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by: Jessy Parker

Limnology WMAN 446

Jessy Parker
GPA 3.69

Todd Petty

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About this Document

Todd Petty
Class Notes
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Popular in Animal Science

This 28 page Class Notes was uploaded by Jessy Parker on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to WMAN 446 at West Virginia University taught by Todd Petty in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 13 views. For similar materials see /class/202791/wman-446-west-virginia-university in Animal Science at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
LECTURE 8 FLUVIAL GEOMORPHOLOGY AND STREAM HAITATS Hydraulic radius R hydraulic radius ft L T T R APW A AN 3 Rectangle 1 A IJL R Wd 39 fr W2d F w 2 Wide rectangle R s d Approximations of Manning s N Smooth concrete 0012 Ordinary concrete lining 0013 Vitrified clay 0015 Shot concrete untroweled and earth channels in best condition 0017 Straight unlined earth canals in good condition 0020 Rivers and earth canals in fair condition some growth 0025 Winding natural streams and canals in poor condition considerable 0035 moss growth Mountain streams with rocky beds and rivers with variable sections and 00400050 some vegetation along banks I Alluvial channels sand bed no vegetation I I 1 Lower regime I Ripples 00170028 Dunes 00180035 I 2 Washedout dunes or transition 0014 0024 I I 3 Upper regime I Plane bed 0011 0015 Standing waves 00120016 Antidunes 00120020 Source Ven te Chow 1964 Table 72 Manning roughness coe icients for various boundaries In Stream Corridor Restoration Principles Processes and Practices 1098 Interaaencv Stream Restoration Workingy Grouo FISRWGY 15 Federal agencies of the US Major Watersheds of West Virginia Dunkam Puinmzc my c DwectDvams Vuughmgheny war Shenan h R we Je evsun Cuuniy Lune Kanawha Rwev V Shananduah Rwev Havdy Cuumy 40 Min Types of Drainage Networks Dsndritic Rectangular Ra dial Centripetal k7 x I 7W X E Trallised Parallel Annular Deranged 632 x B R xx WHERE 34 Common rvpcs of dramngc nrrworks From Gregor K J and Walling D E Draizmgr Basm Farm and I rrzrcss 19 3 Edward Arnold Ltd Londun by permission AF Stream Order trahler System nk Order System Figure 42 Numbering stream orders using the Strahlev system w and the ink system B Effects of Stream Position on Fish Communities Fish species diversity increases with increasing stream size Small streams in close proximity to large streams have higher than expected diversity Stream position and water quality interact to influence fish species diversity in the Cheat River watershed Brook trout and smallmouth bass sympatry rate increases when small cold streams are juxtaposed with large warm streams Dominant Controls of Stream Channel Morphology Sediment Supply Transport Capacity Vegetation Frequency Volume and Frequency Magnitude Bank Strength Size of Sediments and Duration of Flows ln Channel Size Valley Gradient Volume and Orientation Channel Morphology Width Depth Bed Slope Sediment Composition Bed Forms habitats Pattern eg sinuosity Critical Sediment Transport Velocities 3 g a 5 o 91 g E E 390 E r 2 C 8 egg 2 E o u L 33 o 3 w a o n m 1000 Erosion VBIDC39W Erosion 39 Yill E 8 2 g Trans onetion a p Sedimentation gt 10 Fall velocity l l l l U 0001 001 01 10 10 100 1000 Size mm FIGURE 17 Relation of mean current velocity in water at least 1 m deep to the size of mineral grains that can be eroded from a bed of material of similar size Below the velocity sufficient for erosion of grains of a given size shown as a band grains can continue to be trans ported Deposition occurs at lower velocities than required for erosion of a particle of a given size Redrawn from