Introduction to Psychology
Introduction to Psychology PSYC 101
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Cognition and Intelligence Chapter 8 Problem Solving Problem solving is an aspect of intelligentthinking Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover What must be done to a goal Problems can be into three basic types Inducing structure 0 Transformation Types of Problems Problems of structure a Discover relationships o Series completion and analogy problems Problems of o Need to use criteria to arrange problem o Anagrams Problems of o Carry out to reach a goal 0 Hobbits and orcs problem a Waterjar problem 1072008 1072008 Obstacles to Problem Solving onnatio Focus on the wrong information 0 Fun 39 I Tendency to think about objects inramiiiar ways o Set Old patterns ofproblem solving orinformation interfere with current thinking 0 Assuming Unnecessary Obstacles Information 0 One ofthe rst steps in determine what the is o Attendingto information interferes wiui setting the problem up in the rst ste 0 Example in the Thompson familythere are five brot ers and each rotnernas one Sister if you countMrs T ompson how many are tnere m the Thompson family Obstacles Fixed ness 0 Rachel s car breaks down while she is driving through the esert She is terribly thirsty She nds several soda bottles in thetrunk but no bottle ope togethen Twostring problem As hard as Sebastian tries he can39t H sets o Tendency to solve problems using procedures that have efore on similar problems Ver 0 But not helpful ifthe problem requires a solution n in t Ma gel n lu Wuvk again One daywhen n duesn l cum snakesn but u still duesn lwuvk H2 Wuuld be summia n llt n batteries 2 an n2 menial 1072008 1072008 Set Example 0 Number Puzzle In this puzzle try to figure out the pattern for the order of numbers Why are these numbers arranged in this order 8 5 4 9 1 7 6 3 2 0 constraints 0 Imposing that don t actually exist 0 These are not part of the problem but are by the problem solver 0 Example ninedot problem NINE DOT PROBLEM Connect the nine dots with four straight lines without removing your pen from the page Some attempted but incorrect solutions appear below to Problem Solving n39 r Keeplrylng urllll you gure oulme Solullorl e Works l eare e Guaranteed solution math problems sh mg 0 Searchlrlg forarlalogles 0 Changlnglhe ofa problem Forming Subgoals r solve a problem 0 Working both forward and backward 0 Example Tower ofHanoi Problem W om 1 r 0mm um ammoquot comm Lnlgm rmomlnl more ooemoom lowomm m r m mymllu hx almllm moo 2 Initial and anal slates lor lhe Tower ol Hznni prnhlem lhl Operzlms llm gnvem lhe Tower ol Hznni prnhlem 1072008 initial steps in solving 1072008 pro lamshowmg how theprobe anb broken down In 0 subg als a V 1 ll a m Heuristic o A relationship between two similar situations problems or concepts Merchant isto Sell as Customeris to W memoryis like RAM in a computer Auseiul heuristic is to nnd a similarorrelated situation and build an analogy a Often difficult tn see ne relatiunship Changing the Representation of the Problem 0 Your representation quot39 39 quot u see the problem 0 You might represent a problem mathematically ake lists use a table equations diagrams o Olten hel s represent problem Culture Style and Problem Solving differences exist in problem solving and may be due to environmental constraints Field rely on external frames of reference Field rely on internal frames of reference 0 Western education inspire eld independence Holistic vs cognitive styles 1072008 Making Choices Heuristics in Judging The heuristic o Overestimating the improbable The heuristic o The tendency to ignore base rates 0 The fallacy 0 The fallacy The Availability 3 a o Heuri c Tendency tojudge the 0 an event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances of odds of dying in plane accident of odds of dying in car accident Are there more words in the English language that begin with K or have K as theirthird letter a There are more words that begin wi h K easier to think of examples b There are more words that have K as their third letter c Bo h a and b are about the same within 5 of each other Probabilities Overestimating the Exaggerating the 0 We choose the option that best fits with our beliefs regardless oftheir actual probabilities o Example ofthe heuristic Probabilities Heuristic Basing estimated of an event on how similar it is to the event 1072008 Base predictions on similarity to othe Mb or situations but we may ignore other relevant info 4quot such as the actual frequency of even in 100 or these families the exactorder of births or boys 5 and girls 6 D D D Whatis your o aniliesin which the exactorder or birth was each of the following Estimate a number for each of the following adapted from Kahneman amp Tversky1973 1 c c a c a a of families is loo Statistically all four alternatives are equally likely 50 B 50 G Sex ofprevious births doesn t affect sex ofnext birth Which birth orders look random Most people misunderstand how randomness works They expect things to even outquot in the short run 1072008 Heuristic Base Rates When people use the representative heuristic they often base rates People often feel they can beat the odds because the base rates Imagine thatyoujust met a man named Steve Stev very shy and withdrawn invariably helpful but with little interest in people or in the world of reality A meek and tidy soul he has a need for order and structure and a assion for detail Which statement about Steve is more likely adapted from Kahneman amp Tversky 1973 at Steve is a retail salesperson 3964680 In the United es b Steve is a librarian 139460 In the United States Both quotaquot and quotbquot are equally likely within 5 of each other Approximately 254 retail salesperson for every librarian e is much more likely to be a retail salesperson But Steve s descrlption ts our stereotype or libranans Data from the Bureau of Labor statistics 2000 survey Heuristic Conjunction Fallacy The probability of being in a subcategory cannot be higherthan the probability of being in the category Steve is articulate power hungry Wheelerdealer v Do you think it s more likely that he is a college teacher or a college teacher who is also a politician l Parnlnn Wm p 5 1072008 mummy Probabilities FaHacy o Beliefthat the odds ofa chance event urring increase ifthe event hasn t occurred o in slots and roulette 0 Example ofthe Intelligence 1072008 Defining Intelligence Intelligence 0 Defined as the ability to from experience acquire knowledge think abstractly act or ada tto changes in the environment Factor 0 General intellectual ability theorists to underlie speci c mental Measuring Intelligence Psychometric measurement of mental abilities traits amp processes Includes ests 0 Measure skills and knowledge that have been taught 0 Example SAT tests a Measure ability to acquire skills or knowledge History of Standardized Adol h 4 Measured the nelgnt amp onest clrcumfererlce ofScottlsh soldlers Flrst to argue toran average marl uslng norrnal dlstnoutlons 0 Sir Francis Gallon 13221911 Flrst to apply e urernent to lntelllgenoe Flrst to argue that lntelllgenoe of the populatlorl should be normally lstnouted 0 Alfred Binet 13571911 Developed Wldely used standardlzed tests otlntelllgenoe uslng trlalrarldrerror method I NEIrmal Ehlldrerl and Ehlldrerl a Test stayed popularoeoause lt predlcted school to sorne degree The of Intelligence Testing 0 Lewis Terman 1916 a inteiiigence Scaie o inteiiigence Quotient i0 x 00 D 39d avl 1 WechsierAduit Scaie 1072008 IQ Scores 0 distributedquot e Beiirshaped curve 0 Very high andvery low scores are rare 0 68 of people have IQ between 85115 s TWO standard from the mean 0 of people have IQ between 55145 Leammg obieciive a Extremes of Intelligence Mental Retardation 3quot 0 Diagnosis based on IQ and testing o it or beiow mean more 0 Adaptive SkiH de cits o Origination before a e o 4 levels mild moderate severe 9 Mid mostcomm n 0 Causes 9 v5 bioiogicai mm mm mun mumt mm mum mmn mmquotwwwmmmtmmmmm 1072008 Extremes of Intelligence Giftedness sues ideals vs practice l0 2 SD above mean standard leadershtp Spectal talent weak socially inept emotionally troubled o Levy s Terman 1925 7 largely contradtcted eotypes Ellen Wnner1997r v5 profoundlygt ed Leammg otzteawe a Extremes of Intelligence o and achievement beyond IQ e Renzulh 2002 tntersectton of factors e Stmonton 2001 rdrudretheor andmbom talent Leammg otzteawe a Test Differences 0 type 0 thferent tests for dtfferent ages 0 But there are also multiple tests Bmet a Wesemef mteufgenee Seate WATS Wesemefmtettfgenee forCthren WTSC teammg otztectwe a Weschler Test Performance um tn 3315213 3 Wm at wt tat f f W f Mum m xsmhnl mmmmmn Ltth 3 mm mistquot m m mutath Lam WNWsf m WWW am Wm mmdmmm mm 10qu Raw madam Shaw mum arm39Jm at a mm What Makes a Good IQ Test 0 ts the measurement constatent o Resutts must be fepeatabte and statute a Low before age 7 Does thetest Whatyouthtnktt easures o Affects the abmtyto make mfefenees about the test Test Reliability and Validity RELIABILITV Same res ts from one time to another High VALIDITV Accurale onduslnnsand HI h predittlons F 1072008 Fair Tests 0 Was this a test 0 Elements ofa culture test l WE are not reliant information tnat l5 ex Based more on on clusive to a paiticuiar group ability Can IQ Be 0 Traditional IQ tests favor white citydwelling individuals 0 Different cultures may have different problemso ving 0 Different cultures stress and therefore teach different types of York City llvll lg in a city oft cniid in New i cniid intne Appaiacnian mountains llvll lg on a farm and