the primary limiting factor of lake productivity in temperate zones w 0 U Reasons for this View I A A High availability of Nitrogen relative to Phosphorus in Temperate Zones high rainfall Strong Empirical Relationship between TP and Chl a Whole Lake Experiments of Schindler 1970 s High Rates of Nfixation by BGA Allows for Increased Productivity with Increased P even if Levels of Available N remain Low Current View Lake Productivity is CoLimited by N and P although the initial limiting factor is usually P I A Reasons for this View Nitrogen tends to become limiting when the atomic ratio of NP falls below some level In theory this level is 161 Redfield Ratio In practice the ratio ranges between 10301 Most natural freshwater systems begin with very high NP ratios 651 and therefore are P limited But the addition of P alone leads to a low NP thereby producing an N limited system Different phytoplankton species need different concentrations of different nutrients to achieve maximum growth Elseretal 1990 Metaanalysis ofexperimentalstudies Established that there is a Synergistic relationship between N amp P Multiplicative response by phytoplankton to enrichment by N and P together II N and P Limitation of Primary Production in Streams A N and P are usually less limiting in streams than lakes 1 Greater inputs of N and P from the surrounding watershed a N inputs from the groundwater and detritus b P inputs from the erosion of sediments 2 Continual fresh supply of nutrients delivered from upstream physiological enrichment 3 Tighter Link between Surface Water and Benthos keeps nutrients from being locked up outside the area where primary productivity is occurring B Though less nutrient limitation occurs most streams in the eastern US are limited by Phosphorus nitrate not limiting in eastern streams because of high nitrate concentration in precipitation and groundwater some ofwhich is natural some of which is result of acid precipitation But NLimitation is more common in streams than lakes A typical Nlimited system is characterized by low precipitation Desert Southwest andor high P content in the surrounding soils Pacific Northwest Desert Southwest In many desert southwest streams productivity is controlled by upwellings Why Why is Nlimitation more common in streams than lakes C As in lakes a recent metaanalysis indicates that N and P colimit productivity in most streams D Unlike lakes light is often a more important limiting factor than nutrients LIMNOLOGY SPRING 2008 BIOL 362 WMAN 446 Lecture 14 STREAM FOOD WEBS 4232008 Readings N A A 01 O N O Allan J D 1995 Autotrophs Chapter 4 pages 83107 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Allan JD 1995 Heterotrophic Energy Sources Chapter 5 pages 109130 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Allan JD 1995 Trophic Relationships Chapter 6 pages 131161 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Allan JD 1995 Predation and its Consequences Chapter 7 pages 163185 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Allan JD 1995 Herbivory Chapter 8 pages 187203 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Allan JD 1995 Drift Chapter 10 pages 221237 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Allan JD 1995 Organic Matter in Lotic Systems Chapter 12 pages 259282 in Stream Ecology Chapman and Hall New York NY Hershey AE and GA Lamberti 1998 Stream Macroinvertebrate Communities Chapter 8 Pages 169199 in River Ecology and Management RJ Naiman and RE Bilby editors Springer New York NY Bisson PA and RE Bilby 1998 Organic Matter and Trophic Dynamics Chapter 15 Pages 373398 in River Ecology and Management RJ Naiman and RE Bilby editors Springer New York NY 10Gier PS and B Malmqvist 1998 Energy and Nutrients Chapter 12 Pages 147 169 in The Biology of Streams and Rivers Oxford University Press Oxford UK What is a stream made of A Floodplain B Riparian Zone C Stream Channel 1 Surface Water 2 Hyporheic Zone 3 River of Sediment organic and inorganic Stream Food Webs in their Simplest Form The base level of organic matter originates from multiple sources 0 Primary productivity especially diatoms o Dissolved organic carbon from surrounding soils 0 Decomposition of coarse particulate organic matter from riparian zone Fine Particulate Organic Matter FPOM plays a central role in stream food webs Stream Insects aka Benthic Macroinvertebrates play a central role in the processing of organic matter in stream food webs Trophic Cannibalism is common Dynamic nature of stream ow and habitat results in trophic decoupling within stream food webs Very few general statements can be made about the role of topdown and bottom up forces in streams A Allochthonous Heterotrophic B Autochthonous Autotrophic Organic Matter Sources