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Introduction to Psychology

by: Samantha Hettinger

Introduction to Psychology PSYC 101

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Psychlogy > PSYC 101 > Introduction to Psychology
Samantha Hettinger
GPA 3.87

Sarra Nazem

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Sarra Nazem
Class Notes
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This 17 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Hettinger on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at West Virginia University taught by Sarra Nazem in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 9 views. For similar materials see /class/202801/psyc-101-west-virginia-university in Psychlogy at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Psychological disorders can affect persons of any age race sex religion or income Pre lecture Instructor s Guide Mental illnesses are notthe result of a personal weakness lack of character or poor upbringing Why should I care I Because understanding of mental health issues brings awareness to the community and our surrounding I We will become a society that is accepting of others who do not fit our idea of a perfect population Myths of Mental Illness I Mental illness is caused by bad parenting Fact Most diagnosed individuals come from supportive homes I The mentally iii are violent and dangerous Fact Most are ofviolence I People with a mental disorder are not smart Fact Numerous studies have shown that many have average or above average intelligence Creativity and Mental Illness Flcllrm Non ctian Snelal sciences ooial figure Musm perlnrmance Muslcal cumpnsmg 5 I15 Po Exploration An Architecture Percentage What are some possible reasons that the rate of mental illness in general is slightly higher among those in the arts than those in other professions Availability Heuristic We make a judgment based on what we can remember rather than complete data In particular we use this forjudging the frequency or likelihood of events Various factors can affect availability 39 MORE NAMES FOR MEN 39 FEMALE NAMES WERE MORE CURRENT 39 High profile or stereotypic views of persons with mental illness are often the EXCEPTION not the rule Defining Normal and Abnormal A Psychological Disorder is a condition in which a person s thoughts feelings or behavior isjudged to be Three criteria The person experiences significant pain or distress Their behavior deviatesfrom acceptable behaviors for that society Their everyday behavior is maladaptive Psychological Disorders 4 Models of Abnormality Model Mental disorders are caused by biology and can betreated medically Historical Hippocrates39 460 BC four humors Imbalances of bodily fluids Veow bile Phlegm Blood amp Black bile Modern Brain treatment drugs brain surgery etc Models of Abnormality Model Mental disorders are caused and maintained by one s life experiences Death of mother before age 7 doubles risk of depression Model Pscholovical disorders are influenced by culture Poor and unemployed are more often depressed US troubled teenagers get into fights take drugs Thailand troubled teens sulk go quiet amp sleep Eskimos experience Pibloktoq intense excitement followed by seizures and 12 hr coma Anorexia nervosa is uniquely Western l39Synthetic Modelquot of Mental Illness Muiunie lntamcting Causes Genes Wmses Toxins Nulmion ainn inimy Parenting Peers Experiences J l l i i l i i i i Brain swans and Funcmn lBralri develanmenh plastic snsnsss in ssssnss m ussnsms m chemistry changes in isspanss m medica nns or ssysnsiiisissyi l inns runsnsns mention DEVcepllails moughls language memories motivations emotions arousal l t l The unique Person in a Specific Social wisiia lAri lndlvlduat39s behavior in relation Io Ltle neoalei aims simsiions and other aspects oi nls or nerenvlmnmeni l I l Specific Mental iiinsss AMIer disorders somamfomi disorders dissociative disorders mood disorders scnuonhmriia pulsarialny DISUIGIIS A A Common Psychological Disorders common 23 12 men Psychological Disorders Diagnosis I Diagnosis 11ie process or identiiying and grouping mental disorders with similar wmptoms Acronym ior theAmerican chhiatric Association39s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Originally 1952 with 60 disorders today 410 Beware medical students39 