Determinants of Intelligence 0 Twm and adopnon studwes 5 mates 0 e Adophon stuwes a Enwronmenta deprwahon and en chment The effec we scares mcrease Every generater o lntera i n The concept ofthe reacnon range 1072008 am mmnavnnmumt 5 m m mhuludumm we a Mama1mm mmnmmmmWmm mum mummy Variables IQ Scores Expectations for performance stereotypes o Stereotype threat a Doubt felt about due to negative stereotypes Have been shown effects on performance of African Americans low income populations amp the elderly 0 Negative stereotypes can performance 0 Positive stereotypes can performance Measuring Cognitive Approaches Emphasize strategies Includes domains of intelligence 0 Started with multiple intelligences o Bodilykinesthetic intrapersonal interpersonal linguistic logicalmathematical musical naturalist o intelligence EQ 1072008 Sternberg s Theory 0 intelligence internai strategies inoiuoing prooiern recognition amp evaluation of problemrsolving strategies Requires rnetaoognition 0 intelligence e Ability to transfer Skills to new settings 0 intelligence a Practical aooiioation of inteiiigenoe a Adaptation to an environment Therapies mum nI vowiillun m mm alnhwlillun l s hlmeivlns mm dixnidnrlin myuu mknlzlliullh nwlns nnnnymll mm w M Ammam W Dingiinnsmmnu mimmm Clients Who Seeks Therapy quotn of US population in a given year Full range of problems Women more than men Medical insumnce level pirnmmnnnmeeiinnm nonrnmmmmemq e I u a Eis pnnnr s e a Where People Turn for Help Mcnlnlhculul wimpirrrrnirn nirn u nmg vialWWquot psrrironre anlul wmlm pr Drhel r Psysliiyium mrnnrorn 5er nrn rnii mil error Weir loin Professionals Involved in Thempy Psychologies PM in osyonology conaucm tes ng Elagnosls treatment and research Counseling chhologists PM in counseling nelo oeoolewim mariial family and minor adiusiment oroolems M D does a residency in ln d osyo l39atry an can prescribe medications Applied BeheviorAneves D or Master39s in osyonologv oenavioral tneraoies eg onooias disorders onaraoterized by atemall39zl39ng symptoms Social Workers Master 395 degree in so al work tn soe ltral39ril39rig in counsell39rg Lergee group of mental health service providers DirectCare Jobs for a Degree WHERE WORK comm mm m aumrl 39 WWWaw ram so mwlmrll By quotHelping Professionsquot for a BA in Psychology Affirmative Action Affairs Community Centers Educator Child Care Elder Care rity amp TSA Home Land Secu Office Current Trends and issues in Treatment care sensitivity PSVC 493 in Spring Deinstitutionalization Revolving door problem Therapies Therapies 7 Psychuana ysrs 7 chehmehrered Therapv Humamslm Car RDgersHumams tTheraW 7 Gruup BehaviorTherapies 7 Emleedback5yslemalm Aversmn 377d Suma shusrherapy era CognitiveTherapies 7 Ralmna Therapy 7 Beck s Caghmve Therapy BiomedicalTherapies Therapies mg leMeamev nvgvemuvcessenem 38 mm w Mden 22 Psvmmherapv Bottom Line Does therapy Work The Benefits of Therapy 21523 r i aaseaanmeresunmm stumeslsmllhelal1980lhe averagelheranv Ilem Shaw mare lmnrwemem man a n1 Ihnseinlhe nmrnlgmun Be havio ra and 3m lam w wwwm we ludmwl l 39 system Visual a display le forehead Therapies l e Tension Headache sensors on the head detect acllvll converts Signal to lsplay Pallenlwalches t he arm to relax Behavioral Therapies Systematic Treatment for phobia Anxiety hierarchy Relaxation raining Therapy Skills Therapy Evidence for Behavioral 8t Cognitive Behavioral Therapie Deemed most efficaciousfor a dlsarders e Angera lmpulslvevl ce 7 Psychalaglcal problems assamaled With health 7 Childhoodbehavlarpmblems e prevenllan A considerable amount of evidence of positive e ects for a variety o Cognitive Therapies Cognitive Therapy 7 People are laughuolhink in more adaptiveways 7 Ralional Behavior39lh rapy Penuieare ramantaa withtheirirratmnai maia avtive heiiefs 5 v amateur 7 NegativeEventirratmnaiheiiefemntmnai nnSEnuentes 7 Eognilive39lherapy quotWhatistheEvidentefnrthisi eaquot HumanisticTherapies ClientCentered Therapy Carl Goal restructure sel concept to better correspond to rea ity Therapeutic climate Genuineness asmve regard at y Therapeutic process mmm mmm emu mm mm ulnamum m m m vivavmmauavmlamn GroupThera py Approaches Group Therapy r tment of seveml clients in group Each approach to psychotherapy has a forrn ofgroup therapy eg analysis Isused by schoanasts Saves money but al 0 ef ecti Grou u 3 embe s e s or e c 0 Many psychological problems are problems relating to other peo e pi Therapy Treatsthe members ofa family as an interactive system Evidence for Therapies Evidence for improvements with Young adults with Childhood behavior problems relationships Medical Interventions Drug Therapies Psychopharmacology The study of the effects of drugs on psychological processes and disorders Behavioral The study of the influence of behavior Basic Principles Drugs have multiple effects Ef fects vary in a manner Repeated administration taking drugs over time often has different effects than acute administration taking drugs occasionally Types of Drug Treatments Drugs Tranq ations used in the treatment of anxiety Trade names Librium Valium Xanax Bu par Much betterthan their predecess 39 h amp ors r barbitu mtes 7 but dangerous wit can lead to rebound anxiety Antidepressants Drugs that relieve depression by increasing the supply of norepinephrine serotonin or dopamine Trade names Tofranil Prozac Prozac is selective serotonin inhibitor Positive mnge of effects makes people more productive confident etc Types of Drug Treatments ll Mood Stabilizer Calms Trade Name Adrug used to o bipolar disorder may reduce bipolar mood swings arbonate ontrol mania a 3 nd mood swings in peopiewith at higher doses Antipsychotic Drugs Drugs used to control the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Trade names Thorazine Clozaril Risperdai Good on positive symptoms not negative Drug Therapies Antipsvchotic Drugs amp Hospitalization Trends E 5m 5m um ma um wa WW um iain mo i999 mi Medical Interventions Perspectives on Drug Therapies rugs nave neiped nurnerous peopie wno once iived in institutions Peopie may not respond weH to psycnotnerapy However sorne dru sproduceunpieasantor dangerous side effects and may iead to a pnysicai andor psycnoiogicai e rnus patients became passive in tne nesiing process Neitner psycnotnerapy nor drug tnerapy nas been oundtooegeneraiiyrnore Therapy Summary 39permrueawisysremarircarerarrows sparse 5m phobia Aicahai llama Cognition and Intelligence Chapter 8 Problem Solving 53 0 Problem solving is an aspect of intelligent thinking 0 Problem solving refers to active efforts to discover what must be done to a goal 0 Problems can be into three basic types a Inducing structure 0 0 Transformation Types of Problems 55 o Problems of structure 0 Discover relationships 0 Series completion and analogy problems 0 Problems of 0 Need to use criteria to arrange problem 0 Anagrams 0 Problems of 0 Carry out to reach a goal a Hobbits and orcs problem 0 Waterjar problem A Analogy What ward completes iha analogy Merchant Sell gt Cu5lomer lawyer Client Ductur B String problem Two sirings hang lrorn the ceiling bul are too far apart to allow a person lo hold one and walk in the other On the table are a book of match esr a screwdriver and a few pieces ul cullon How could lire strings belied together r 2007 Thomson Higher Education C Hubhlls and arts problem Three hobbits and three ants arrive al a river bank and lhev all wish to truss unto the other side Furlunaiely there is a heel but unfortunately the heat can hold only two creatums at one limP Also there is anolher prableml OILS are vicious creatures andwhene39yer Ihere are mare ore lban hubbits on one side olthe river theorts will immedialely atiack Ihe imbbils and eal lhern up Cunsequenlly you should be certain that you never leave more orcs than hobbits on eilher river bank How should the problem be solved It must be added lhnt the orts though vicious can be trusted to bring the boa back From Mailin1939 p 319 EL Water iar problem Suppose that you have a 2rcupiar a rzy up jar and a 3cup jar Drawing and discarding as much warm as you like you need to measure out exactly roo cups ufwaler How an1his be 7 done E Anagram F Series completion Rearrange the letters in each what numberor Ierier ompletes row lo make an English word each series RWAET 12834656 KEROl A B M C D M Figure 81 Six standard problems used in studies of problem solving Obstacles to Problem Solving 0 Information 0 Focus on the wrong information 0 Functional o Tendency to think about objects in familiar ways 0 Set 0 Old patterns of problem solving or information interfere with current thinking 0 Assuming Unnecessary Obstacles Information a One of the first steps in problem solving is to determine what the is 0 Attending to information interferes with setting the problem up in the first step 0 Example In the Thompson family there are five brothers and each brother has one sister If you count Mrs Thompson how many are there in the Thompson family Obstacles Fixed ness 5 o Rachel s car breaks down while she is driving through the desert She is terribly thirsty She finds several soda bottles in the trunk but no bottle opener u 39e v Twostring problem As hard as Sebastian tries he can t grab the second string How can he tie the two strings together sets 53quot o Tendency to solve problems using procedures that have before on similar problems 0 Very l 0 But not helpful if the problem requires a solution a When Matt s flashlight hasn t worked in the past he sjust shaken it to get it to work again One day when it doesn t come on he shakes it but it still doesn t work He would be subject to mental