in Streams A Autochthonous new organic matter originating within the stream 1 Vascular Plants 2 Bryophytes mosses and livenNorts 3 Periphyton primarily diatoms 0 Growth Forms 0 Limiting factors 0 o Nutrients esp Phosphate o Alkalinity B Allochthonous organic matter ofterrestrialorigin 1 Dissolved Organic Matter DOM 2 Fine Particulate Organic Matter FPOM lt 1mm 3 Coarse Particulate Organic Matter CPOM gt 1mm Organic Matter Processing A Dominant Processors Microbes DOM Fungi Bacteria What in the world is bio lm Grazers Periphyton Biofilm Ameletidae Ephemeroptera Ephemerellidae Ephemeroptera Glossosomatidae Trichoptera Shredders CPOM Pteronarcydae Plecoptera Tipulidae Diptera Limnephilidae Trichoptera Amphipods CollectorGatherers FPOM Baetidae Ephemeroptera Heptageneidae Ephemeroptera Leuctridae Plecoptera CollectorFilterers FPOM Simuliidae Diptera Hydropsychidae Trichoptera B Dominant Processes 1 l A 01 O l G O Groundwater Upwelling Major input of DOM Litterfall Major input of CPOM Leaching Conversion of CPOM to DOM Physical Abrasion Conversion of CPOM to FPOM Microbial Uptake of DOM Conversion of DOM to FPOM Flocculation Conversion of DOM to FPOM Sloudhind of Periphvton and Bio lm Conversion of Periphyton to FPOM Consumption of periphyton by grazers of microbes and CPOM by shredders of FPOM by collectors Death and Defecation Conversion of Consumers to FPOM 10 Downstream Transport Major Input and Loss of DOM FPOM and CPOM V Organic Matter Storage DOM primarily stored in wetlands and wet soils in the ood plain FPOM stored in interstitial spaces of the stream bed in stream margins and adjacent to large structural elements like LWD and Boulders CPOM storage depends on ow and channel morphology usually greatest in low gradient alluvial systems associated with large debris jams LWD piles LWD and Boulders play a major role in the storage of CPOM and FPOM As a rule structuraly complex streams store and process more organic matter than structuraly simple streams VI Measuring the Relative Importance of Autochthonous and Allochthonous Pathways A Photosynthesis Respiration PR ratio B Net Daily Metabolism NDM Questions gt How does CPOM FPOM retention influence the local productivity of a stream f LWD is cleared from a stream how could this affect a stream s productivity Why does increased light lead to an increased production of collector gatherers and filterers How would you expect OM inputs processors and processes to change if a small stream with a forested riparian zone is cleared T or F A stream with a dense forest canopy would likely have a PR ratio gt 1 and a NDM gt 0 V V V LIMNOLOGY SPRING 2009 BIOL 362 WMAN 446 Lecture 6 LAKE DISTRIBUTION ORIGIN amp MORPHOLOGY 28 January 2009 Reguired Readings Dodds 2002 Chapter6 in Freshwater Ecology Academic Press Additional Readings Primer of Lake Ecology Mann K H and J R N Lazier 1991 Dynamics of marine ecosystems BiologicalPhysical interactions in the oceans Blackwell Cambridge MA Wetzel R G 1983 Limnology Saunders College Publishing Philadelphia PA Wetzel R G 2001 Limnology 3 d Edition Academic Press New York NY I LAKE DISTRIBUTION Lakes tend to be aggregated Aggregation occurs because most lakes are formed by catastrophic events associated with tectonic activity volcanoes and glaciers In North America most lakes found south of the extent of glacier activity are man made ll LAKE ORIGINS A Tectonic Basins 1 graben lakes 2 uplifting ofthe sea oor a Volcanic Activity Crater Lakes 1 maarlakes 2 calderas Lakes Associated with Lava Flows 3 collapsed lava flows 4 damming by lava flows 0 Glacial Activity Ice Scour Lakes 1 cirque lakes 2 pater nosterlakes 3 piedmont lakes Lakes Associated with Glacial Moraines 4 morainal damming 5 kettle lakes U River Activity 1 plunge pool lakes 2 lateral lakes 3 deltaic lakes 4 oxbow lakes E Lakes Formed by Wind F Lakes Formed from Dissolved Limestone Solution Lakes G Lakes Formed by Animals 1 beaver dams 2 human activity LAKE MORPHOLOGY A Bathymetric Maps B Morphometric Parameters Max Length l 2 MaxWidth b Volume V Area A Max Depth 2m Mean Depth 2 Shoreline Development DL ICDU39IAOO A O Hypsographic Curves U Reservoir Morphology 1 Riverine Zone 2 Transition Zone 3 Lacustrine Zone WATER MOVEMENT IN LAKES A Importance of Water Movement 1 Vertical Mixing 2 Patchiness B Types of Water Movement Waves Surface Currents and Drift Langmuir Circulation Seiches a surface b internal AQNA LIMNOLOGY SPRING 2009 BIOL 362 WMAN 446 Lectures 4 and 5 PROPERTIES OF WA TER LIGHT HEAT amp STRA TIFICA TION 21 January 2009 Required Readings Dodds 2002 Chapter 2 Properties of Water Pages 1329 in Freshwater Ecology Academic Press Dodds 2002 Chapter 3 Movement of Light Heat and Chemicals in Water Pages 3145 in Freshwater Ecology Academic