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2 Color Naming Across Languages Paul Kay Brent Berlin Luisa Maffr and William Merrifreld 1 Introduction Prior cross linguistic research on color naming This chapter summarizes some of the research on crosslinguistic color categorization and naming that has addressed issues raised in Basic Color Terms Their Universality and Evolution Berlin and Kay 1969 hereafter BampK It then advances some speculations regarding future developmentsiespecially regarding the analysis now in progress of the data of the World Color Survey hereafter WCS In the latter respect the chapter serves as something of a progress report on the current state of analysis of the WCS data as well as a promissory note on the full analysis to come BampK proposed two general hypotheses about basic color terms and the categories they name 1 there is a restricted universal inventory of such categories 2 a language adds basic color terms in a constrained order interpreted as an evolutionary sequence These two hypotheses have been substantially con rmed by subsequent research1 There have been changes in the more detailed formulation of the hypotheses as well as additional empirical findings and theoretical interpretations since 1969 Rosch s experimental work on Dani color Heider 1972a 1972b supplemented by personal communications from anthropologists and linguists showed that twoterm systems contain not terms for dark and light shades regardless of hueias BampK had inferredibut rather one term covering white red and yellow and one term covering black green and blue that is a category of white plus warm colors versus one of black plus cool colors Rosch reported further that these composite categories as they were later christened by Kay and McDaniel 1978 hereafter KampMcD tend to be focused not only in white and black but sometimes at the foci of red or yellow on the one hand and of green or blue on the other BampK had conceived basic color categories in terms of foci and extensions and 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield had expressed the evolutionary sequence of hypothesis 2 as a sequence of constraints on the successive encoding of foci Rosch s nding that composite categories may have multiple foci was a major reason for the reconception of the evolutionary sequence in terms of successive divisions ofthe color space see eg Kay 1975 258262 KampMcD modeled these successive divisions of the color space as fuzzy partitions They interpreted individual color categories as fuzzy sets Zadeh 1965 3 and de ned the notion of fuzzy partition in terms of a standard set of fuzzy sets KampMcD 641644 Accordingly basic color categories were divided into three types The rst type consists of the six fundamental categories corresponding to Hering s primaries Hering 1964 black white red yellow green blue4 The second type the composites consists of fuzzy unions of the fundamentals These include the whitewaim and blacldcool categories of twoterm systems as well as several categories comprised by unions of pairs of the six fundamentals about which more presently The third type were called derived categories and were de ned in terms of the fuzzy intersections of the fundamentals Examples of this type are colors that are seen as mixtures of fundamentals for example orange is seen as a mixture of red and yellow Stemheim and Boynton 19665 The WCS was begun in 19766 It was designed for two major purposes The rst was to assess the general hypotheses advanced by BampK against a broader empirical basis Methodological objections had been raised to the empirical generalizations of BampK The most important of these were that 1 the twenty languages studied experimentally were not primafacie suf ciently numerous to justify universal conclusions 2 the data were obtained in Berkeley rather than in native communities 3 most of the speakers interviewed spoke English as well as their native language 4 the number of speakers interviewed for most of the languages was three or fewer and 5 the interviewers were not for the most part skilled speakers of the languages studied7 The second major purpose of the WCS was to deepen our knowledge regarding universals variation and historical development in basic color term systems 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield The methods and some initial results of the WCS are reported in Kay Berlin and Merri eld 1991 herea er KBM With the help of eld linguists of the Summer Institute of Linguistics and using a stimulus array substantially the same as that of BampK comparable data on naming ranges and focal choices for basic color terms were collected on 110 languages in situ In most cases twenty ve speakers were interviewed per language Monolingual speakers were sought insofar as possible A methodological departure of the WCS from the method of BampK was that chipnaming judgments were obtained on individual chip presentations rather than the full array of stimuli Judgments of best example focal judgments were obtained in the same way as in the original study by requesting selection of the chip or chips that best represent each basic color word of the native language from an array of 330 color patches representing forty equally spaced Munsell hues at eight levels of lightness at maximum saturation plus ten levels of lightness of neutral black grey white shade The preliminary results of the WCS as reported in KBM were as follows 1 BampK had de ned evolutionary stages on the assumption that all composite categories are eliminated in favor of the six fundamentals before any derived categories appear Kay 1975 and KampMcD had taken over this assumption in their reformulations of the evolutionary sequence except for the latter s making formal provision for the optional early appearance of grey8 KBM report further cases of early grey and point out more importantly that either brown or purple or both not infrequently appear before the greenblue composite is dissolved 2 Kay 1975 260261 had noted evidence from several sources that there might be languages with composite categories comprising yellow and green MacLaury 1986 1987a was the rst to document such categories with controlled stimuli Several more have been found in the WCS languages and were reported in KBM 3 Prior to the WCS there had been no rationale olTered in the literature for the restricted inventory of composite categories actually reported distinctly fewer than the sixtythree logically possible combinations of the six fundamentals KBM both extended 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield the inventory of composite categories empirically attested and provided a partial explanation in terms of generally acknowledged properties of the visual system for the restricted membership of this inventory KBM 15 ff 2 The current state of analysis of the WCS data The initial stage of processing of the WCS data converted the handcollected data for each collaborating speaker into two arrays one for naming choices and one for focal choices The data for the rst ve speakers of Buglere are displayed in part 2 of Figure 1 naming choices to the left and focal choices to the right Each symbol in these arrays corresponds to a Buglere color term as indicated in part 1 of Figure 19 The columns represent the forty equally spaced Munsell hues mentioned earlier10 and the rows levels of lightness11 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Figure 1 part 1 Buglere Unclassified Famil Tot interviewees 25 15 F 10 M Fieldworker s K Fisher and J Gunn Date 1978 Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 30 Agreement Level 8 of 25 speakers 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B quotHM H B B quotHM H B c e r c c r c D ss D D D E s E E s E F HHHHI F F HHHI F G G G G H EEEEEEEEEE EMMMMM H H EEEEEEEEEE E M H I EEEEEE E Mt m m