set if he keeps shaking it without checking whether it needs new batteries Set Example a Number Puzzle In this puzzle try to figure out the pattern for the order of numbers Why are these numbers arranged in this order 8 54 9176 320 constraints 0 Imposing that don t actually exist 0 These are not part of the problem but are problem solver 0 Example ninedot problem bythe NINE DOT PROBLEM Connect the nine dots with four straight lines without removing your pen from the page 7 l Some attempted but incorrect solutions appear below 39 to Problem Solving anderror Keep trying until you figure out the solution Works if there are possible solutions Guaranteed solution math problems shortcuts Forming Searching for analogie Changing the of a problem Forming Subgoals 53 o using intermediate steps to solve a problem 0 Working both forward and backward 0 Example Tower of Hanoi Problem Initial state Goal state W W 39 H H m l l 1 2 3 1 2 3 Operator 1 Move one disc at a time from one peg to another 390 Operator 2 Can move disc only when no discs are on it Operator 3 Larger disc cannot be put on smaller disc a Initial and goal states for the Tower of Hanoi problem b Operators that govern the Tower of Hanoi problem I i TL E39 Initial steps in solving the Tower of Hanoi I problem showing how the problem can be a5ubgoa1Freeuparge disc broken down into i su bgoals b Subgoal 2 Free up third peg HJLJ c Subgoal 3 Move large disc onto third peg J Heuristics A relationship between two similar situations problems or concepts Examples Merchant is to Sell as Customer is to memory is like RAM in a computer A useful heuristic is to find a similar or related situation and build an analogy o Often difficult to see the relationship Changing the Representation of the Problem 0 Your representation of the problem is how you see the problem 0 You might represent a problem mathematically o Make lists use a table equations diagrams o Often helps to how you represent problem Culture Style 553539 and Problem Solving o differences exist in problem solving and may be due to environmental constraints 0 Field rely on external frames of reference 0 Field rely on internal frames of reference o Western education inspire field independence 0 Holistic vs cognitive styles Making Choices Heuristics in Judging o The heuristic o Overestimating the improbable o The heuristic o The tendency to ignore base rates 0 The fallacy o The fallacy The Availability Heuristic 55 Tendency to judge the of an I event by how easy it is to think of examples or instances of odds of dying in plane of odds of dying in car accident accident Are there more words in the English language that begin with K or have K as their third letter a There are more words that begin with K easier to think of examples b There are more words that have K as their third letter c Both a and b are about the same within 5 of each other Probabilities Overestimating the o Exaggerating the c We choose the option that best fits with our beliefs regardless of their actual probabilities 0 Example of the heuristic Probabilities Heuristic 55 0 Basing estimated of an event on how similar it is to the event Base predictions on similarity to othe agents or situations but we may ignore other relevant informa pz 39 such as the actual frequency of events 5 Assume that all families with exactly six children are surveyed in a city In 100 of these families the exact order of births of boys B and girls G was GBGBBG What is your guess as to the number of families in which the exact order of birth was each of the following Estimate a number for each of the following adapted from Kahneman amp Tversky 1973 1 GGBGBB For each of these 2 BBBBBB possibilities the 3 GBBGBG expected number 4 BBBGGG of families is 100 Statistically all four alternatives are equally likely 50 B 50 G Sex of previous births doesn t affect sex of next birth Which birth orders look random Most people misunderstand how randomness works They expect things to even out in the short run Heuristic 333 Base Rates 53 0 When people use the representative heuristic they often base rates 0 People often feel they can beat the odds because the base rates a Imagine that you just met a man named Steve Steve is very shy and withdrawn invariably helpful but with little interest in people or in the world of reality A meek and tidy soul he has a need for order and structure and a passion for detail Which statement about Steve is more likely adapted from Kahneman amp Tversky 1973 a Steve is a retail salesperson 3964680 in the United States b Steve is a librarian 139460 in the United States c Both a and b are equally likely within 5 of each other Approximately 284 retail salespersons for every librarian Steve is much more likely to be a retail salesperson But Steve s description fits our stereotype of librarians Data from the Bureau of Labor Statistics 2000 survey Heuristic 533 Conjunction Fallacy 53 c The probability of being in a subcategory cannot be higher than the probability of being in the category 0 Steve is articulate power hungry wheelerdealer 4 Do you think it s more likely that he is a college teacher a or a college teacher who is also a politician Learning Objective 5 College professors College professors who are also politicians 2007 Thomson Higher Education Figure 813 The conjunction fallacy Probabilities FaHacy 55 0 Belief that the odds of a chance event occurring increase if the event hasn t occurred 0 in slots and roulette o Example of the Intelligence Defining Intelligence 0 Intelligence o Defined as the ability to from experience acquire knowledge think abstractly act or adapt to changes in the environment 0 Factor 0 General intellectual ability by theorists to underlie specific mental Measuring Intelligence Psychometric 53339 o measurement of mental abilities traits amp processes 0 Includes 0 tests 0 Measure skills and knowledge that have been taught 0 Example SAT 0 tests 0 Measure ability to acquire skills or knowledge History of Standardized 55 o Adolph 17961874 0 Measured the height amp chest circumference of Scottish soldiers 0 First to argue for an average man using normal distributions o Sir Francis Galton 18221911 0 First to apply measurement to intelligence 0 First to argue that intelligence ofthe population should be normally distributed 0 Alfred Binet 18571911 0 Developed widely used standardized tests of intelligence using trialanderror method 0 Normal children and children 0 Test stayed popular because it predicted in school to some degree The of Intelligence Testing 53 0 Lewis Terman 1916 0 Intelligence Scale o Intelligence Quotient IQ x 100 a David 1955 o Wechsler Adult Scale loom E W IQ Scores E H n g 013 2186 214 013 l1359l34113l3413l1359l O 55 70 as niggm 115 130 145 0 Very high and very low scores are rare 0 68 of people have IQ between 85115 o Two standard from the mean 0 of people have IQ between 55145 Learning Objective 6 Extremes of Intelligence Mental Retardation a Diagnosis based on IQ and testing IQ 2 or more below mean 0 Adaptive skill deficits o Origination before age o 4 levels mild moderate severe o Mild most common 0 Causes 0 vs biological 0000 000 2 8 i Mentally retarded Severely or profoundly Moderately 2 3 retarded 4 6 retarded 10 Mildly retarded 85 Total population People with mental retardation 2007 Thomson Higher Education Figure 910 The prevalence and severity of mental retardation Extremes of Intelligence Giftedness 0 issues ideals vs practice 0 IQ 2 SD above mean standard 0 leadership special talent o weak socially inept emotionally troubled 0 Lewis Terman 1925 largely contradicted stereotypes 0 Ellen Winner1997 vs profoundly gifted Learning Objective 6 Extremes of Intelligence o and high achievement beyond IQ o Renzulli 2002 intersection of factors 0 Simonton 2001 drudge theory and inborn talent Learning Objective 6 Test Differences 53 0 type c Different tests for different ages 0 But there are also multiple tests o Binet o Weschler Intelligence Scale WAIS o Weschler Intelligence for Children WISC Learning Objective 6 Weschler Test Performance 53 Tasks 55 Picture arrangement Arrange the panels to make a meaningful story L s LR LII Iegt z 1 4 3 5 2 1 3 4 2 1 L LE Object assembly Digit symbol Picture completion Put together 3 Using the key at the top Supp the missing jigsaw puzzle ll in the apprupn39ate eature symbnl beneath each number BlnEk design Cnpy the design shown using another set of blocks What Makes a Good IQ Test o Is the measurement consistent o Results must be repeatable and stable o Low before age 7 o Does the test what you think it measures o Affects the ability to make inferences about the test Test Reliability and Validity RELIABILITY It results fmm One time 39 39 to another H gh Low VALIDITY Accurate Conclusions and predictions High Fair Tests 53 0 Was this a test 0 Elements of a culture test o Items are not reliant on information that is exclusive to a particular group 1 Based more on ability Can IQ Be 53quot a Traditional IQ tests favor white citydwelling individuals 0 Different cultures may have different problemsolving 0 Different cultures stress and therefore teach different types of 0 Child in New York city living in a city loft a Child in the Appalachian mountains living on a farm and as 0 Determinants of Intelligence Twin and adoption studies 0 estimates Adoption studies Environmental deprivation and enrichment o The effect 0 IQ scores increase every generation 0 Interaction o The concept of the reaction range Geneticovelrlap Relationship 100 identical twins reared together 100 Identical twins reared apart 50 Fraternaltwins reared together 50 Siblings