Press Additional Readings Hutchinson G E 1957 Atreatise on limnology Geography physics and chemistry Wiley New York Kling G W 1987 Seasonal mixing and catastrophic degassing in tropical lakes Cameroon West Africa Science 23710221024 Sigurdsson H 1987 A dead chief s revenge Natural History 974449 Wetzel R G 1983 Limnology 2quotd Edition Saunders College Philadelphia Objectives of Lecture 1 To introduce the basic physical properties of water and how these properties affect aquatic organisms 2 To discuss the properties of light and heat in aquatic ecosystems 3 To discuss thermal stratification and its influence on lakes and reservoir ecology PROPERTIES OF WATER A m U Basic Properties pages 1317 NP FnPFDN Hydrogen Bonding Polarity Liquid Gas Solid States Density Temperature Relationships Versatile Solvent High Heat Capacity High Surface Tension Properties Related to Flow pages 1720 1 Viscosity resistance to change in form 2 Inertia resistance to change in motion 3 Reynolds Number force exerted by water on an object Inertia Viscosity density ofwater velocity length ofobject dynamic viscosity 4 Factors Play a Role in a b c d e body form of shes how aquatic organisms collect food how fast organisms swim how quickly particles settle in water how fast groundwater ows Movement of Water pages 2025 Brownian Motion molecular movement Laminar Flow unidirectional Turbulent Flow multidirectional Stokes Law sinking rates 1 2 3 4 Flow Boundary Layer 5 6 Effect of Body Shape on Sinking Rate Forces that Move Water pages 2527 Evaporation Gravity Coriolis Effect Organisms 1 2 3 V nd 4 5 LIGHT HEAT amp STRATIFICATION Chapter 3 A U l39l1 Importance of Light and Heat to Aquatic Ecosystems 1 2 3 4 Tlhook AQNA 1 2 3 Energy Source Photosynthesis Autochthonous vs Allochthonous Pathways Thermal Stratification vertical structure in lakes Regulation of Chemical and Biological Processes respiration metabolism decomposition diffusion nutrient uptake Animal Behaviors diel activity patterns spawning migrations feeding mode Measurement of Light The LightSpectrum What is Light Photosynthetically Active Radiation PAR lrradiance Wavelength Effects of Water on Light Transmission Attenuation Factors that In uence Attenuation Light and Lake Habitats Effects on Different Wavelengths Heat Transfer 1 2 Lakes Streams Thermal Stratification and Mixing in Lakes Strati cation a Epilimnion b Metalimnion c Hypolimnion d Thermocline e Turnover Seasonal Cycle of a Temperate Lake Mixing a Holomixis b Meromixis LIMNOLOGY SPRING 2009 BIOL 362 WMAN 446 LECTURE 11 DISSOLVED OXYGEN AND EUTROPHICATION 4152009 Reguired Readings Dodds 2002 Chapter 11 12 and 17 in Freshwater Ecology Academic Press Allan JD 1995 Chapter 2 Carpenter et al 1998 Nonpoint pollution of surface waters by phosphorus and nitrogen Ecological Applications 85595638 I Biological Processes that Affect Oxygen A Primary Production B Respiration C Gross and Net Primary Production GPP and NPP Dissolved Oxygen in Water A Factors Influencing 02 Concentration 1 Temperature 2 Pressure 3 Photosynthesis and Respiration w Uptake of Oxygen by Aquatic Organism 1 lntegumental Respiration 2 Tracheal System 3 Gills O Variation in Ozwith Depth a Orthograde b Clinograde c Heterograde U Seasonal Variation ITI Littoral vs Pelagic Zones Streams vs Lakes NUTRIENT LOADING A DEFINITION Nutrient additions into an aquatic system exceed nutrient losses leading to an accumulation and overabundance of nitrogen and phosphorus within the system B SOURCES OF NUTRIENT LOADING Human activities now produce more biologically active nutrients than is supplied by natural processes NITROGEN Ultimate source of Nitrogen is Nfixation Natural NFixation Rates Lightening 10 Tg yr Soil Microbes 130 Tg yr Total 140 Tg yr Human NFixation Rates Fertilizer 80 Tg yr NFixing Crops 4O Tg yr Fossil Fuels 20 Tg yr Deforestation 4O Tg yr Total 180 Tg yr Nitrate saturation is common in both terrestrial and freshwater aquatic systems resulting in a 20x increase in Ninputs to estuaries and nearshore ecosystems since preindustrial times PHOSPHORUS Natural P is extremely rare Fertilizers Detergent Sewage human Livestock waste swine poultry Human Sources C TRANSPORT TO AQUATIC SYSTEMS Most nutrients get into aquatic systems as NonPoint Source runoff during high precipitation events storm ow over ag lands and stormwater runoff from urban areas EUTROPHICATION A w 0 U DEFINITION Nutrient loading and the subsequent physical chemical and biological responses in aquatic environments freshwater and marine THE CASCADE OF EVENTS LAKE CATEGORIZATION BASED ON TROPHIC STATE Oligotrophic Low N amp P Low Productivity Clear Oxygen concentration depends on temperature Minimal N amp P loading Moderate Productivity Oxygen concentration