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Week 3 notes

by: Kaleigh Eastep

Week 3 notes Bs 114

Marketplace > Biology > Bs 114 > Week 3 notes
Kaleigh Eastep

Anatomy and physiology 2

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About this Document

The final set of notes before the exam--covers the second half of chapter 15 and the first half of chapter 16.
Anatomy and physiology 2
Class Notes
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaleigh Eastep on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bs 114 at a university taught by Jacoby in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 6 views.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
0 Somatic SensationsCutaneous Sensations o Sensations from skin Tactile thermal pain tickle etc o Somatic sensory pathway Relays information from somatic sensory receptors to primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex 1 Firstorder neurons conduct impulses from somatic receptors to the brain stemspinal cord not all the way to the brain 2 Secondorder neurons conduct impulses from brain stemspinal cord and send them to the thalamus a Signals crossover to other side hemispheric lateralization 3 Thirdorder neurons conduct impulses from thalamus into appropriate primary somatosensory area of cerebral cortex Motor Pathways o Somatic motor pathways 0 Relay information from primary motor area of cerebral cortex to skeletal muscle 1 Upper motor neurons conduct impulses from primary motor areas of cerebral cortex to brain stemspinal cord 2 Lower motor neurons conduct impulses from brain stemspinal cord into skeletal muscles 0 Basal Nuclei 0 Found in midbrain 0 Receive input from sensory association and motor areas 0 Send feedback to thalamus to initiate or terminate movements Parkinson s Disease ObsessiveCompulsive Disorder 0CD Tourette s Huntington s Disease Cerebellum o Posture balance rapidcoordinatedhighly skilled movements o Modulates movements and makes small corrections 0 Sleep amp Circadian Rhythms o Sleepinducing chemicals in brain produced by breakdown of ATP Bind to and inhibit RAS arousal causing sleep 0 Caffeine binds to receptors preventing sleepinducing chemicals from binding to RAS 0 Memory 0 To create a new memory an experience must cause a structural andfunctional change in the brain Changes are in individual neurons 0 Shortterm memory Functional changes in the brain new neurotransmitter 0 Longterm memory Typically the structural changes in the brain new dendritessynapses o Stored in basal nuclei cerebellum and cerebral cortex Chapter 16 The Special Senses Vision Eyeball 0 Has three tunics 1 Fibrous Tunic super cial Composed of the sclera amp cornea o Sclera tough brous tissue Maintains shape of eyeball Muscle attachment 0 Cornea anterior portion Light refraction 2 Vascular Tunic Composed of choroid ciliary body iris o Choroid contains many blood vessels amp capillaries Delivers oxygen glucose etc o Ciliary Body produces aqueous humor Ciliary muscle changes the shape of our lens 0 Attached to suspensory ligaments which attach to lens o lris the colored part of the eye Regulates light entering eyeball through pupil Circular and radial muscles 0 Circular muscle contracts in bright light narrowing pupil Radial muscle contracts in dim light making pupil larger 3 Retina deep Neural layer amp pigmented layer 0 Beginning of visual pathway 0 Pigmented layer attached to choroid Absorbs stray light waves 0 Neural layer is deepest 3 retinal neurons Photoreceptors Bipolar cells Ganglion cells Lens 0 Contains proteins called crystalins o Properly refract light 0 Interior of eyeball o Anterior cavity Aqueous humor Contains lens ciliary body iris o Posterior cavity Vitreous humor Contains pigmented layer neural layer Functions of the Eye Image Formation Goal is to focus image on retina Three steps 1 Refraction bending of light by lens and cornea Light bends as it passes through different densities air vs water 75 of light waves are refracted at cornea 25 of light wave are refracted at the lens Light is refracted into focus on retina 2 Accommodation of lens Increased curvature of lens Focusing on close objects requires more refraction o Ciliary muscle contracts Lens gets fatterwider more convex 0 When ciliary muscle relaxes it pulls on suspensory ligaments and pulls on lens Lens gets thinner 3 Constriction of pupil


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