Week 8 Notes
Week 8 Notes PSYC049
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Neelam Aziz on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC049 at University of California Riverside taught by Lawrence Rosenblum in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 121 views. For similar materials see Your Perceptual Superpowers in Psychlogy at University of California Riverside.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psychology 049 Week 8 Notes Chapter 9 You Are Constantly Imitating Others You inadvertently imitate postures, speech, facial expressions (when talking to someone at a party you might imitate their body language or facial expression, when speaking to someone with an accent you tend to imitate their accent as well) o students imitate professors (unaware that they are imitating) increases rapport (the more imitation the more enjoyable interaction) (UNCONSCIOUS IMITATION) Chameleon effects (another way of describing how we take on each other’s mannerisms and style of speaking) (2 people brought in. Asked to describe a picture to another person. One is an experimenter and one is the subject. This is called confederate.) o 'confederate' foot shake, face rubbing o subjects imitate unconsciously o speed of action also imitated o breathing (watching someone else on a treadmill) o eating amounts (depends on who you are eating with) Must be human actions You've imitated your whole life At two weeks old: (book will be more specific) o facial actions tongue protrusions blinking some expressionlike behavior speech movements: 'ah' vs. 'm' whether seen or heard You imitate the words, syntax, rate, intonation, and accent of speech (syntax: how someone puts words in a sentence; two ways of saying the same thing) (you will match the rate at which a person speaks. Ex: west coast vs east coast) (Intonation: the flow at which a person speaks. When exited voice goes higher and then comes back down to a normal voice. Ex: Jay Leno) o ﬁnegrain aspects of speech 'pa' vs. 'ba' Voice Onset Time (when saying ‘pa’ the vocal chords vibrate after you release your lips) (when saying ‘ba’ vocal chords vibrate before you release your lips) extent is speciﬁc to speakers o 1/20 — 2/20 of a second (distinguishes my pa from your pa) (when we talk to each other we start imitating each other’s delay time. This is called voice onset time.) o we imitate this extent shifts our speech 1/200 of a second (unconscious brain more accurate than conscious) too small to willfully control Imitation Makes You a Better Person Imitation facilitates social interactions (One subject and one confederate. This time the confederate will imitate the subject while the subject is describing the pictures. Has to be subtle and a little delayed) o being imitated makes you like a person more and consider the interaction more successful Being imitated also: o facilitates agreement, increases waitress tips, enhances product enjoyment, enhances avatar likeability (subjects can’t know they are being imitated. Works with selling products. Ex: Pepsi vs Coke challenge.) (Future: building robots so they imitate you. Ex: head nods) (Car navigations like siri have been noted to be easier to deal with if the voice imitates yours subtly) imitation must be subtle, smooth, delayed facilitates positive behaviors towards others pencil dropping experiment (an experimenter comes in with a stack of papers and pencil. The experimenter pretends to walk funny and drop all the pencils. It has been shown that if you have been imitated you are more likely to help pick up the pencils.) (makes you a better person) Imitation Makes You a Better Perceiver Imitative practice helps you 'see' more: sports, music (when learning to play tennis you’re learning through imitation so now when you watch tennis on TV you will see the game in a whole different light.) Motor training enhances perceptual skill o odd arm coordination facilitates pointlight walking perception (you’re asked to sit and watch someone do a weird dance only using their arms. Then you are asked to learn the dance and practice it. So you learn the motor skill by imitation and then they perfect the motor skill by practice.) (PointLight: darkening a person’s face or body by putting reflective dots on their joints and when they start moving you can identify things such as their gender and size.) Restricting covert imitation suppresses perception o facial expressions – blinded by botox (you are shown a series of faces going from a sad face, to a in between face, to a happy face. The question is where are you going to put that dividing point between the happy faces and sad faces? Can you discriminate the neutral faces? More than likely you can unless you are restricted from imitating. You are a little less accurate if your face is restricted from imitating. Ex: pen in between lips.) o arm vs. leg motions (shown 2 pictures and asked if they people in it are doing the same position) (you are pretty good at it but you would be less good at the position of the arm when swinging your arm.) Your motor system inﬂuences how you perceive (swinging your legs and trying to determine if the positions of the legs are the same in the 2 pictures makes you less accurate ONLY about the legs not the arms) o in a body system speciﬁc way You Use Your Motor System to Perceive Creating temporary lesions using TMS in relevant motor areas inhibits perception of: (break a part of the brain) o face emotion – blinded by botox (troubling perceiving other’s facial expression) o weight lifting (trouble determining how much weight a person is lifting as you watch. Heavy or lighter?) o hand and arm actions (not body parts) (trouble perceiving other’s hand movements) What about covert imitation? o not much observable beyond faces But: o apply weak, short TMS pulse to motor cortex (instead of breaking part of the brain for some time, we’re going to prime the brain. Weaker stimulus and shorter stimulus. Doesn’t break the brain but excites the brain. Primes the motor brain) primes muscles for covert imitation (when watching someone pitching or swinging your arms will twitch. Body part specific) o watching hand or arm motions induces activity in hand or arm o same for listening to, or lipreading speech (if ‘ba’ was repeated and your brain had been primed, your lips would twitch and if ‘da’ was repeated your tongue will twitch. This is true even if you watch a silent movie.) Your Brain is Always Imitating Action Planning cells – motor brain regions (cells that were involved in motor behavior. Monkey imitated a graduated student reaching for raisins. Cells respond when you are doing the behavior and are also involved when seeing someone else doing the behavior) o also respond to seeing the same movements mirror neurons (initiates behavior it responds to seeing that same behavior) Mirror Neuron Systems—MNS o analogous motor areas in human brain responsive to seeing hand, face actions helps with perception o effected by TMS transient lesions most active during imitation Yawning – familiarity (contagious) (mirror neuron) (the more familiar someone is the more contagious) (contagious with dogs) Other's intentions? (Intentions through body movement) Autism? inhibited imitation (less contagious yawning); less MNS activation (fewer imitative behavior than the rest of us) Empathy? selfratings correlate with MNS activity (more activity in their mirror neuron systems than people who don’t rate themselves as empathetic) You Are Strongly Drawn To Imitate Eye Gaze Eyetracking measures (your attention will follow the magician) o observer's gaze tracks magicians with a halfsecond lag Gaze misdirection o eyetracking o eyes follow ball, not magician's gaze o but your attention follows gaze You're fooled, but your eyes are not Eyeshifting task o accuracy and reaction time inﬂuenced by face's gaze direction no inﬂuence of arrows also works with subliminal faces Gaze can inﬂuence your opinion of a target object o gazed at objects rated as more likable Gaze can inﬂuence your opinion of the gazer o more predictive faces rated more trustworthy Chapter 10 Multisensory Speech Sue Thomas professional lipreader (FBI) o lost all hearing at 18 months before most of language acquisition o received intensive speech therapy: 7 years guided production in front of mirror Deaf typically twice as good at lipreading o early start, primary means of communication Other factors: gender, STM span, reading speed Neuroplasticity of early deaf o greater reactivity to visual motion, particularly in periphery o auditory cortex responds to sign language; other hand and arm gestures
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