reared together 50 Siblings reared apart 50 Biological parent and child lived together 50 Biological parent and child lived apart 0 Adoptive parentand child lived together 0 Adoptive siblings reared together 125 Cousins reared apart 0 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 80 90 100 9 ZDDT Thomson Higher Education Figure 819 Studies of IQ similarity Mean correlation in intelligence OOOO39 J O Enriched Quality of environment for realizing Average intellectual potential Deprived 55 77o 875 17000d 7 7115 130 IQ scores l l Inherited reaction range 0 Measured IQ as shaped by interaction of heredity and environment 9 2007 Thurman Higher Education Figure 821 Reaction range Variables IQ 0 Scores 3 o Expectations for performance 0 stereotypes Stereotype threat 0 Doubt felt about due to negative stereotypes 0 Have been shown effects on performance of African Americans low income populations amp the elderly Negative stereotypes can performance Positive stereotypes can performance Measuring Cognitive Approaches 53quot c Emphasize strategies 0 Includes domains of intelligence 4 Started with multiple intelligences c Bodilykinesthetic intrapersonal interpersonal linguistic logicalmathematical musical naturalist 0 intelligence EQ Stern berg s Theory 55 0 intelligence 0 Internal strategies including problem recognition amp evaluation of problemsolving strategies 0 Requires metacognition 0 intelligence 0 Ability to transfer skills to new settings 0 intelligence 0 Practical application of intelligence 0 Adaptation to an environment States of Consciousness On the Nature of Consciousness 0 Awareness of and Stimuli Variations on levels of stream of consciousness unconscious Sleepdreaming research A family of practices that train to heighten awareness and bring processes under greater control amp waves become more prominent I I I oxygen consumption amp carbon dioxide elimination Possible long term effects but more research is needed Sleep The Sleep Wake Cycle Rhythm Any periodic fluctuation in a organism Rhythm A biological cycle that occurs approximately every hours eg sleeping and waking Biological Rhythms and Sleep Rhythms 24 hr biological cycles Regulation of sleepother body functions pathway of the biological clock Light levels gt retina gt of hypothalamus gt gland gt secretion of Ignoring circadian rhythms Realigning circadian rhythms Sleep rhythm from the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the a summamwhaum Jet lag gm inn Shift work 320 gm E a Belem 1 2 a mum NlnhuahrFllnhl wmnunn an may no Belem 2 3 A quot QM mth znu Fllgm Your Rhythm Your body roughly synchronizes with the 24 hour cycle of day and night through a biological clock called the rhythm What is your rhythm The A Physiological Index of Consciousness 39 monitoring of brain activity Brain waves height cycles per second 1324 cps 812 cps 47 cps lt4 cps a Sleep Measuring Sleep Electrodes measure 1K Len eve muvemems m l l 39 1 Rvgmayemwmm EMG measures l EMG 1musclerensmm quot EEGlhrmwv EEG measures A 5 V2 A camera may also record Presleep Awake alert WM VIN milNM HHllll l wwww 1 Bet waves Awake relaxed hypnogogle stale milWth 39 wh wum mw wm Alpha waves Sleep Stages of Sleep NunHEM Slee 1 stage 1 Wm Wm Theta waves Sleep stageE a W HEM Spindl llurst ill a ctivltvl REM stage WW SIEEFI Stage 3 39 wwwwwww Sl eep stage 4 MIVNM llw uwllll mlrwl Delta waves Sleep ATypical Night s Sleep lli l Typically 45 episodes of 13 E l l sleep per nightoccur Later episodes are longer and farther apart 4 Most quot occurs 12345573 early in the night HUUISDlsleEp 39 WASH llrm15llseep Stage or sleep r Sleep Night Work Sleeping and Health rotating day and night shifts is more dangerous than night work About traffic accidents a year are related Those who drive in the middle of the night take Brief episodes of sleep that occur in the midst of a activity Sleep Deprivation Complete 3 or 4 days max Partial or sleep impaired attention reaction time coordination and decision making accidents Chernobyl Exxon Valdez Selective REM and slowwave sleep rebound effect Sleep How to Stay Awake When Driving 39 Participants drove two hours in a 39 During a they drank caffeine or a placebo ortook a nap 39 Both caffeine and nap the number of traffic incidents during the hour Canine Nap Fiactba CnnEi or Prehealmemmuwi Pastimaimmmau39 2 Sleep Problems difficulty falling or staying adeep falling asleep uncontrollany Affects animals and humans reflexive gasping for air that awakens person sleepwalking Devel dp tol39era39nc e f0 higher doses Increase um menenn Kigherfduulbn Figure 56 11ellicious qele of dependence on sleeping pills The Nature and Contents of Dreams mental experiences during sleep Content usually Common themes Waking life spillover day residue 0 Western vs Non Western interpretations FEESearth an Dreaming Activa ousynthesisrmadel Hobson amp McCarley Astory Is cream to make sense Df Imemal signals The day resldue Shams dreams that satisiy unconsciuus quotEnds a 2m mmquot Higher Eduuimn Figure 53 Three theories of dreaming Altered State of Consciousness or Role Playing a systematic procedure that increases suggestibility Hypnotic individual differences Effects produced through Sensory and suggestions and amnesia Drugs amp Behavior The study of psychoactive drugs drugs Drugs that affect the and bring changes in and other processes A quotdrugquot is a chemical not normally needed for physiological activity that can affect a body upon entering it Psychopharmacology Drugs must cross a in the brain s that limits which substances can enter the brain from the bloodstream I39m sorry but you are ten highlyr charged tun large and not lipid snluhle You cannot I enter the brain To the brain Bloodbrain barrier nrier gt V e W V 7 r d Vesse a Bra in Gerehrospinal How drugs interact with the more dopamine released drugs alter interactions block normal neurotransmitterreceptor binding Wmag fulating the receptions The quotReward Pathwayquot Three brain components Substance Abuse The use of psychoactive drugs in ways that deviate from Psychological When a person uses a drug Need the drug for a sense of and is preoccupied with of the drug it becomes unavailable May occur with out without addiction A state in which continued drug use is needed to prevent a syndrome Substance Abuse The use of psychoactive drugs in ways that deviate from cultural norms Psychological dependence Physical dependence addiction Physical Dependence Syndrome Physiological and psychological disturbances resulting from a of drugs Include for the drug and effects generally those ofthe drug Larger doses are needed to produce the same effect 7 Expectations amp Effects Driginahlgin ist If He prod uction ri h taohta39inable from wwCartoonStoekom The effects of drugs on behavior can be can form by watching react to drugs Drug effects from one to another He s at a vet impressionable agequot Types of Drugs Types of Drugs Alcohol Barbiturates Cocaine Nicotine Types of Drugs activity of the CNS activity of GABA postsynaptic neuron activity ie Amytal quotDownersquot like sleeping pills cause sleepiness mild pleasure poor muscle coordination and lowered mental concentration behavioral or mental activity ie Ritalin quotuppers increase the release and decrease the removal of norepinephrine and dopamine at synapses Drug Classes cont d Induce sleep and relieve pain is an active ingredient in opium and is used in pain relief is derived from morphine but is 3 times more potent Stimulate receptors normally stimulated by the body s naturally occurring painkillers Produce a temporary loss of contact with reality and changes in emotion perception and thought Reduce physiological symptoms associated with are the most typical although alcohol a depressant can have similar effects The Addicte Brain Memory 1022008 Memory Chapter Chapter 7 Outline Basic Processing Encoding Retrieval Systems of Memory Physiology of Memory Your Memory Human Memory Basic Questions How does get into memory How is information in memory How is pulled back out from memory 2002 Prentice Hall 1 Memory putting memory maintaining over time getting information out of memory D 1022008 Process of putting and Retrieval Process of information in memory overtime Retrieval Process of information stored in memory 2002 Prentice Hall M emory Getting information into Memory The role of Focusing on different of stimuli leads to different kinds of codes Different types of influence how well you 1022008 Getting into Memory Levels of incoming processed el different levels Deeper longer lesling memory codes Encoding levels case shallow rhyme intermediate thinking aboutthe mm mm Exampkalqustlollsusedlo Viewquot mill tll applnpllalunmlul litheWaldwmlbnmtayllailcliuxl E Dang mg mid rhyme willi wglgliu xmenm mullEmu mm m 39nnllnlluuimbd wetPl l lim 2002 Prentice Hall M emory 1022008 Enriching linking a to other information at the time of 7 Thinking of examples processin s I erv creation or that representwords t images e remembered techniques to make abstract formation easier to remember teeming Objemve 1 2 a Encoding MN MW my r mbgtn5mr L for organizing inrormation in orderto remember it Encoding Processing imagery Easierrer objects versus girarre Dual theory Form and codes Two codes ory word uses codes 2002 Prentice Hall Memory 1022008 Information Processing information storage in computers N information storage in human memory Informationprocessing Subdivide memory into different stores Atkinson and Model of Memory Milermum aw I Memory Brier ofinformationin original sensory e Allows ler recognition e arg e persists approximatelv second 7 Slightly