mtw I I I J J J J 70 Agreement Level 18 of 25 speakers 100 Agreement Level 25 of 25 speakers 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A H 777777 H H A A A B e e B B B c e c c c D D D D E E E E F E EEEE M F F F G E EE E M G G G H EE M H H H I I I I I J J J J Te In Not Anwearin In Aggregate Naming Arrays Szmbol Term Users S mb T rm Users 0 lefre 10 gt mnule 2 I kwafusa 7 I X I dagikwale 2 I 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Figure 1 part 2 Buglere Individual Naming Arrays 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A e 7777 H e A r Speaker 1 XXX 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A 7777777777777 H A B 777707 roroo c rooooo oooooooor 00 a E ooo J OOOOOOOO J E a I J A A 7 B B 74 7 C C HMEEEEEEEE E 7quot D D E E E E ra E E t E G G E G H EEEEEEEEEEMEM H H 1 EEE EEEEEEE M mumMM 1 1 I J J J J Hr Speaker 2 Hr 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A e e e e e e e e e H e A A 777777777777777777777777777777777777777 H A B B c c D D E E E E E G G H H a H 1 ooooooooo o 1 1 1 J J J J Hr Speaker 3 Hr 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A B B c r c D D E E E E a E G G H H H 1 I I I J J J J Hr Speaker 4 Hr 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A eeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeeee H A A 777777777777777777777777777777777777777 H A B 7 quotWNW 7 7 7 7 7 e e e H B B c we we c c r c D 7a r D D D 7 r E E E E E E E E E MW G G t G H H H H 1 r I 1 1 J J J J Hr Speaker 5 Hr 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A B C D E F G H I J 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Numerous recombinations of the data in the individual speaker arrays were performed two of which merit particular mention here First the reader will note in the middle of part 1 of Figure 1 four arrays of the same general shape as those in part 2 of Figure 1 These also refer to Buglere but they characterize the data for the language sample as a whole rather than for each speaker individually They are labeled Modal Agreement Level 30 Agreement Level 70 Agreement Level and 100 Agreement Level The Modal Agreement array displays for each stimulus chip the symbol corresponding to the term most o en applied to that chip regardless of how often that was The 30 Agreement array displays for each stimulus chip the symbol corresponding to the term most often applied to that chip only if that term was used for that chip by at least 30 of the respondents otherwise no symbol is recorded for the chip The 70 Agreement and the 100 Agreement arrays are constructed correspondingly according to the obvious substitutions These displays are called naming arrays because they record a mapping from stimulus colors to the terms assigned to them in the naming task Arrays of the other type to be considered here are called term maps The term maps are illustrated for Candoshi in Figure 2 part 2 There is a separate map for each term In the map for a given term each chip 0 receives a typographical symbol including blank of visual density intuitively commensurate with the frequency with which speakers named c with that term this frequency expressed as a proportion of the number of speakers naming any stimulus with that term 12 Term maps give a graphic portrayal of the meaning of each term Highagreement symbols tend to occur in the interior of categories and lower agreement symbols at the edges Term maps also give a quick but accurate insight into the degree of consensus of speakers regarding the reference of aterm Compare the very high agreement throughout the blue region in the application of the traditional Candoshi greenblue term and the lower consensus on the emergent green term and the purple term Note f1nally that the two phonologically similar13 Candoshi words for yellow have similar term maps Term maps provide important information beyond that given in the naming 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield arrays for characterizing an intemally variable speech community with respect to its degree of basic color term development 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Figure 2 part 1 Candoshi Peru Jivaroan Map x14 B Hinson15 I Basic stage I IV GBu gt V I Derived categories I purple weak I II categories I de ammth weak I Candoshi is transitional between stages IV and V An original greenblue composite category kavabana appears to have recently split and a new term for green kamachpa has emerged Kavabana extends at 30 agreement to unique green and the green term is almost exclusively confined to yellowish and brownish greens Nonetheless all ll speakers used kamachpa green These facts suggest that kavabana was originally focused in blue and denoted all of blue or green and that this term is currently retracting from green Two similar expressions are found for yellow plsiyara and ptsiyaramashi the second of which is treated here as a morphological variant of the first16 A weak term for purple tarika P has begun to emerge four speakers have a wellestablished word for this category and two show incipient purple Finally a desaturated term pazani x occurs with a discontinuous distribution It is also weak and displays low consensus in the term map Aggregate laming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 30 Agreement Level 4 of ll speakers 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B ooooooooooI I I Ioooo B B ooooooooooI B C o C C o C D oI D D oI D E x H E E x E F HM F F F G HM G G x G H o4rxnouH H H o nun H I I I e W n I J J J J 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield uHmomenwb o o 70 Agreement Level 8 of 11 speakers 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 00 000000 000 o o 00000 00000 0 o uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 100 Agreement Level 11 of 11 speakers 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 o o 000 o oo o o o uHmomenwb o o o 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Figure 2 part 2 Candoshi erm Maps 81100 agreement 6180 agreeme t 4160 agreement 2140 agreement o kantsirpi 39black39 0 borshi 39whlte39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A e 7 e s B e 1 uHmomenwb 3331 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomen 71 w nnw aannwwnwwnnnannnwwnwwwwnwwnnwwnnnwwnwwnw 11 of 11 speakers searched 11 used term d r 11 speakers searched 11 used term chobiapi 39re 1 1 ptsiyaro 39yel ow I H H o 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A amp uHmomenw an n n a 3 1 ti 3 a an uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 11 of 11 speakers searched ptslyaromashl yellow 2 H H 11 used term 11 of 11 speakers searched 5 used term kavabana reen blue 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 e enne 1 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb H o H H H H of 11 speakers searched 8 used term 14 reen39 of 11 speakers searched 11 used term kamachpa 39emergent g rple39 tarlka 39pu 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 11 of 11 speakers searche 6 used term 134689 11 of 11 speakers searc ed 11 used term ozanl ldesaturatedl 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 11 of 11 speakers searched 10 used term 1 e m H H 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 12 3 Recent conceptual developments Analysis of the WCS data is currently being conducted within the following conceptual framework based on our provisional examination of the data and therefore subject to revision as the analysis proceeds A Ever since BampK 4145 discussed the premature appearance of grey evidence has accumulated suggesting that the temporal development of basic color term systems should be seen not as a single process but as two partially independent processes 1 the division of composite categories into the six lndamentals and 2 the combination of fundamental categories into derived categories17 Recall