Morisawa 1968 Sediment Load Categories Bed load consists of particles which move by sliding rolling or hopping saltating along the bed suspended load COI ISISIS or partICIes wnIcn are swept up from bed and carried by the water due to turbulence Wash load consists of very fine particles swept into the stream from upslope These particles often settle so slowly that they pass thru the entire reach Concept of Effective Discharge Wolman amp Miller 1960 Most Effective Flow on Most Streams Recurs 1 to 3 Yr I 4 effective discharge amp0Uency 8 39 Q I 3917 I Q 2 I A e 9 I Og 9 lt3 22 K I e o 0 396 lt2 4 39 398 45 o I c C C 9v 0 Ox Q 7 lt09 I r Ge I I I l I Discharge Fro m ma n a nd M I ler l Fig 75 Effective discharge dehermination frm39n sediment rating and flow duration curves 39 In Stream Corridor Restoration Principles Processes and Practices 1098 Inieragency Stream Restoration Working Group FISRWGXIS Federal agencies of the US Abandoned oodplain Channei Views of a River Hiiislspe vjio odileinv Vaiiey at CrossSectional View Dimension High flow Imermediate flow Longitudinal View Profile CrossSectional View topographic floodplain gt lt lt hydrologic oodplain gt kbankfullwidth KWIMWquot R I V W R bankfull elevation bankfull depth CrossSectional View Dimension 39Bankfull Width 39Flood Prone w1uul 39Bankfull Depth 39W D Ratio 39Cross sectional Area 39Entrenchment CrossSectional View Entrenchment Ratio Relationship of river to valley 39Entrenched 10 14 39Moderately Entrenched 141 22 39Slightly Entrenched gt 22 wavelength Radius of 7L Meander Curvature Belt kum P Sinuosity River Distance Measured alonv Thalwew StraightLine Distance Sinuosity P 10 12 Low 12 15 Moderate o I Measured Along Thalweg Meandering Stream Sinuosity gt3 rt wwwgcosun 0 nf lucatio feature geomorpthtml Longitudinal View Profile Water Surface Slope High flow Intermediaie Rosgen Stream Classification C iteria Single Channel vs Multiple Channels Entrenchment Ratio WidthDepth Ratio Sinuosity Slope Bedload Texture Rosgen Stream Classification Fig 53 httpwwwr6fwsgovlpfwlimagelelassZgif SINGLE THREAD CHANNELS mumFu z CHANNELS 39 quot v v I E tmgnl lpl 33 I l g gm ad SLIGHTLY ENTREHcHED 22 J J 339 7 r a r u quot Ln39da err39ar BROOK a J l1 i 1 l I I I BUULDERSLI 32 5621 F2igtJ F2 I 39i 1339 i1 321 I32 321 I COBBLIE gain In 3cm LF3bJ F3i Baa 131 g 5313 Bin E3 HEis an 31 lm an 5 i J d W U PM in 1 41 gs c F b Fan1359 35j B c clean E5 I 25b fC L650 I quot quot f 1 irsis 6 in EU Bici39 ih 56 1E9 HEY ln It 39 24512quot QIVEA39I IIRAL RIVERS As a function ol39thc quotminimum ofp39rysimi variablesquot wltllll39l stream t39li39ull39li 39 i r39ulum ai Entrenchment and SinuosiEy ralics can var by I39 02 units whiir mhms 43139 Width I39D Eprh mum man may by Mr 1r umls LONGITUDINAL CROSS SECTIONM and PLAN WEWS of MAJOR STREM TYPES 7 Stream types gradient crosssection plan view from Applied g 4amp1 River Morphology Dave Rosgen and Hilton Lee Silvey quot393 a Wildland Hydrology Pagosa Springs Colorado 1996 24 dquot a a grin my EZA39QE hu LF DA E F E39J i uquot Nani Iii 39quot39 quot 2 5 lt 2 D9 2 4 FEEHS EEU39l lUN PLAN VIEW E1 HFh39iM l 1139 E5 Stream Types A Type Stream High gradient Entrenched Low Sinuosity Step Pools Common Colluvial Deposition Large Sediments Dominate Bed Stream Types B Stream Moderate gradient Moderately entrenched Rifflerapid dominated Infrequently spaced pools Colluvial deposition residual soils Stream Types 0 C Type Stream Low gradient Slightly entrenched Meandering Point bar Well developed floodplains Rifer Pool Alluvial soils Stream Types E Type Stream Low gradient Slightly entrenched Well developed floodplain Meandering highly smuous Rifer pool Low WD Efficient and stable Alluvial soils


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