longer 2002 Prentice Hall 5 Memory 1022008 Term Memory TM Limited about 20 seconds without the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information Limited capacity magical number plus or minus grouping familiar stimulifor storage as a unit Term Memory as quot Memory STM not limited to encoding and visual codes Loss of information not only due to 1986 3 components of working memo rehearsal loop sketchpad Executive wstem Storage LongTerm Memory Capacity Permanent storage memories How is represented and organized in 39r and Scripts Networks Connectionist Networks and Models 2002 Prentice Hall Memory 1022008 Knowledge Understanding what is like or how it works Remember information consistent with Semantic Organization of information Networks Patterns of activation of interconnected units The Fading Some unusual shocking or tragic events hold a special 39 Called memories because the term captures the surprise illumination amp photographic detail that characterize them Why are these memories so easy to recall and both involved in encoding Even memories have errors Getting Information Out of Memory The phenomenon Failure of cues are missing Reinstating the Context cues memories ef39fect monitoring 2002 Prentice Hall 7 Memory 1022008 Cues Provide a But may also lead to memory Did you the word quot quotfrom the earlier list Why The context of the word list implied should be part of the list Memory is reconstructive The ofMemow Memory for an event may include specific t information contex emotions and information that we saw or heard before or after the event effect postevent information 39 ource Inability to determine where you gotthe information Bias Remember information that fits cultural beliefs or makes sense The of Memory likely when You have thought or heard about the event many t39mes The image of the event contains many details The event is easy to imagine You focus on reactions to the event rather than what actually happened Increases although inaccurate 2002 Prentice Hall 8 Memory 1022008 Importance of Memory on Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitnesses are asked to recall events just as they happened a long afterthe actual event not always Factors which influenc Cross identification effect Misleading information Postevent Information Loftus amp Palmer 1974 Subjects saw the same film of a car accident Later different subjects were asked How fast were the cars going when they Loftus and Palmer Results Subjects of speed varied with the verb they got in the question phase of the experiment Subjects who got the verb quotrememberedquot the cars were going Smashed mph Collided mph Bumped mph Hit mph Contact mph 2002 Prentice Hall Memory 1022008 Loftus and Palmer Results Two weeks after the film Did you see the broken note No was present in the original film 34 of reported quotyesquot s Testimony Under what conditions are more suggestible Being very When asked suggestive leading questions questioning Not limited to children adults are susceptible too s Testimony Research by Leichtman and Ceci 11995l Ifasked ifa visitor committed actsthat had not occurred few yearolds said yes of 3year olds said yes When investigators used techniques taken from real child abuse investigations most children said yes leading questions 39 When Sam tore the book did he do it on purposequot questioning 2002 Prentice Hall Memory Why We Forget Encoding failure Memowtrace fades overtime Interference Pro Retro Authenticity of re pressed memories Controversy 1022008 When should we question recovered memories If person says he or she has memories of first Ifover time the memories become more and more Iftherapist used techniques such as dream analysis age regression guided imagery and leading questions Forgetting Similar items with one another interference Learning info interferes with recall of old info What isyourold phone number interference info interferes with new info Confusing recently learned soc ermswith previously learned psych terms Where did you park your cartoday lnotyeslerdayl 2002 Prentice Hall Memory Interference Theow or Example A ExanpleB n 1022008 of Memory obe memory system memunes Med39a nc udesthe the urmztmn uf new u ng term memunes mpurtznt m memuryfuremutmns cortex Memuneszre mstnbuted acrussthe mummy mmm 2002 Prentice Hall mama quuzzA Memory 1022008 Types of Memories mm mm amt Mm WWW r Improving Your Memory information Be aware ofthe position effect practice Organize information and use processing Use and visual imagery Effect Thetendencyfurrecaiiuf first and i 2 ha in surpass recaii ur items in the HHS ii 2002 Prentice Hall 13 Memory 1022008 Practice pmclice Cramquot studying into one chunk oftime Distributed practice Distribute study over oftime with breaks Leads to better an 7 if 7 H quotkliiim Pli nratiirp 5 E in s i m g Massm pran ite io l 2 A H r Pmuiteuizls PM 7 2 D m 2002 Prentice Hall 14 States of Consciousness 9172008 On the Nature of Consciousness Awareness of and Stimuli Variations on levels of iii stream of consciousness if unconscious Sleepdreaming research A family of practices that train to heighten awareness and bring processes under greater control amp waves become more prominent oxygen consumption amp carbon dioxide elimination Possible longterm effects but more research is needed S eep The SleepaWake Cycle 777 Rhy m Any periodic uctuation in a anl39sm 7 Rhythm hours eg sleeping and waking 9172008 Biological Rhythm and sleep Rhythmsazzl hr biological cycles 7 Regulation ct sleepother body tuncuons pathway oflhe biological clock a tightleyels aretina gt hyp thalamus gt f lgnoring circadian rhythm s Realigning circadian rhythm s of gland asecretion Sleep rhythm from the suprachiasrnatic nucleus of the Jet ag gnaw m Shiftwork EN 3 IUDml l x n a nun mmmn Your Rhythm Your body roughly synchronizes with the 24hour cycle of day and night through a biological clock called the What is your rhythm rhythm The A Physiological index orCohscioushess monitoring of brain activity Brainwaves height cycles per second 1314 cps Sleep Electrodes measure Measuring Sleep EM 6 measures E sznilww EEG measures j A camera may also cord 9172008 9172008 Sleep Stages of Sleep Slnnpsmqsl Wm 41w HamWM w Mam waves Sleznnauel 0 M REM snimlElhwsmrmi 1 REMsIAue slmmgez Slzallmael l y D ella waves Sleep ATypical Night s Sleep Typically 475 episodes of sleep per night occur Later eplsodes are longer and farther Mn a 3M early in the night Sleep Night Work Sleeping and Health rotating day and night shifts is more dangerous than night work About traffic accidents a year are related Those who drive in the middle of the night take Brief episodes of sleep that occur in the midst of a ctivity Sleep Deprivation Complete P impaired attention reaction time coordination and decision making accidents Chernobyl Exxon valdez Selective REM and Slowrwave Sleep rebound effect 9172008 Sleep How to Stay Awake When Driving Participants druvetm hours in a 7777 During a 7777 they drank caffeine or a placebo ortook a nap Bath caffeine and nap he nTimberof traffic incidents duringthe 77 hour Sleep Problems difficulty lalling or staying asleep e 39 r Aliens animals and humans n o ail mat awakens person sleepwalking mm Ibismun mm m 9172008 The Nature and Contents of Dreams mental r Content usually Com on themes Waking life spillover day resi due Western vs NonWestern interpretations Research on Dreaming Maisommim H mm M omnim mK nnmmin Munimmmnti mMi mini w nmiw mumunini 9172008 Sensory Aitered State ofCorisci39ousness or Roie Piaying n a systematic procedure that creases suggeslibility individual Effects produced through 7 and suggestions and amnesia Drugs amp Behavior 9172008 I The study of psychoactive drugs I drug Drugs that affect the and bringchanges in and other processes A drug is a chemical not normally needed for physiological activity that can affect a body upon entering it Psychopharmacology Drugs must cross a in the brain39s that limits which substances can enter the brain from the bloodstream msorryhutyou are Bloodbrain barrier How drugs interact with the mom dapummp mqu m t agmm 7 drugs zker mterzdmns W nut summztmgthereceptmns quot The quotReward Pathwayquot Three bmin com ponems The use uf psychuzdwe drugsmwzysthzt dewztefrum Psychu ugm 7 w 7 Needthedrugmr as 7Mav 7A Substance Abuse en a Dersan uses a drug a n52 and svreamuwedthh mm dru hemmes unava ah e murme ut mm z m mm dun mg iv a w W mmmued drug use 5 neededta Drewquot 9172008 Substance Abuse The use of psychoactive drugs in ways that deviate from cultural norms Psychological dependence Physical dependence addiction 9172008 Physical Dependence Syndrom Physiological and psychological disturbances resulting from of drugs lnclud 7 forthe drug and effects generally 7 these or the drug Larger doses are needed to produce the same Expectations Effects t riginwsl V Reproduction rightsobtainable 1mmquot I The effects of W NWCaVluunSluckw drugs on behavior can be can form by watching react to drugs Drug effects one to another is u a rr impmssinnnbl taquot Types of Drugs 9172008 A coho Barbiturates Cocaine Nicotine Types of Drugs 2mm ufthe cm 7 2mm uf GABA neurun zmwty puslsynzptm e Arm2 quotDawners39 we sktvmg wuseause sktvmess mm measure War musde mardmatmn and awered menta mnuentratmn 7 bemwursxumemsxsmvuyuemtshn 7 upper39 ncrezse the re ez e and decrease the remuvz uf nurepmephrwe and dupzmme at wnzpses Drug Classes cont39d i mm mmmwm if sznzcuva rgramammunmmzn Eusa mwmmh ruhwmm mMWWW w mm mm mm i pran amnmwmmanuuwm quotammunng m mmnmmnmmmm 7inductthsmhgm Bmmumumma WM 7 mmmwwaL slummmm znmvu m hrmxu 39 Fug 9172008 The Addicted