biologically controlled but not extremely variable Mesotrophic High N amp P High Productivity High Bioturbidity Funky with BGA and other filamentous blooms V de variability in Oxygen concentration Eutrophic COMPARISON OF EUTROPHICATION IN LAKES AND STREAMS Eutrophication is more common in lakes than streams Lakes High Retention Rates High internal recycling of nutrients Streams High downstream transport of nutrients Low Retention Most N amp P is transported downstream before negative effects of Nutrient Loading are realized BUT Most of the nutrient loading occurs within small streams which then transport the nutrients downstream to a system of low retentiveness Therefore controlling nutrient loading in streams and rivers is the most effective means of limiting Eutrophication of estuaries MITIGATING LAKE EUTROPHICATION A TREATING THE CAUSE CONTROLLING INPUTS OF NUTRIENTS INTO THE SYSTEM Control of Point Sources Sewage and Wastewater Treatment Plant outfalls Tertiary Treatment Factory effluents Septic Tanks often considered nonpoint source Waste from Intensive Livestock Operations CAFOs Control of NonPoint Sources Agricultural Fields Urban Storm Runoff Systems Addition of Fertilizers to Golf Courses and Pastures Atmospheric Deposition Best Management Practices Riparian Conservation Easements B TREATING THE SYMPTONS See Table for Examples Biomanipulatio food web manipulation to in uence chlorophyll a concentrations and water clarity Based on Trophic Cascade Theory LIMNOLOGY SPRING 2009 BIOL 362 WMAN 446 Lecture 7 Open Channel Hydrology for Dummies aka Ecologists 2112009 Reguired Readings Dodds 2002 Chapter5 in Freshwater Ecology Academic Press Allan JD 1995 Chapter 1 Poff N L B P Bledsoe and C O Cuhaciyan 2006 Hydrologic variation with land use across the contiguous United States Geomorphic and ecological consequences for stream ecosystems Geomorphology 264285 Poff N L J D Allan M B Bain J R Karr K L Prestegaard B D Richter R E Sparks and J C Stromberg 1997 The natural flow regime BioScience 47769784 HYDROLOGY Study of the dynamics of stream flow A HYDROLOGIC CYCLE w FATE OF PRECIPITATION 1 Evaporation Transpiration 2 Infiltration 3 Runoff C RUNOFF PROCESSES 1 Hortonian Overland Flow 2 Saturated Overland Flow 3 Shallow Subsurface Flow 4 Groundwater Flow U BASEFLOW VS STORMFLOW Stormflow Hydrograph 1 Baseflow precipitation that percolates to the ground water and moves slowly through substrate before reaching the channel It sustains streamflow during periods of little or no precipitation 2 Stormflow precipitation that reaches the channel over a short time frame through overland or underground usually shallow routes E GAINING VS LOSING STREAMS 1 Gaining Effluent receive discharges from the aquifer 2 Losing lnfluent lose water to the aquifer F EPHEMERAL VS INTERMITTENT VS PERENNIAL STREAMS 1 2 3 4 Ephemeral flow only during or immediately after periods of precipitation or snowmelt Generally flow less than 30 days per year Intermittent flow only during certain times of the year Seasonal flow usually lasts longer than 30 days Perennial flow continuously during both wet and dry times Baseflow is dependany generated from the movement of groundwater into the channel Protocols for delineating jurisdictional stream channels G STREAM DISCHARGE A weww Units cubic feet per second cfs gallons per minute gpm cubic meters per second cm s Area Velocity Method QAV Measuring Current Velocity Gaging Station Discharge Rating Curve H ANALYSIS OF FLOW VARIABILITY 1 2 3 4 5 Hydrograph Stream Types based on Flow Variability Return Period Analysis The probability or percent chance of a given flow s being exceeded or not exceeded in any give year Often expressed in terms of Return Period or the average number of years between exceeding or not exceeding the given flows For example a given flood flow that has a 100year Return Period is expected to be exceeded on average only once in any give 100 year period In other words in any given year the annual flood flow has a 1 chance of exceeding the 100 year flood EW LowFlow Freguency Analysis Minimum 7day average with a 10year recurrence interval Que Bankfull Discharge Discharge that fills a stable alluvial channel up to the elevation of the active floodplain This discharge occurs when water just begins to leave the channel and spread onto the floodplain This discharge is considered to have morphological significance because it represents the breakpoint between the processes of channel formation and floodplain formation AKA channelforming and effective dishcharge Often equated with the flow with a 15 year recurrence interval ie the Q15 Qbk NATURAL FLOW REGIME PARADIGM A w Poff N L J D Allan M B Bain J R Karr K L Prestegaard B D Richter R E Sparks and J C Stromberg 