KBM s report that purple or brown or both frequently appear before green and blue separate Consequently the developmental status of a system is now expressed in terms of a basic stage which characterizes the system with respect to its composite and lndamental categories plus a list often very short of the derived and heterogeneous18 categories which correspond to basic color terms in this system For example we might have a system characterized as Stage V purple pink which would be a system containing basic color terms corresponding to black white red yellow green blue purple and pink There are just ve basic stages corresponding to systems containing two to six composite or fundamental categories This conceptual simplification leads to a more perspicuous notation for the sequence of stages which will be described presently B The categories spanning yellow and green remain a problem as discussed in KBM They are few in number but they unquestionably exist and cannot be dismissed as ethnographic or experimental error A special study of systems containing categories of this kind is planned For the moment systems with a category spanning yellow and green are set aside They are taken up again in connection with Figure 4 C Composite category reduction is itself pro tably Viewed as consisting of two partially independent processes dissolution of the whitewarm channel w and dissolution 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 13 of the blacldcool channel c19 From this perspective composite category reduction is the same thing as basic stage evolution that is the progressive division of the two original composite categories into their six constituent fundamentals representing the sequence of basic stages Ithrough V Progress from Stage I two composite categories comprising three fundamentals each to Stage V six fundamental categories requires two divisions in each of the w and c channels D Although wdivision and cdivision are partially independent processes they interact In our model the rst of the four divisions is always in the w channel with the result that Stage II systems retain the 3fundamental ccomposite category BldGBu Also the fourth and nal division is always in the c channel entailing that Stage IV systems always retain a ccomposite and of course no wcomposite See Figure 3 below E In addition to such constraints on the interaction between the w and c channels our model also sets constraints on the process of division within each channel The w channel is more tightly constrained than the c channel These intrachannel constraints are presented in Table 1 in both words and symbols 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Table 1 W A WlVY category Warm13 WRY gt RY always divides into a W category and a NY category W A NY category divides w R into a R category and a warm2 RY Y Y category G Bu A BkGBu categon Bk divides either into a GBu category and a C00113 BldGBu gt or Bk category or into a G G category and a BkBu BkBu category GBu Bk G A twocomponent i i Bu cool category either C00123 or Bk GBu or BkBu G divides into its BkBu components F The betweenchannel and intrachannel constraints introduced by our model restrict basic stage evolution to the system types and developmental trajectories portrayed in Figure 3 Within this framework there are just eight basic system types possible with three possibilities at Stage III and two possibilities at Stage IV20 G The limitation to basic stages and to just the types shown in Figure 3 allows a more transparent notation for types than was previously available Each of the ve types constituting Stages III and IV is unambiguously represented by subscripting to the roman numeral denoting the stage an indication of the composite category representing the 0 channel as shown in boldface in Figure 3 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 15 Figure 3 39 w 39 w NY R GBu w2 Y Bk GBu 92 IIIGBu Bk IVGBu W W WRY w ciT my R w1 gt NY 01 G wzi Y BldGBu BldGBu wzi BidBu G HIBleu Bu Bk 39 w 39 w R clT R Y 1 Y 2T BldGBu c G c IIIBkGBu BkBu IVBkBu I 11 111 IV v H Our initial screening of the data indicates that the vast majority of the languages in the WCS sample t the model set out in Table l and Figure 3 and thus correspond to one of the eight basic system types shown in Figure 3 One important aspect of the ongoing analysis of the WCS materials is to evaluate this claim on a careful languagebylanguage basis and to establish the extent to which every language in the sample can be revealingly characterized in terms of this model It should be noted that according to the model a given stage subtype may be reached by more than a single route Type IVGn3u can develop either from IIIGn3u via w2 or from IIIBkGBu via cl Type IV BkBu may develop either from IIIBkBu via w2 of from IIIBkGBu via cl Type V may develop via c2 from either IVGn3u or IVBkBu It is clear from our preliminary analysis that some languages are better characterized as transitional between subtypes according to a speci c transition see Table 1 than as belonging to a single stage or type Also while some languages seem to be best characterized as recently emerged instances of their type others appear to be on the verge of evolving into a new type Related to the goal of discovering whether the data of every language are naturally organized by the model is the converse goal of checking the extent to 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 16 which every subtype and transition generated by the model is realized in attested languages cf note 20 I When applied to the data from individual speakers it appears that the speci c intercategory transitions proposed in Table 1 and displayed for full systems in Figure 3 will go a long way toward ordering languageintemal variation as well Evaluating this preliminary generalization constitutes another current research activity J Systems containing yellow green composites can now be added to the picture as shown in Figure 4 Extension of the model to yellow green systems requires us to add signi cant complexity of an ad hoc kind21 to cover a small amount of data Yellow green systems remain an area that needs care ll additional work Figure 4 W W RY R GBu w24gt Y i Bk GBu C2 HIGIBu Bk IVGBu W W w clT RY R I39WRY LVH RY CH GkBu wzt LBkGBu l BkGBu wli Inn Bu Bk W W clT BkGBu CH G m IIIBkGBu BkBu IVBkBu W W R R YGBu 4 YG T Bk Bu IIIYGBu Bk IVYG 39 w R YG T BkBu IIIYG 1 11 111 1V V 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 17 K Two categories have turned up in the preliminary analysis that do not t any of the generalizations mentioned so far see also Green eld 1987 One is a category of desaturated nonvivid or bad color Usually this category contains grey and a diverse collection of hues that never attain high saturation An example is Candoshi pozam39 Note in the aggregate naming a1rays Figure 2 that at modal and 30 agreement pozam39 x has a scattered distribution and that this term does not occur at all in the 70 agreement may The term map for this term Figure 2 shows a wide range with no chip attaining a high level of consensus Compare the lack of and here to the maps for the other terms emergent purple being a partial exception Lack of focus appears to be characteristic of desaturated terms and probably of heterogeneous terms generally Since the WCS data contain only hues at maximum available saturation careful study will be required to decide if and when a desaturated term may name an unbroken volume of the color solid Another problematical category for which there appears to be some evidence is a category one is tempted to gloss peripheral red Several languages have a term that includes colors on the long wavelength border of red such as parts of pink orange maroon or brown and also colors on the other purple side of red including a variety of redpurples and lavenders