Brain Therapies htt video 00 ecom video Ia docid I Aszmmrquot 39 Illness2C L quotLquot 39 J39N39uMu UqALZq XCAw Percent of population 28 Percent of population 15 receiving with disorder in one year mental health services in one year Treatment and no diagnosis 7 Diagnosis and no treatment 20 Diagnosis and treatment 8 a 2m Thumum Horror Edumlinn Figure 142 psychological disorders and professionaltreatment Clients Who Seeks Therapy of US population in a given year Full range of problems Women more than men Medical insurance level Demagvaphi vavlable Edutalinn 4 2 3 S Rae a use aiany nulpalienl mental health sewite Mumhev n1 sunlie users annually pet mo persons 3 nm Yhnmann H gharEduca nn Where People Turn for Help counselor Mentalh am Marriage s 5 5 Psycmam SDCIBI wolkuvs e pram slunlls Family iriands m levgv 4 9S Dmars Psychiauiss r Psychulanlsts Selfhaw and Family dnuors suppun gmups Professionals Involved in Therapy Psychologists PhD in psychology conducts testing diagnosis treatment and research Counseling Psychologists PhD in counseling help people with marital family and minor adjustment problems MD does a residency in psychiatry and can prescribe medications Applied Behavior Analysts PhD or Master s in psychology behavioral therapies eg phobias disorders characterized by externalizing symptoms Social Workers Master s degree in social work with special training in counseling Largest group of mental health service providers Direct Care Jobs for a Degree Nonpro dl 0 W H E PSYCHOLOG ISTS WO R Govcrnmenl edng and state I 0 Other educational setting6 Univ whyother 4 5mm D4 rm pygmy mung m um and an m Nisan 5mm ammo 0mm xmm magma 1 sgmmf Sclfrcmploycd I 8 wznm mm mu fnmmy was 2001 Private forpro t or businesleZ Ka quotHelping Professions for a BA in Psychology Affirmative Action Affairs Community Centers Educator Child Care Elder Care Home Land Security amp TSA Office Current Trends and Issues in Treatment care sensitivity PSYC 493 in Spring Deinstitutionalization Revolving door problem Therapies Therapies Psychoanalysis ClientCentered Therapy Humanistic Carl Roger s Humanistic Therapy Group Therapy Behavior Therapies Biofeedback Systematic Aversion and Social Skills therapy etc Cognitive Therapies Rational Therapy Beck s Cognitive Therapy Biomedical Therapies Therapies httpwww learner orqresourcesseries1 38 htm Video 22 Psychotherapy Bottom Line Does therapy Work The Benefits of Therapy Averagc vcragc lInTraned nsvchufherapv person patient Poor Good ou tcomc outcome 30 of untreated people Based on the results of 475 studies Smith et al 1980 the average therapy client shows more improvement than of those in the control group Behavioral Therapies and the Tension Headache Receiver Ampl ier ogessor quotquot1 i quotA Displayslf rquot System signal A i z r i receives r l 39MG ieedback k 39 Sensors on the head detect activity 39 System converts signal to visual display 39 Patient watches the display learnsto relax forehead Behavioral Therapies Systematic Treatment for phobia Anxiety hierarchy Relaxation training 0 Therapy Skills Therapy Evidence for Behavioral amp Cognitive Behavioral Therapies Deemed most efficacious for disorders Anger amp impulsive violence Psychological problems associated with health Childhood behavior problems prevention A considerable amount of evidence of positive effects for a variety of Cognitive Therapies Cognitive Therapy People are taught to think in more adaptive ways Rational Behavior Therapy People are confronted with their irrational maladaptive beliefs quotWho says you ll die Negative event irrational belief emotional consequences Cognitive Therapy Uses a gentler more collaborative approach to cognitive therapy quotWhat is the evidence for this idea Humanistic Therapies Client Centered Therapy Carl Goal restructure self concept to better correspond to reality Therapeutic climate Genuineness positive regard Empathy Therapeutic process a 2m Thurman Harm Edutmm Figure 144 Rogers s View of the roots of disorders GroupTherapy Approaches Group Therapy treatment of several clients in group Each approach to psychotherapy has a form of group therapy eg analysis is used by psychoanalysts Saves money but also effective Group members support each other Many psychological problems are problems relating to other people 0 Therapy Treats the members of a family as an interactive system Evidence for Therapies Evidence for improvements with Young adults with Childhood behavior problems relationships Medical Interventions Drug Therapies Psychopharmacology The study of the effects of drugs on psychological processes and disorders Behavioral The study ofthe influence of on behavior Basic Principles Drugs have multiple effects Effects vary in a manner Repeated administration taking drugs over time often has different effects than acute administration taking drugs occasionally Types of Drug Treatments Drugs Tranquilizing medications used in the treatment of anxiety Trade names Librium Valium Xanax BuSpar Much better than their predecessors barbiturates but dangerous with amp can lead to rebound anxiety Antidepressants Drugs that relieve depression by increasing the supply of norepinephrine serotonin or dopamine Trade names Tofranil Prozac Prozac is selective serotonin inhibitor Positive range of effects makes people more productive confident etc Types of Drug Treatments Mood Stabilizer Calms may reduce bipolar mood swings Trade Name Lithium Carbonate A drug used to control mania and mood swings in people with bipolar disorder at higher doses Antipsychotic Drugs Drugs used to control the positive symptoms of schizophrenia and other psychotic disorders Trade names Thorazine Clozaril Risperdal Good on positive symptoms not negative side effects Drug Therapies Antipsychotic Drugs amp Hospitalization Trends introductmn of son antipsychulic mugs m 0039 400 w 00 m 00 Hesidem patients in mausands 1910 1920 193D 1340 1950 1960 1370 i980 IBSD ear Medical Interventions Perspectives on Drug Therapies Drugs have helped numerous people who once lived in institutions People may not respond well to psychotherapy However some drugs produce unpleasant or dangerous side effects and may lead to a physical andor psychological Thus patients become passive in the healing process Neither psychotherapy nor drug therapy has been found to be generally more Therapy Summary anxiety disorder Personality Theory Research a nd Assessment Chapter 11 1 0222008 Assessing personality Defining Personality The word comes from the Latin persona meaning enduring pattern or reelins motives and Stability in behavior over time and across situation ehaviorai differences among people reactinglo the same situation Defining Personality Personality Traits Personality Traits and dimensions The Model Extraversion Openness to experience Agreeableness 10222008 Studying Personality The Approach The five factor model Psychodynamic Perspective BehavioralApproaches Perspective Biological Perspective Perspectives psychoanalytic theow Structure of personality 7 P easure principle Ego 7 Reality principle Momlily Levels of awareness 39 Conscious 39 Unconscious 1 0222008 Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud s psychoanalytic theory and Aggressmn Anxwely Defense ms mum 2m Junwmmmm mm haulmmquot WNW mm 1 Fund ma epmmm mmr mm M Fnummaddmvenamwdvmmu Defense Mechanisms Projection ttributing vourthoughts feelings or motivesto someone else Divert emotional feelings anger from original source to substitute Reaction formation Behaving exacth opposite of your true feelings Reverting to immature patterns of behavior Rationalization Creating a false excuse to iustifv unacceptable behavior increasing self image by forming with person group 10222008 Freud on Development Stages 39 physical pleasure 39 Psychosexual stages Oral Phallic Latency Excessive gratification or frustration Overemphasis on psychosexual during fixated stage ORAL 02 infant achieves gratification through oral activities such as fee ing t um sucking and babbling Stage Early or delayed weaning leads to talkativeness over eating omnu u u art s alot 3 7 biting sarcasm ANAL The child learns to respond to some of the demands oi souer sum as bowel and bladder control Adults who remain fixated at the anal stage tend to be Stubborn Obsessedwith orderliness Sloppy dlsorganlzed Seeking to avoid discriminallon sullsU S companles we in Remodels mm mm DhyessweCompulsrve disorder 10222008 1 0222008 Stage The Complex 7 Boy s id lmpulses involve sexual deSIre for and deSIre eliminate the Eventually identifies vvith his The Compex 7 Girl has strong attachment to mother and develops envy vvhe s blames her mother for not having a penis Eventually transfer love to Er lelaltuo0cdipllsquot father identifies vvith he 0 If fixated at this stage adults tend to have I l Problems with sexual Identlty Problems with stable love i relationship Period mer annex 1 0222008 GiNWAl quotMun Th grew adalesccm mm aquot old depennrnue na warns w deal mammly wan h eppam sex Evaluating 39 4 Lip Strengths The imponanee or early experiences Spurred other research and theories The The role of Internal Con ld The use of to respond to unpleasant experiences Evaluating 39 39 Weaknesses Violates the scientific principle of falsifiability poor lnadeduate base Theoryis based on retrospective accounts and fallible memories views 1 0222008 Perspectives views Conditioning and response tendencies Bandura s social theory Observational learning Behavior is shaped by models Selfref cacy Mischel s views controversy Sltuatlnnaifannrs etermlnebehavmn ratherthantralts pram imam mantle navy n tsunami vlll DVDnamiif 