syndrome lavailability heuristicl Five Axes Axis I Clinical Syndromes is H Disorders or Mental Retardation Axis I General Medical Conditions Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Anxiety 1 disorder Acntetear helplessness hopelessness Periudsuf acnteterrnr shortnessnr breath irreguizr heartbeat unreziity ciarnrny sweat areei iike going tn die Anticipatory anxrety arearnr having attack 7 Anaclsareem harassing nudennmidsitnatinns 21 men19 a warnen Psychuiugiczi rnndei inxhusimund cue assncatedwnntnatenent Anxiety 2 Anxiety Disorder Free floating anxiety evoked by nothing in ti Causes dif culty making decisions new WW wwy hum martian mun whim men a T e common cold of psychiatry an natmmina nnnY nope Anxiety 3 disorders ear 0 Agoraphobia a open spaces Sociai phopiae other people Speci c phopiase fear of snakes spiders darkness heights etc Learned via classical conditioning or vicarious conditioning Biological basis a more likely to fear snakes Anxiety Disorders Frequency of the Most Prevalent Simple Phobias Simple Bugs mice Phobia Aquot snakes bats intense Heights irrational fear were of a specific object or 5mm Situation Closed places 10 15 20 Percentage Vepurrlng Severe new Nol Severe a Classitai ondilioning Acquisilinn oi phobic fear Snuw 0 c l uc39s l r Fear Buried in avalanche V quotCB b Opelant auditioning Mainlenante of phobic fear negallve reinforzerncml rigm 134 cumming as 2 explanallan m phobias Anxiety 4 Obsessive com ulsive thoughts that will not go away 7 dirty Compulsions behaviors one must keep erforminv washing hands Compulsive behavior defends against anxiety typically cleaning Obsessions fearuncertaintydoubt Anxiety will do something terrible rarely do 7 have heart attack wet 5e Anxiety Disorders Phoblasl g M W mum uim Amm mm mm N m wix Learning Obiedive 3 Anxiety Disorders Ph b However oniy 3 tho e with sociai g m phobiareported fe ii g m a o ias M mim wt Anxiety Disorders Inf luences Three findings from crossrcuitural I re c mparlsons 3 Anxiety is universai and is exhibited by the ns same bodiiy reactio anxiemiew at peopiewo Cuiture in uences the cognitive co h quot399 rry about and onent of their beiiefs about the causes of it Treatment needs to acknowiedge cuiturai diversity Disorders Somatization Disorder Conversion Disorder Hypochondriasis Etiology of somatoform disorders Cognitive factors Personality factors The sick role Dissociative Disorders Dissociative amnesia and fugue Dissociative disorder Etiology severe emotionaltrauma during childhood Controversy 39 Media creation Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder Characterized by sadnessdespair feelings of worthlessness and low selfesteem Depression is universal Depression rates are on the rise Women are 2x more likely to seek treatment Some eople get depressed on a seasonal baSIS easonal Affective Disorder SAD Depressive episodes often last only a few weeks Dysthymic Disorder Chronic state but not severe enough to be classified as major depresswn What is Depression is a medical issueinai arreois a persons mood to be down blue andor red up Depression is the most common mood isorder arreoiing approximately 20 million peop e eao Signs and of Depression Fatigue eriess er Energy Versisremsadanxinus m Tneugnts er gearn em r mend SuicidE ineiuging suieige Sieepmgmn mum mum mpts iii20ddime orwaking FEEiing guiim nopeiess Reduzed orinue 52d orwonniess apperire W ilh resoirs in Dimeuityeeneeniranng Mismamminss remembering or making iniKabiiiKV or resriessness dEEiSiDnS Triggers to maior depressmn but not everyone wnn aramiiv historv deveiops depressmn De Maior ioss or onange Chronicstress Aioonoi and drug abuse Heart disease and cancer medications Some iire event that mav trigger episodes or depressmn at one The Cycle of Depression 5 mi y m a quoti ET39WFi mm 2 1 r x 39 m WWW m Mood Disorders Depressio ges of First Depressiun i5 seidum m identified befure zduiescence quotquot atesufdepressiun 5 ms increasethruughzduithuud ml i ismuslcummuniy 3 dizgnusedinmiddiezge m we unset ur depressiun i5 rarezmungtheeideriy iiiii ilmii quotmm mu Mood Disorders Styles and Depression Expiznztury swies zmung firslryezr cuiiege students s s Twu yearsizterthuse e s M i mare iikeiytu experience M d epressi u n A Mile A pmwwm 5m mmwmsm Mood Disorders of Depression Depression can lead