of different lightness levels We characterize categories which do not name a continuous area of the surface of the color solid as heterogeneous22 4 Current and future activities of the WCS The research activities currently underway are conveniently described within the framework of a planned publication23 This is to be a twovolume monograph of which the rst volume is devoted to analysis and the second to presentation of the WCS data in a format that will make them readily available to all scholars It is convenient to describe the second volume rst This volume will present the full WCS data for each speaker of each language along with some summary information for that language A prototype Volume 2 entry for one language Buglere is given in Figure 1 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield In Figure 1 the initial table gives language name country language family if known number of interviewees names off1e1dworkers and date of data collection The second table lists the terms that occur in the aggregate naming arrays each term preceded by the typographical symbol representing it in the arrays which follow This list contains every term which was the most popular name given to any chip It will always include all the basic terms and sometimes include one or two nonbasic terms as well The four aggregate naming arrays at modal 30 70 and 100 agreement appear as the third item of Figure 1 These have already been discussed Following the aggregate naming arrays are atable listing the remaining terms for the language those not appearing in the aggregate arrays and a table representing each native collaborator by an identifying number followed by corresponding age and sex information24 On the second page of Figure 1 the individual naming arrays for each collaborator are given with naming data on the left and focus data on the right Figure 1 shows only the rst ve of the twenty ve Buglere speakers participating in the study The full Volume 2 entries will of course include the data from all participating speakers of the languages in question Thus each Volume 2 entry presents the full WCS data on chip naming and focus identi cation arranged in such a way as to maximize their utility to other researchers Volume 1 of the proposed monograph will present the analysis of the WCS data There will be chapters on a number of theoretical topics several of which were touched on above Chief among these are the accuracy and generality of the hypotheses embodied in Table 1 and Figures 3 and 4 Also the nature and extent of heterogeneous categories the prevalence in the data or lack thereof of the phenomenon of coextension MacLaury 1986 1987b19911992 and the special problems posed by yellowgreen categories must be considered25 A number of other general issues have not been mentioned Notable among these is the treatment of purple in languages which lack a basic term for purple This question is important because of the apparently privileged position purple holds 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield l9 perceptually in closing the hue circle that is shading into short wavelength blue on one side and long wavelength red on the other just as green and yellow each shades into the adjacent shorter and longer wavelength colors see eg JampD 000 Preliminary screening of the 110 WCS languages reveals sixteen with a basic term for purple and at least one undivided composite No other nonfundamental hue comes close to this number suggesting independently a special status for purple In addition to chapters or sections devoted to the topics sketched in the preceding paragraph a signi cant portion of Volume 1 will be devoted to an analysis of each language in the sample on the model of the prototype entry for Candoshi given in Figure 2 In Figure 2 the title line gives the name of the language the country in which the data were gathered the genetic af liation and an indication of which map the language is marked on there being a section with maps indicating the location of each language elsewhere in the volume The table just below the title line gives the evolutionary stage coordinates of the language in terms of 1 basic stage 2 derived categories and 3 heterogeneous categories The notation IVGBu gt V in Figure 2 indicates that Candoshi is classi ed as transitional between stages IVGBu and V The full range of possibilities envisaged for basic stage characterizations are as follows X gt Y in transition from X to Y X stable X gt X entering early X X gt exiting late X Below the table characterizing the evolutionary stage there is a portion of text which reports the analysis based on the aggregate naming arrays and the term maps both shown further on in the gure which underlies the classi cation assigned26 Candoshi represents an interesting example partly because it demonstrates how the distinctions established in connection with Table 1 and Figure 3 can order what might otherwise be 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 20 confusing data It is projected that the set of analytical distinctions proposed here will permit stage characterizations and brief analyses which capture the main features of internal variation of each color term system while simultaneously placing it in the developmental sequence with some nesse Analysis of the stage status of the language concludes with a discussion of the derived and heterogeneous categories if any The table in the middle of the rst page of Figure 2 presents the basic color terms of Candoshi As mentioned this set of terms will normally coincide with the set of terms represented in the aggregate naming arrays although additional criteria are used to determine the basic color terms These include all the criteria of BampK 57 especially as these have been evaluated by the eld linguist in response to instructions accompanying the eld kit The list of basic color terms is followed by the four aggregate naming arrays27 The second page of Figure 2 presents the term maps for Candoshi To summarize Volume 1 will consist of a number of chapters dealing with theoretical topics as indicated above plus a long section containing an analysis of each language in the WCS sample in the format of the analysis of Candoshi constituting Figure 2 5 Examples of Individual Color Naming Systems In this section we apply the conceptual framework developed above Here we present analyses of WCS languages that are representative of the basic stage types predicted by the theoretical scheme embodied in Table 1 and Figure 3 following the format envisaged for Volume 1 entries Stage I WR Y BkGBu 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 21 As indicated in footnote 20 the World Color Survey sample includes no languages exhibiting a Stage I color system although earlier eld research by Rosch on the Dani shows that such systems do exist and that they conform to the typology suggested here Furthermore while the WCS les contain no single language whose basic stage could be classi ed as Stage I numerous individual speakers in several languages e g Martu Wangka of Australia show Stage I systems of color naming Stage II W IVY BkGBu Ejagham Nigeria Cameroon Niger Congo J Watters Basic stae Derived cate ories none Heteroeneous cateories none Ejagham is a NigerCongo language spoken by 80000 people in Nigeria 45000 and Cameroon 3500028 Its color classification illustrates a typical Stage II system with terms for BkGBu nydgd W bdr and IVY bz39 These categories are strongly established at high levels of consensus 80100 agreement in the term maps In the WCS sample Stage II systems are found predominantly in Africa 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 30 Agreement Level 8 of 25 speakers 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 70 Agreement Level 18 of 25 speakers 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 