1 0222008 m hr mam viavmMlna avnM Wham Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives Pros Based on controiied research Major events r39h iife can chahge Cons Overrdependence 0h ahr39rhai research Personaiity not a vaiid Perspectives Carl Rogers s theory e Seifrco cept candmanaiuncandmanai regard andznximv Abraham Madow stheorv of ofneeds e The heairhy personaiity smemm m m m m aVDrlamM mum Arum expznem Cansmulce 5 mm mm we mum uxmam e mmnz lmm39 m Wham unmmamev mm mpnnnnm Imam Sdknnmm um nm mush methzlna sxpeum 1 0222008 m wvawrlam f nwwvmnuna mxmu dmlirii rrvimr rnvirrve w gwfkiivii mml iwnii iafinn rr fr r rrr nmp or rrrirrrrrvrrrr n llii n aur nmuhin r iiriliri rr iiiiriihr m mymllt rrrrrarr u virra ihiml vrsrrrnn Mr rum m l 1 0222008 Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives Pros a Recognized irnportance of suoiecu39veviews 7 Led to sorne effective e Laid foundation for psvcnoiogv Cons 7 Many aspects oftneory are difficult to test a Unreaiistic 7 More ernpiricai researcn needed Biological Perspectives heow Determined bygenes Extraverslonrintroversion Behavioml genetics d39es stu i Heritability estimates The evolutionaw approach Traits conducive to reproductive mun n n em mn awnamilf mmn 1 0222008 Evaluating Biological Perspectives Pros Convincing evidence for influence Extensive carefully controlled researcn ofneuraibrai n patternsand personality traits Cons Too rnocn reliance on estimates Cannot explain all oenavior ino cornorenensive l Personality Tests projective tests Tnernatic Test mm belirre port inventories FactorTrait inventory it s his A simple Rm haltl1inkrblal 5 Mr narrowsii so just aim dawn and reii mewha ckh one suggests to y 39 PEPESido usi lMFRiSSIONS june Sunday 1 0222008 Psychoanalysis Personality Tests Tests Allow people to quot quot unconscious needs stimuli wishes and conflicts onto Atest in which people are asked to report whctthey see I ts ina set olinkb o r r 1 4 M J Psychoanalysis Personality Tests Tests Thematic Test TAT Atest in which people are asked to ake u lrom a set olambiguous pictures Activity 113 1 0222008 We will go over each picture and discuss what you foun Review of TAT There are no right answers 1 0222008 1 0222008 Personality Scales Answer a series of question about self 7 I am easily T or F r39llikemgma TurF Assumes that you can accurately report There are no right or wrong answers From responses develop a picture of you called a profile n rumm personalily t m 1 0222008 Minnesota Personality Inventow Mostwidely used personality instrument rNowtheNWl ClinicalSt settings Measures aspects of personalitythat if extreme suggest a problem 7 eg extreme Longtesls questions Characteristics of the MMPIZ Has several different lmultiphas39cl psychological resslun P Scale scoresindicale how you compare with others Overall asseswenlis 7 Frum lnspectlng prunle uf dlffererlt scales 1 0222008 MMPI Score Profile anmnm i i v lP39lll39llm mull m mmi lrl ym i un tl l f39 str musnmlnni The Model Some version of the actors reliabl appear in many culturescountriesquot may be basic ne t of human However there are some drawbacks to adopting this View of personality theories are better at describing people than em The Model 123pairs or identical twins and 127 pairs or rraternal twins Measured on quotBig quot personality dimensions Results suggest that personality dirlerences in the population 0 r 50 genetically determined Influences on Personality 1 0222008 Evaluating Tests Strengths r Normed againstavariety of sa Allowsyou m determine wnatis uutsldelhe buunds quotnurmalquot m umparlsun m a group Relies on sellrrepun But with cayeats to catcn mples ul different disorders tsuggests some kind of utility Evaluating Objective Tests I Limitations measures Deception Social nav uriliry Particularlyfor tests otherthan Vou re outgoing so 10222008 Bias I Characteristic of almost all personality theoriestests Know the pattern Correlate it to other things to explain where it came from and how it will affect future behavior I Easy to different ways that your personality could have been 20 Sensation amp Perception What is sensation amp perception Detection of emitted or reflected by Done by sense organs Process by which the and sensory information Done by the How does work receptors detect Cause sensory in nervous system to fire Impulses reach the which interprets the signal 6 nlus ellan quotanquot e receplnrs y a au nary I Eyes ears pub ulvanmrv areas m netgy 39ghtsoun 119 int 7 1 r mi FiV rquot 1 3quot sf 5 39 39 zquot x 0 5 39 1 if 4 r 7 1 l Ls Elements of a Sensory System En m i s lnforma tlon o39b ol39r the frrorld V l Attory 1 Receptor J Sensory nerve 4 Thalamus 5 Cerebral cortex trmsmm ers he processes and receivesinpm modi a energy energy intoa coded amivity relays re and produces neual response to the central neural response thasersarlon nervous sysrem and percepcion Sensory and The of sensory responsiveness when stimulation is or repetitious Prevents us from having to respond to information The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation Sensory of the senses Can use to reduce sensory overload The focusing of attention on selected aspects of the environment and the blocking out of others Attention This task called is used to examine Most people do not recall many words even though they were repeated many times Subliminal Messaqes red outt e Frosty bottle How you can use Subliminal Power to change your mind AND your body WITHOUT EFFORT lt AND THAT39S JUST THE BEGINNING Subliminal Powercan also change your innerpersonalitywithin minutes How WOULD vou LIKE A BRAND NEW BODV Subliminal Powercan literally change your physical body without surgery For only 4999 tax amp sh lll lllllal Subquot my Attentional Processes Influence without Awareness Examples Message A stimulus that is presented below the threshold for awareness Tendency for a recently presented word or concept to facilitate responses in a subsequent situation Selfreported mood state Attention in Perception Messages Despite not being aware of the words that they saw those L exposed to words were happier i and those exposed to words were sadder This indicates that moods can be influenced without awareness Negative Neutral Positive Word priming conditions VGFSUS Although subliminal priming can influence and research doesn t support its success in major levels of ZOIImIIlt Accessory Structures of the Eye Cornea Pupil Iris Lens A Crusa39iESecti un of the Human Eye The Hagar Parts uf the Human Eye swim spat Optic nerve Retinal arteries and veins Learning Objective 5 Curved transparent Where protective layer the eye Opening right behind the Black small circle in the middle of the eye Dilates when light is dark Fig 1 View or the human eye Works with the to bend the light rays so that they can be properly focused on the retina A CrossSection of the Human Eye The Major Parts ofthe Human Eye Cornea Fovea Bind spot V Optic nerve Pupillary lt I 4 opening l quotr Iris 1 Retinal arteries and veins Surface on the back of the eye that reads images 39 Images are ipped upside down Recegmr sens Optic nerve bers rods and caries 39 s g Faves pom 01 centrar Yaous L Renna Optic nerve Rellna in the Eye Rods Cones in the Eye In the the incoming stimulus is converted to neural activity responsible for this process Rods Cones Rods and Cones allow sight when light is dim light sensitive Cannot discriminate between Less light sensitive Can discriminate between colors The Lens and the Retinal Image What is a The rods and cones are all around the inside of the eye except for the place where the comes in to take signals So the light images that fall on this part of 0 our eye cannot be seen Aspects of Color Color Determined by the dominant MIXTURES 0F PIGMENTS Intensity of the wavelengths that make up the colors you see Purity of the color Hue Changes Saturation Changes 1 Bnghtness Changes Theories of Color theory Blue Green and Red light can mix to make any other color Doesn t explain afterimages Theory Three pairs of opposing sense cells that inhibit its counterpart Redgreen blueyellow blackwhite pairings Theories combine to explain color vision Same color Simultaneous Color Contrast Gestalt principles describe the brain s organization of sensory building blocks into meaningful units and patterns Perceptual Organization Drawings that one can perceive in different ways by reversing Psychology The whole is different from the sum of its parts Figure and Ground 98 MM Which Line Is Longer AC left or AB right wwwwwwm B Perceptual Urganlzatlon Laws of Grouping Seeing 3 pair of lines in A Seeing columns of orange and red dots in B Seeing lines that connect 1 toZand3to4inC Seeing a horse in D A Proximity BSimilarity DClusure 55 7 3 I n rsz V a a The Gestalt Principle of Proximity Law of Proximity XXXVAVAXX XXXVAVAVA VAXXX XOOOOCX XXOOCXX XXXVAVAVA XXXVAXVAX Law of Similarity Law of Continuity Law of Closure u39 1quot x quotquot 6 1 I Q l quot 0quot 1quot p tquotr39 quot39 39 I 39 39 39 00h 5 d39 quot 5 Depth Perception Visual System I I Stimulus Cues Objective 8 Stimulus Cues for Perception of Height in the perspective Relative Size Height in the Visual Field Objective 8 Objective 8 Interposition Objective 8 Linear Perspective Cues Based on Properties of the Visual System Due to changes in shape of the lens as it focuses L Due to rotation of the eyes so the i i I quott i i image can be quot projected on each H i i retina it 99999999999 eeeeeeeeeee Cues Based on Properties of the Visual System Due to the differences between the retinal images received by each eye Images go to brain where they