to behaviors that cause social rejection which worsens depression aiaiaaiau ammo gt 3221 Munliv mu announces teaming Obiedlve a Mood Disorders 8L Roughly one million people worldwide commit suicide each year Women are threetimes more likely to attempt suicide but men are four times more successtui 39 About 75 of Suicides are Committed by peoplewho suttered trom depression The single best predictor is a sense ot hopelessness What is Mania Mania is part ota condition called bipolar disorder also known as Bipolar disorder usually causes a person s mood to alternate between symptoms of depression and mania a heightened energetic state Americans Signs and Symptoms of Mania mrusa phys ahn mmm nuhunnykanargy rmemmrgrmm my mnumvanmwur e e magmaquot uxrureummrrreep ka aghammar mm wnmmuvanancmg awe blame seem ermamrmm Grznmma amsmns saxw m nscrmmns Ssurus we sawrcanh an Depression Bipolar Disorder rsrmeryrnswn a was devressmn erishn as mm Meresjamwepmmmn hnthgen ersinuaW Ev nthvrmt msnr er 7 mm mmmszwh thmmtbv vzme VmM stDmms The Symptoms of Schizophrenia Incoherent Thinking word salad False beliefs in uence eg thoughts broadcast in public grandeur eg President King etc 39 persecution Hallucinations Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation auditow 7 voices The Symptoms of Schizophrenia Disturbance ofAffect flattened blank expression exaggerated laughing inappropriately etc Behavior Withdrawal Parroting Lack selfinsight Only sane person in a cmzy worldquot of Schizophrenia Disorganized Exhibit signs of illogical thinking and speech lack personal hygiene Catatonic Exhibit extremes in motor behavior Paranoid Delusions or hallucina ions often include extreme suspiciousness and hosti ity Undifferentiated Do not clearly fit into a type Residual Experienced prior episodes of schizophrenia but are not currently exhibiting symptoms Negative sym lom l and slowed speech or no speech 7 worse prognosis p s 7 Cognitive emotional and behavioral de ms Types of Schizophrenia Symptoms e cognitive emotional and behavioral excesses v A l m M A r4 r4 h What Causes There is no one cause lo this complex and puzzling illness bul ii is believed that some combinalion or genelic biological virus bacleria or an inreclion and environmentalfacmrs play a major role There is currenlly no reliable waym predicl wnelner a person will developlne disease nnnrnl vnil lrlmlrn mnnrl minimum Dmlzlllul canipllcnlnn 39 alln inn llml h maul U riamus 13 Imdnnzmine Mamm a anelniznaiinn hrxchixnnhremz From The Looks of It Schizophrenic main Relationships and Schizophrenia Relationship GIIIIMLC Risk an The risk of m E quot2 developing ldaniinnilw39ms l M 48 schizophrenia In mmwm mm m one39s schizophrenia 08mins Increases as the Frniumnhwins 50 um genetic air in ohms ralateane s to a chixughregii imam 5quot quot5 person wth schizophrenia Sibling m 5 increases Why isnit risk for Nenhawnvrii aca 25 i identicaltwins S u M m p s 100 Why is it 2 for a SPOUSE Unmlmn puman 0 WI With all three of these illnesses treatment with the right combination of medications andor therapy can help stabilize the moods that interfere with a productive life Environmental Fit amp Recovery We may operate on a continuum of mental health and adaptive functioning is related to the quotfitquot between a person39s resources and the demands ofthe environment Zeno a Drullwul mmpmm Smilomma nouns mmquot mo won 0 m mm kanIMJ mm mm wnax um mm mu an able n nchlnvn Mawuannuy Lavl a chllllngn wnu ma loamyr can menlly i mum Imvadmlly M Wm Martium can achieve min l min Lm o1 commune Eating disorders Severe disturbances in eating caused by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy cognitions about eating nervosa Fear of gaining weight Disturbed body image Refusal to maintain normal weight Taking dangerous measures to lose we39g Bulimia nervosa Habitually outofcontrol overeating followed b unhealthy compensatory efforts laxatives exercise vomiting Binge eating disorder Out of control overeating but NO inappropriate compensatory behaviors 16 Which image is your ideal for Which is closest to your bo y your gender d Preva lence rates of eating disorders are diagno i females and anore xia accou ts for about half ofthese cases about 5 million in US have an eating disorder E


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