1997 The natural flow regime BioScience 47769784 Five components of the flow regime regulate ecological processes in river ecosystems o Magnitude amount of water moving past a fixed location per unit time discharge 0 Frequency how often a flow above a given magnitude recurs over some specified time interval eg 100 year flow event 0 Duration period of time associated with a specific flow condition 0 Timing predictability or regularity of a flow of a defined magnitude eg annual peak flows may occur with low seasonal predictability 0 Rate of Change of hydrologic conditions flashiness or how quickly flow changes from low to high and back again The flow regime of a given river is determined by the interaction of the following processes 0 Climate timing and amount of precipitation 0 Geology permeability of bedrock eg Karst vs Sandstone o Topography steepness of the terrain and overland flow paths 0 Soils permeability o Vegetation evapotranspiration and floodplain roughness The natural flow regime organizes and defines river ecosystems In rivers the physical structure of the environment and thus of the habitat is defined largely by physical processes especially the movement of water and sediment within the channel and between the channel and floodplain To understand the biodiversity production and sustainability of river ecosystems it is necessary to appreciate the central organizing role played by a dynamically varying physical environment Human modification of natural hydrologic processes disrupts the dynamic equilibrium between the movement of water and the movement of sediment that exists in free flowing rivers Human related disruption of the natural flow regime include o Dams 0 Intensive Land Use timber harvest grazing road building urbanization 0 Flood Control of Large Rivers disconnect between river channels and floodplains Effective management of riverine ecosystems will require that we protect restore and attempt to mimic the nature flow regimes as much as possible Important Citations Arndt SKA RA Cunjak and TJ Benfey 2002 Effect of summerfloods and spatiotemporal scale on growth and feeding ofjuvenile Atlantic salmon in two New Brunswick streams Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131 607622 Dunne T and LB Leopold 1978 Water in environmental planning WH Freeman and Co Gordon et al 1992 Stream hydrology an introduction for ecologists Wiley NY Jacobson R B and D L Galat 2006 Flow and form in rehabilitation of largeriver ecosystems An example from the Lower Missouri River Geomorphology 77249269 Junk WJ PB Bayley RE Sparks 1989 The flood pulse concept in riverfloodplain systems Canadian Special Publication of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 106110127 Leopold L B 1994 A view of the river Harvard University Press Cambridge MA 298 pp Leopold LB MG Wolman and JP Miller 1964 Fluvial processes in geomorphology Freeman San Francisco CA 522 pp Lohman K JR Jones BD Perkins 1992 Effects of nutrient enrichment and flood frequency on periphyton biomass in northern Ozark streams Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 491198 1205 Poff N L J D Allan M B Bain J R Karr K L Prestegaard B D Richter R E Sparks and J C Stromberg 1997 The natural flow regime BioScience 47769784 Poff N L B P Bledsoe and C O Cuhaciyan 2006 Hydrologic variation with land use across the contiguous United States Geomorphic and ecological consequences for stream ecosystems Geomorphology 264285 Poff N L and J V Ward 1989 Implications of streamflow variability and predictability for lotic community structure A regional analysis of streamflow patterns Can J Fish Aquatic Sci 4618051818 Richter B D 2003 Ecologically sustainable water management managing riverflows for ecological integrity Ecological Applications 13206224 Roghair ON CA Dolloff and MK Underwood 2002 Response of a brook trout population and instream habitat to a catastrophic flood and debris flow Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 131718 730 Ross ST and JA Baker 1983 The response of fishes to periodic spring floods in a southeastern stream American Midland Naturalist 109114 Sun G S G McNulty D M Amatya R W Skaggs J Swift L W J P Shepard and H Riekerk 2002 A comparison of the watershed hydrology of coastal forested wetlands and the mountainous uplands in the Southern US Journal of Hydrology 26392104 Ward JV and JA Stanford 1979 The ecology of regulated streams New York Plenum Press Weng Z N Mookerji A Mazumder 2001 Nutrientdependent recovery of Atlantic salmon streams from a catastrophic flood Canadian Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences 5816721682 Wolman MG and JP Miller 1960 Magnitude and frequency of forces in geomorphic processes Journal of Hydrology 695474