100 Agreement Level 25 of 25 speakers 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A B ooooooooooo ooooooooooooooooooooooooooo B B oo oo o ooo o oo oo oooo o oooooo B c o oooooooooo c c o o c o 0 0 D D E E F F G G H l J uHmome Ter 81100 agreement 6180 agreeme Maps 4160 agreement 2140 agreement ny g 39blackgreenblue39 1 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 lll A B C D E F G H I J 25 of 25 speakers sear bed 25 used term o b r 39whlte39 1 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A 3 A B 3 B C ssss C D D E s E F F G G H H I I J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term bi 39redyellow39 mwwnmwl uHmomenwb n M m 1 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 22 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 23 Stage IIIGBu W RY l lg l Ml39lra Pirah Brazil Unclassi ed S Sheldon Basic stage Derived cateories Heteroeneous cateories none MuraPiraha is an unclassified language spoken by a small group of foragers residing in four villages along the Maici River in westcentral Brazil The language exemplifies a Stage HIGBu system with color terms for four basic color categories W NY GBu Bk All four are well established at the 70 level of agreement in the aggregate naming arrays MuraPiraha naming responses suggest that the focus of the composite RY category is in red While that of GBu is in green Basic Col r Termsquot Term Gloss Symbol Term Gloss S mbol bi03pai2ai3 black 39 bi3i1sai3 redyellow Ika3biai3 l White 0 a3haa3saa3ga1 greenblue l I Raised numerals represent phonemic tones Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 30 Agreement Level 8 of 25 speakers 4 4 OI234567890123456789012345678901234567890 OI234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B C C C C D D D D E E E E F F F F G G G G H H H H I I I I J J J J 70 Agreement Level 18 of 25 speakers 100 Agreement Level 25 of 25 speakers 4 I 2 3 4 OI234567890123456789012345678901234567890 OI234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B O00000000000000000000OOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOOO B B 0 0000000 0 OO O O 0 00000000 000000 B C o oo o o 000 00000 C C o C D e o D D D E E E E F F F F G G G o G H H H o H I I I 000 I J J J J 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Term Maps 81100 agreement 6180 agreeme t 4160 agreement 2140 agreement 0 b1o3pa1392a1393 39black39 0 ko3b139a1393 39whlte39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A xMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM A B B MMMMMMMMMM MMMMMMMMMM B c c 4 e 7 77 esMM MMs c D D mm D E x E E E x E E G x G G H a H H r 4 r r J M J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 25 Of 25 speakers searcmm 25 sad term 1 b13115a1393 39redyellow39 1 a3hoa3saa3ga1 39greenhlue39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B 2 3 r 74M 2 c er c D 33444 4mm D D MHHHHHHHHHHI D E MINNIth s E E MHHHHW E E mmmw s E E MMMMMMWM7 E x quotMMM G G mama G H MM WMMM H H 4 7 H r n7 7 744M 1 r e r J J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 25 Of 25 speakers gamma 25 sad term Stage IIIBkBu W RY Sm J As previously mentioned cf note 20 no unequivocal Stage HIBkBu language has yet been attested in the preliminary analysis of the WCS data sets However the presence at Stage IV of four languages with W R Y G and BldBu and at Stage III of three yellow green languages with W R YG and BldBu indicates that Stage HIBkBu systems are likely to be discovered Furthermore Konkomba shows several Stage HIBkBu features and is worthy of discussion here Konkomba Ghana Togo Niger Congo MA Langdon IBasic stage I 11 gt lllBkBu gtIVBkBu I Derived categorie I none I V categories I none I 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 25 Konkomba is a NigerCongo language spoken in northeastern Ghana 220000 speakers and Togo 50000 speakers The aggregate naming arrays for this language suggest that like many other African languages it originally exhibited a Stage II color system but is moving toward a Stage TILBkBu system developing a term for G or alternatively may be in rapid transition toward lVBkBu developing in addition a term for Y The data suggest that the terms bombon p139pi1n and maman at one time marked the categories BkGBu W and NY respectively These terms are used by all 25 speakers in the sample29 A new term mankal used by 19 speakers is emerging at 30 agreement level as the name of the category G primarily in the light greens while its full range appears to be that of a GGBu term leaving bombon to cover the category BkBu Finally the term diyun used by a small number of speakers 9 and emerging at modal agreement level appears to be developing as a term for Y While maman remains largely the most popular term for the yellow area of the spectrum including focal yellow diyun is a wellestablished Y for a majority of its users as seen in its term map lts full range indicates that some users extend it to other light colors in the warm area Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 30 Agreement Level 8 of 25 Speakers 4 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo H m oooooooooo oooooooooooooooooooooooooooooo o oooooooooooo o oooooooooooooo 0000 00 0 n A A A A B o B B B c c c c D o lOOOQQOOOOOOOOO D D o HHMM D E w E E Hum E F F F F G G G G H H H H r r r r J J J J 70 Agreement Level 18 of 25 Speakers 100 Agreement Level 25 of 25 Speakers 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 H uHmomenwb o uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Term Maps 81100 agreement 6180 agreeme t 4160 agreement 2140 agreement o bombon 39blackhlue39 O Pipin 39whltE39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A D D B IHHH He H B c c c I Hee c D D D D E e E E E F I 7 I I F F F G I I I I 4 e G G G H r rr a H H H I IM IMMMMMHMMIMMHH7 I I I J MMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 25 0f 25 Speakers searched 23 used term 2425 o pipiin 39whlte39 maman red yellow 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B c c H H c D 7 D E E F 4mm F G HMIM G H H r r J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 21 used term 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 1 610121425 yaankal 39green39 I dlyun 39yellow39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 0123456789012345672490123456734901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B r B C C C C D D D D E E E E F F F F G G G G H H H H I r I I J J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 19 used term 25 of 25 speakers searched 9 used term 21o1215172o24 531o11192124 Stage IIIBkGBu w R Y BkGBu Kwerba Irian Jaya Indonesia Trans New Guinea J and S De Vries I Basic stage I gt HIBkGBu I I Derived categorie I none I V categories I none I Kwerba a TransNew Guinea language is spoken by some 1500 people in the Upper Tor River area of lrian Jaya Indonesia western half of the island of New Guinea It typifies an early Stage IHBkGBu system In this language an expression is attested for the composite category BkGBu words 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 27 for W and R are well established and a term for Y kainanesamm has begun to emerge Sixteen of the twentyfive speakers interviewed use this term and the category appears to be well on its way to becoming fully established for the language as a whole Basi Color Terms Term Gloss Symbol Term Gloss Symbol icsm blue 9 nakanim red asiram white 0 kainanesamm yellow l ahsrsm gram Terms in parentheses are synonyms for asiram Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 30 Agreement Level 3 of 25 speakers 4 l 2 3 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B c ooool l loloooooooooooooooooooooo c c ooo l l l lo oooooooooooooooooooo c D o loloo oooo ooooooo D D oH 0 GOO ooooooo D E olooo u oooooo E E 0 0 ooooooo E E E E E G G G G H H H H l l l l J J J J 70 Agreement Level 18 of 25 speakers 100 Agreement Level 25 of 