Buy Material

Are you sure you want to buy this material for

25 Karma

Buy Material

BOOM! Enjoy Your Free Notes!

We've added these Notes to your profile, click here to view them now.


You're already Subscribed!

Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'

Why people love StudySoup

Jim McGreen Ohio University

"Knowing I can count on the Elite Notetaker in my class allows me to focus on what the professor is saying instead of just scribbling notes the whole time and falling behind."

Anthony Lee UC Santa Barbara

"I bought an awesome study guide, which helped me get an A in my Math 34B class this quarter!"

Steve Martinelli UC Los Angeles

"There's no way I would have passed my Organic Chemistry class this semester without the notes and study guides I got from StudySoup."


"Their 'Elite Notetakers' are making over $1,200/month in sales by creating high quality content that helps their classmates in a time of need."

Become an Elite Notetaker and start selling your notes online!

Refund Policy


All subscriptions to StudySoup are paid in full at the time of subscribing. To change your credit card information or to cancel your subscription, go to "Edit Settings". All credit card information will be available there. If you should decide to cancel your subscription, it will continue to be valid until the next payment period, as all payments for the current period were made in advance. For special circumstances, please email


StudySoup has more than 1 million course-specific study resources to help students study smarter. If you’re having trouble finding what you’re looking for, our customer support team can help you find what you need! Feel free to contact them here:

Recurring Subscriptions: If you have canceled your recurring subscription on the day of renewal and have not downloaded any documents, you may request a refund by submitting an email to

Satisfaction Guarantee: If you’re not satisfied with your subscription, you can contact us for further help. Contact must be made within 3 business days of your subscription purchase and your refund request will be subject for review.

Please Note: Refunds can never be provided more than 30 days after the initial purchase date regardless of your activity on the site.