25 speakers 4 l 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B o o o 00 000000 o 000 o 0000 B B B c o o c c c D D D D E E E E E E E G G G H H H l l l J J J Term Maps 81100 agreement 6180 agreeme t 4160 agreement 2140 agreement 0 l e39 icem 39blackgreenb u o aslram 39whlte39 l 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B eeeee m B c c ce 777474 7 c D D D e D E e e e e E E E E eee e E E E G 4een G G G H t r H H H I t sMHMtHWHHrH r r r J tMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term i5 of 25 speakers searched 24 used term 1 ll25 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 28 nokonim 39red39 39yellow39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B C C c C D Me 7 D D D E MHHP s E E E F MHHs rim F F e F G MW G G G H MH H H H I 7 I I I J J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 25 of 25 speakers searched16 used term 12468131517182324 Stage IVGBu Sirion Bolivia Tupi P and A Priest Basic stage Derived cateories Heteroeneous cateories none Siriono is a Tupian language spoken by approximately 500 individuals in the eastern Beni and northwestern Santa Cruz departments of the Bolivian lowlands It is classified as Stage IVGBu The language shows well established terms for W R Y GBu Bk The GBu composite category is focused in blue Basic Color Te Term Gloss Symbol Term b y eshi white 0 emba greenblue d 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 30 Agreement Level 8 of 24 speakers 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 70 Agreement Level 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A 17 of 24 speakers 100 Agreement Level 24 of 24 1nformants 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 uHmomenwb o o A A ooooooooo oooo o ooooooooooooooooooo B B o o B ooo c c c D D E E E F F F G G G H H H l l 0000000000000000000000 J J J M aps 4160 agreement 2140 agreement o eronde 3913 ac Term 81100 agreement 6180 agreeme t 1 k39 1 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 o eshf w ltel 1 2 3 012345678901234567890123456789012345678 24 of 24 speakers sear A A A itMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM A B B B wwwmwmwmwm B C C C s s s s s C D D D D E s E E E F F F F G ss 7 G G G H 7MMs H H H l s eee l l l J tMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM J J J 24 of 24 speakers searched 24 used term 24 of 24 speakers searched 24 used term 1 are 39red39 z echo 39Yellow39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567g901234567g901234567g901234567g90 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B c H H A c 2 WV c D s D D D E 4an E E E F MMV 4an F F F MMV mum G G G H MM new H H H I e 77 I I I J J J J 24 of 24 speakers searched 24 used term bed 24 used term eruba 39greenhlue39 1 2 3 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 24 of 24 speakers searched 24 used term 29 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Stage IVBkBu W R Y G BkBu Martu Wangka Australia Pama Nyungan J and M Marsh I Basic stage I IVBkBu I Derived categorie I none I V categories I peripheral red I MartuWangka is an Australian Pam aNyungan language spoken by about 820 people in the Jigalong area of Western Australia It is classifed in the WCS as Stage IVBkBu with terms for W R Y G and a composite color category encompassing black and blue At the 30 level of agreement pamaly pamaly a term restricted in its distribution to brownish reds is used by 15 speakers According to the field linguists for MartuWanka puma is the word for earth ground sand and probably does not qualify as a basic color term as it would appear to mean earthlike The term map for pamalypamaly however suggests a possible meaning of peripheral red Although the judgment of the field linguists that pamaly pamaly should not be considered a basic color term is probably deserving of acceptance we have included the discussion of this term for completeness and to illustrate the kind of borderline cases that can arise in analyzing the WCS data MartuWangka color terms commonly exhibit reduplication and appear to be derived from verbs or nouns eg mammam black blue ltmaru to darken or become blackquot mijimiji red lt miji blood yuku yukuri green ltyukun39 grass The unreduplicated term kamtawarm is the word for yellow ochre yakun39pin39 mijimiji 30 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 4 OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 30 Agreement Level 3 of 25 speakers OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 oooooooooo i0000000oooooooooooooooooooo B c o iooooooooooo c D o MMMMHM D B ooooooooool l 0000000oooooooooooooooooooo o 000000000 0 o o C D ol E A B C D E HHM VHHHHHH E HM 4444444444 E F o H F F o HHHHHH F G o o G G o unnommmn G H H H H I I I I J J J J 70 Agreement Level 18 of 25 speakers 100 Agreement Level 25 of 25 speakers OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A B B C C D D E E F F G G H H I I J J Term Mapsquot 81100 agreement 6180 agreemen 4160 agreement 2140 agreement A Slngle linguistic variant for each o marusmaru 39bIackblue39 I 2 3 4 OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 basic category is shown in the arrays o pillarpiila 39whlte39 I 2 3 OI234567890I234567890123456789012345 3978 6 90 A A A tMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM A B B B ee eeeeee ee B c c c e 7 eeee H c D D D e D E E E E F e F F F G e H G G G H t quotrr e m H H H l t 4mmMMMMMMMMMM77 l l l J tMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 25 of 25 speakers searched 21 used term 15791118202325 1 mijp redy karntawarra 39yellow39 1 2 3 4 1 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A B B c e aquot c D 70 D E E F F G G H H l l J J 25 of 25 s eakers searched 17 used term 25 of 25 speakers searched 25 used term 51131 1 1 8120 22 24 25 yukLLrlsyleLLrl green39 parnalyrparnaly 39perlpheral red39 1 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B c c c c D D D D E E E E F F F F G G G G H H H H l l l l J J J J 25 of 25 speakers searched 23 used term l57l3l525 25 of 25 speakers searched 15 used term 13579111 l5l l 25 31 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 32 Stage V ggmww Kalam Papua New Guinea Trans New Guinea L Scholz Basic ste Derived cateories Heteroeneous cateories none Kalam is a TransNew Guinea language spoken by 15000 people in the Hagen district of the Western New Guinea Highlands It is classified as a Stage V system with distinct terms for each of the six fundamental categories W R Y G Bu and Bk At the modal level of agreement a single purple chip is given the name anjegay Eight of the twentyfive Kalam collaborators use this term in all cases it has an uneven roughly peripheral red distribution Anjegay is probably best not considered a basic color term of Kalam Basic C or Terms Term Gloss Symbol Term Gloss Symbol masimb black 0 walin yellow l tund White 0 min39 kimemb green lika red muk blue Aggregate N ming Arrays Modal Agreement Level 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 30 Agreement Level 8 of 25 speakers 4 O1234567890123456789012345678901234567890 l lllllll l 0 i r o Hi ooooooooool i looooooooooooo WMMMOOO 0000000000000 00 oooooooo e rrrooooo uHmomenwb o e eeeeeee eeG uHmomenwb i oooooooooooo e 0000 i i e 000000000 i i i i loooooooooooooooooooooooooo l o uHmomenwb uHmomenwb 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 70 Agreement Level 18 0f 25 speakers 100 Agreement Level 25 0f 25 speakers OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A 00000000000000000000000000000000000000000 A A A B 0000000000 000 00 0000000000000000000 B B B c 0 HHHi o o o c c o c D 0 i i M 0 D D D E 7 E E E F r F F F G G G H r H H H I I I J J Term Maps 81100 gleement 6180 agreeme t 4160 reement 2140 agreement ack 39 0 o mosimb 39bI Cund 39whlte39 I 2 3 4 I 2 3 OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 OI234567890I23456789012345678901234567890 A tiWNWMWMW W W A sMWMHHW B sr i uHmomenwb A B C D E F G H I J uHmomen uHmomen e 47 tMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMMM 25 0f 25 speakers searched 18 used term 25 0f 25 speakers searched 25 used term 168 114161Q i A 1 llka lredl walla 39ye110w39 l 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B C C C r rHHHHHHJrr C D D MHHHPV D E HHH r E E E F 7M F F F HHH G G H WNW quotHHHH H H I F m I I J J 25 0f 25 speakers searchEd7 23 used term 25 0f 25 speakers searched 24 used term 1 202 I6825 1 mlnjrklmemb 39green39 mLLk 39blue39 1 2 3 4 l 2 3 4 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 01234567890123456789012345678901234567890 A A A A B B B B C C C C D D D D E E E E F F F F G G G G H H H H I I I I J J J J 25 0f 25 speakers searchEd7 25 used term 25 0f 25 speakers searched 25 used term Notes 1 Ma i 1991 provides relevant bibliography 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 2 Several studies in addition to Rosch s are cited in Kay 1975 as supporting the idea of color term evolution involving category boundaries as well as foci 3 A fuzzy set is a function from a standard set of objects to a real interval conventionally the interval between zero and unity inclusive 4 These are called lndamental neural response categories in the KampMcD model At the time the opponent hue primaries of Hering red yellow green blue were considered by vision researchers to bene t from direct neurophysiological con rmation in the response characteristics of certain LGN cells of the rhesus macaque De Valois et al 1966 This simple model of the neurological substrate for the perceptual phenomena of color categorization eg Stemheim and Boynton 1966 Wooten 1970 has more recently been replaced by more complex models based on spatial as well as spectral opponency by interaction within cells of color and luminance information and on the behavior of a wider range of neural structures including the cones the horizontal cells and the bipolar and ganglion cells e g De Valois and De Valois 1993 It is now recognized that the 1966 model of De Valois et al failed to account for as wide a range of the perceptual phenomena of color as was originally thought The validity of the six perceptually salient Hering primaries retains broad consensus in the vision research community as does the conviction that a fully satisfying neurophysiological derivation must eventually be forthcoming Abramov this volume Jameson and D39Andrade this volume hereafter JampD propose to drive a further wedge between the Hering primaries and their neurophysiological substrate JampD argue with regard to the psychophysical level that neither cancellation experiments nor a er image facts support perceptually unique red green yellow and blue as determinants of the axes of 39 quot pp J At the I 39 39 39 level they point to Abramov and 34 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 35 Gordon39s 1994 observation that the crossover points of recorded LGN cells do not correspond well to the phenomenal unique hue points but rather suggest axes like bright redgreenish blue and yellowgreendark purple although this latter point is effectively answered by De Valois and De Valois 1993 which JampD also cite JampD locate the Hering primaries at the level of a conceptual or semantic color space a higherlevel cognitive object whose properties are inferred from the application of multidimensional scaling techniques to judged similarities among pairs of colors and whose relation to the psychophysics of color JampD acknowledge to be uncertain Assuming for the sake of brevity that JampD are correct in all of this the Hering primaries are deprived of signi cant psychophysical support Nevertheless JampD accept the phenomenal reality of the Hering primaries Indeed they attempt to provide for them a different psychological substrate than that of standard opponent theory The Hering primaries whatever perceptual rationale they are nally accorded remain a major interface between color vision and the semantics of color In unpublished work Kemmerer 1995 argues that color categories cannot be represented at the ganglionLGN level Color constancy effects modeled by Land e g 1974 show that color categorization requires comparison of signals arising at points in the retina further separated than the diameter of the largest area represented by a ganglion or LGN cell Based on the work of Zeki most recently 1993 and others Kemmerer proposes a cortical model of the BampK ndings This model posits comparison and recoding of color signals at a series of cortical levels including the V1 V2 V4 and T0 are as 5 A derived category is de ned as twice the fuzzy intersection that is twice the minimum of the fuzzy categories from which it is derived Consider the case of red yellow and the derived category orange It follows from the fuzzy set implementation of the opponent 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 36 process model that the red function and the yellow function sum to unity throughout the range in which they are both nonzero The derived category orange has a fuzzy set function that rises from zero at the red and yellow unique hue points to unity at the point at which the red and yellow fuzzy categories both have ordinates of 5 This procedure expresses formally the observations i that the more equal the mixture of red and yellow perceived in a color the more orange that color appears and ii that a color that consists perceptually of an equal nonzero mixture of red and yellow is as orange as you can get 6 Funded by NSF grants BNS 7614153 BNS 7818303 BNS 8006802 and SBR 9419702 also supported by the Summer Institute of Linguistics SIL the Anthropology and Linguistics Departments and the Institute of Cognitive Studies at University of Califomia at Berkeley and the International Computer Science Institute Berkeley CA All these sources of support are gratefully acknowledged 7 Scienti c challenges such as these merit serious attention Epistemological andor deontological critiques have also appeared which empirical research is not equipped to address For example Saunders and van Brakel consider KampMcD s reductionist argumen according to which six basic or atomic color categories can be reduced to Fundamental Neural Response categories as invalidated by the prior epistemological tenet tha there is no privileged discourse in which what is true is independent of our choices hopes and fears Saunders and van Brakel 1994 8 The Western scienti c tradition presupposes the existence of an objective world independent of human choices hopes or fears To suppose that the world exists independent of human sentiments is not of course to conclude that unbiased construals of that world are easy to achieve or that science provides a magic formula for avoiding bias The empirical researcher believes that one can reduce not eliminate bias through the disciplined application of procedures of 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 37 observation and inference designed speci cally with the reduction of bias as their object and trusts that the exercise of this discipline can sometimes result in one type of understanding scienti c understanding Saunders and van Brakel are not atypical of those postmodemists who leap from the observation that the attainment of scienti c understanding is not trivial to the conclusion that it is not possible We assume contrariwise that the existence of science provides strong evidence of its possibility A comprehensive evaluation of the postmodem critique of research on color naming is beyond the scope of this paper See Hardin 1993 and Stanlaw 1993 for careful appraisals of several points 8 See KampMcD 639 BampK and Kay 1975 had earlier noted a few exceptions to this rule with regard to grey and brown but these cases were left unexplained by the generalizations embodied in the evolutionary sequence 9 Figures 1 and 2 contain more information than is conveniently explained at their rst introduction All the features in the gures will be fully explained in due course The reader s patience is requested for the moment 10 Column 0 presents the neutral whitetoblack sequence 11 All forty entries of row A denote a single pure white chip and all of row J a single pure black chip 12 For example if at least 81 of the speakers who name any chip with the term being mapped name chip c with that term then c receives 39 If 61 80 of the speakers who name any chip with the term being mapped name chip c with that term then c receives 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 38 If 41 60 of the speakers who name any chip with the term being mapped name chip c with that term then c receives 7 And so on as indicated in the legend above the term maps in part 2 of Figure 2 13 And almost certame morphologically related 14 See Section 4 for details on maps 15 Names in square brackets following a language name indicate the eld linguists who gathered data on that language for the WCS We acknowledge with gratitude the work not only of the SIL eld linguists whose names appear here but also of each of the over 100 such persons contributing to this study 16 This is supported by their almost identical distributions in their respective term maps Therefore in the aggregate naming arrays they are assigned the same symbol l 17 MacLaury 1986 was the rst to suggest this 18 Heterogeneous categories are discussed below 19 The use of the word channel here is motivated by the fact that the grammar of English requires that some noun be employed and a choice like what sitsname or thingamabob could be distracting In particular no pretense of denoting a neurological entity is intended 20 Some caveats apply First the reader is reminded that we have not yet introduced consideration of languages containing words for yellow green categories cf Fig 4 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 39 Secondly the WCS sample contains no examples of Stage I systems although their existence is documented elsewhere and therefore noted in Fig 3 Thirdly our initial screening of the WCS sample discloses no unequivocal example of type IIIBkBu but cf description of Konkomba in Section 5 although it indicates four languages at Stage IV with W R Y G and BldBu and three yellow green languages at Stage III with W R YG and BldBu see Figure 4 21 That is there are no evident generalizations comparable to those summarized in Table 1 regarding yellow green transitions 22 Further analysis may show the peripheral red category to describe an unbroken region of the surface of the color solid in the sense that the surface of a lake with an island may be said to present an unbroken expanse of water Thus the heterogeneous categories may turn out to be less bizalre than they appear at rst sight 23 The format described here re ects our current thinking on the monograph These decisions are subject to revision as the work proceeds 24 More information on speakers than this was gathered The decision to restrict published information on individual speakers to age and sex stems from our initial evaluation of space constraints 25 These are spelled out in some detail in KBM 26 Consideration of the individual speaker data may also enter into this analysis 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield 40 27 The aggregate naming arrays also appear in the Volume 2 entries as illustrated in Figure 1 for Buglere This redundancy has been thought desirable to make each volume relatively selfcontained 28 Here and in the following examples geodemographic data on individual languages as well as their language family ascriptions are derived from Grimes 1992 29 In the case of the W category this applies to the combined data for the terms pz39pz39n and pz39pz39z39n which are analyzed as variants and given the same symbol 390 in the aggregate naming arrays The separate term maps for pipin and pipiz39n support this analysis by showing their overlapping distribution 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield References Abramov I this volume Physiological mechanisms of color Vision 000 Abramov I and J Gordon 1994 Color appearance On seeing redor yellow or green or blue Annual Review ofPsychology 45 451485 Berlin B and P Kay 1969 Basic Color Terms Their Universality analEvolution Berkeley and Los Angeles University of California Press First paperback edition 1991 with a bibliography by Luisa Ma i De Valois RL and KK De Valois 1993 A multistage color model Vision Research 338 10531065 De Valois RL I Abramov and GH Jacobs 1966 Analysis of response patterns of LGN cells Journal ofthe Optical Society ofAmerica 56 966977 Green eld PhJ 1987 What is grey brown pinkand sometimes purple The range of wildcard color terms AmericanAnthropologist 88 908916 Grimes B ed 1992 Ethnologue Languages of the World 12th ed Dallas Summer Institute of Linguistics Hardin CL 1993 Van Brakel and the notsonaked emperor British Journal for the Philosophy of Science 441 137150 442 377 correction 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Heider Rosch E 1972a Universals in color naming and memory Journal of Experimental Psychology 93 1020 Heider Rosch E 1972b Probabilities sampling and ethnographic method The case of Dani colour names Man 7 448466 Hering Ewald 1964 1920 Outlines of a Theory of the Light Sense Cambridge Mass Harvard University Press Jameson K and RG D Andrade this volume It s not really red green yellow blue An inquiry into perceptual color space 000 Kay P 1975 Synchronic variability and diachronic change in basic color terms Language anal Society 4 257270 Kay P B Berlin and WR Merri eld 1991 Biocultural implications of systems of color naming Journal of Linguistic Anthropology 1 1225 Kay P and ChK McDaniel 1978 The linguistic signi cance of the meanings of basic color terms Language 543 610646 Kemmerer DL 1995 Towards a cognitive neuroscience analysis of ther meanings of basic color terms Cognitive Science Technical Report 957 SUNY Buffalo Land E 1974 The retineX theory of color vision Proceedings of the Royal Institution of GreatBritain 47 2358 ZKay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield MacLaury RE 1986 Color in Mesoamerica A theory of Composite Categorization Doctoral dissertation University of Califomia at Berkeley MacLaury RE 1987a Colorcategory evolution and Shuswap yellowwith green American Anthropologist 89 107 124 MacLaury RE 1987b Coextensive semantic ranges Different names for distinct vantages of one category Papers from the 23rd Annual Regional Meeting of the Chicago Linguistic Society Part I 268282 MacLaury RE 1991 Exotic color categories Linguistic relativity to what extent Journal ofLinguistic Anthropology 1 2651 MacLaury RE 1992 From brightness to hue An explanatory model of color category evolution Current Anthropology 33 137 186 Maf L 1991 A bibliography of color categorization research 19701990 In Basic Color Terms Their Universality anal Evolution by B Berlin and P Kay 1st paperback edition Berkeley University of California Press Pp 173189 Saunders BAC and J van Brakel 1994 Translating the World Color Survey ms 18 PP Stanlaw J 1993 Review of B A C Saunders The invention of basic colour terms American Anthropologist 951 183184 2Kay Berlin Maffi amp Merrifield Stemheim CE and RM Boynton 1966 Uniqueness of perceived hues investigated with a continuous judgemental technique Journal of Experimental Psychology 72 770776 Wooten BR 1970 The Effects of Smultaneous and Successive Chromatic Constraint on Spectral Hue Doctoral dissertation Brown University Providence RI Zadeh LA 1965 Fuzzy sets Information and Control 8 338353 Zeki S 1993 A Vision ofthe Brain Cambridge Mass Blackwell Scienti c
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