are compared Perception of Motion Movement of the eyes and head Rapid in the size of an image so that it fills the Tendency to perceive movement when a series of still images appear one at a time in The perception that objects maintain their despite changes in their retinal image constancy constancy constancy Size Constancy Shape Constancy MES q gPLURlu U u L i Brightness Constancy Culture and Depth Cues V Lb ifi f vi fquot WhiCh 39 f animal 39 m is closer to the hunter Objective 9 How do I recognize familiar people oThe brain analyzes incoming patterns of info and compares that pattern to info stored in memory oIf a match is found recognition takes place and the stimulus is put into a perceptual category How Does Recognition Occur Processinq of the stimulus are analyzed and recombined to create the perceptual experience Processinq Influenced by schemas expectations and motivation Top Down Processing The bank robbers rode away from the scene of the crime in their getaway ca My treehugger friend told me to recycle my used soda pop ca Perceptual Constancies The Ames Room A speciallybuilt room that makes people seem to as they in it The room is not a as viewers assume it is A single peephole prevents using Depth and Dimension The use of visual cues to estimate depth and distance A cue involving the turning of the eyes as an object gets closer Disparity A cue whereby the an object is the more different the image is in each retina Depth and Dimension Devised by Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk to test in Provides of a cliff stands across the gap Babies are not afraid until about the age they can Perceptual Set What is seen in the center figures depends on the in which one looks at the figures If scanned from the a man s face is seen If scanned from the a woman s figure is seen Perceptual Set Context Effects l2 The same physical stimulus can be interpreted differently depending on A eg 1 When is the middle 394 character the letter B and when is it the number 13 The World of Illusions The Illusion gt lt Illusion in which the perceived length of a line is altered by the position of other lines that enclose it The World of Illusions The Illusion Illusion in which the perceived line length is affected by cues Side lines seem to seems But the retinal images of the red lines are equal HEARING Accessory Structures and Transduction in the Ear tympanic membrane anvil and stirrup window membrane cells Structures of the Ear Semicircular canals lllllll quotquot39 0 39 Oval wmdow AnVII 39 39 0 O 39 39lll III39 It Illl Auditory nerve III III quotII ll Ear canal 39Eardrurn39 3 Cochlea X IIIIII I Pinna Learning Objectivequot7 The Cochlea Movement of the fluid within the deforms the of the which then converts sound waves into neural activity Objective10 The Chemical Senses Olfaction and Gustation Smell and Taste The Pathway for Olfactory Information Accessory structures opening in the at back of mouth Transduction Receptors make a direct connection to the bulb located in the brain Olfactory information does not pass through Objective 11 The Olfactory System Olfactory Receptor cells Olfactory area Gustation Accessory structures roof of back of a collection of taste buds Psychological and Cultural Influences on Perception We are more likely to perceive something What we can affect what we such as can influence perceptions of sensory information based on our previous experiences influence how we the world All are influenced by our 9102008 Sensation amp Perception What is sensation amp perception Detection of emitted or re ected by Done by sense organs Process by which the an sensory information Done by the How does work 39 receptors detect Cause sensory in nervous system to re Impulses reach the which interprets the signal Elements of a Sensory 9102008 System 57 an ML um mm m 7 m m uWIIu in aid8M mm mm Sensory and The of senso responsiveness when stimulation is repe i ious Prevents us from having to respond to information The absence of normal levels of sensory stimulation Sensory 39 ofthe senses Can use to reduce sensory overload The fucuslng ur the Envirunrnent and the blanking uutufuthers Attention This task called used to examine Most people do not recall many wor s even though they were repeated many times is 9102008 Subliminal Messages How you can usz Sublllmnal Fawn to change your mum AND you body WITNOUTEFFDR H AND quotATS JUST m BEGINNING 5n ll l ul Lrm aisacrmn llwm For only 4999 baXBtsh Attentional Processes Influence without Awareness Examples Message 7 A stimulus that is presented belowthe threshold for awareness 7 Tendency for a recently presented word or concept to facilitate responses in a subsequent situation 9102008 Attention in Perception M ges Desplte othean aware of the words that tho ords were sadder This indicates that moo s ca e in uenced without awarene versus Although subliminal priming can in uence research doesn t support its succ ss in major levels of ZOHmHlt Accessory Structures of the Eye 9102008 A CrossSexxinn mm Human Eye n we rm um Mama 5 fl m w WM mm mm 2nd quotin Leammq obyectwe 5 the eye 39 Opening right behind the Black small circle in the middle ofthe eye Dilates when light is dark 9102008 Works with the to bend the light rays so that they can be properly focused on the retina A Enusadunnlm mn w w 39 r H thatreads images Images are ipped upside down 9102008 in the Eye Rods Cones in the Eye Inthe 39 responsible for this process m3 allow sight when ligh light sensitive 7 Cannot discriminate Less light sensitive Can discriminate b Rods and Cones t is dim between elween olors The Lens and the Retinal Image 9102008 What is a rods and cones u except for the Sothe light images that fall on this part of our eye c nnot be 9102008 Color Determined by the dominant Intensity ofthe wavelengths that make up the colors you see Pun39ty ofthe color 9102008 Hue Changes Saturation Changes Brightness Changes Theories of Color theory Blue Green and Red light can mix to make any other color Doesn t explain a erimages Theory Three pairs of opposing sense cells that inhibit its counte art rp Redgreen blueyellow blackWhile pairings Theories combine to explain color vision Same color 10 Simultaneous Color Contrast 9102008 Gestalt principles describe the brain s organization of sensory building blocks into meaningful units and patterns Perceptual Organization Drawings that one can perceive in different ways by reversnng Psychology The whole is different from the sum of its parts 11 Figure and Ground 6 8 79 mm A 9102008 Which Line Is Longer A C left or A B right rerceptual U1 galuLauUu Laws of Grouping 7 Seeing 3 pair of lines in A 7 Seeing columns of orange and red dots in B 7 Seeing lines that connect I 025nd3104in C 7 Seeing a horse in D 12 Law of Proximity The Gestalt Principle of Proximity 9102008 Law of Similarity gtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtlt XgtltgtltOgtltgtltgtlt gtltgtltOOOgtltgtlt XOOOOOX XXgtltgtlt gtltgtltgtltOgtltgtltgtlt Xgtltgtltgtltgtltgtltgtlt Law of Continuity 9102008 Law of Closure Depth Perception Visual System I I Stimulus Cues Objective 8 Stimulus Cues for Perception of Height in the perspective 14 Relative Size 9102008 omecuve 8 omecuve 8 15 9102008 Linear Perspective Oblectwe a Cues Based on Properties of the Visual System B ng es in shape ofthe lens as it focuses Due to rotation of the eyes so the y r i ima e can pro cted on each N re ina 39 quot Cues Based on Properties of the Visual System Due to the differences between the retinal images received by each 1m x9 9 um my um m mm Perception of Motion Movement of the eyes and head Rapid in the size of an image so that it fills the Tendency to perceive movement when a series of still images appear one at a time in 9102008 The perception that objects maintain their despite changes in their retinal image constancy constancy constancy Size Constancy 9102008 Shape Constancy Brightness Constancy Which animal is closer to the hunter Objective 9 18 9102008 How do I recognize familiar people oThe brain analyzes incoming patterns of info and com ares that attern to info stored in memory oIfa match is found recognition takes place and the stimulus is put into a perceptual category How Does Recognition Occur Processing of the stimulus are analyzed and recombined to create the perceptual experience Processing Influenced by schemas expectations and motivation Top Down Processing The bank robbers rode away from the scene ofthe crime in their vetawa cal My treehugger friend told me to recycle my used soda pop ca 9102008 Perceptual Constancies The Am es Room A speciallybuilt room that makes people seem to as i 3 M they in it The room is not a i j i as viewers assume it is A single peephole I prevents using iL Depth and Dimension 7 A 77 we invoivirig tne turning 777777 77 ortne eyes as an obiect gets eioser 39 Disparity 7 we whereby tne 7 an Object istne more different tne irnage is in eaen retina Depth and Dimension Devised by Eiearior Gibson arid Richard Waik to test 7 7 in Provides 7777777 7 stands across tne a Batiies are not afraid untii about tne age they can Perceptual Set H pi r f Whatis seen inthe centerfigures depends on the 7777777 W in which one looks atme figures e W scanned from the 7777777 77 a man s face is seen e W scanned from the 7777777 is Woman s figure is seen 9102008 Perceptual Set Context Effects The same physical 392 stimulus can be interpreted differently ding on Mieniisiinenoie character the iener B anownen is nine 7 The World of Illusions The Illusion lt7gt gt lt e Illusion in which the perceived position of other lines that enclose it lhe World 01 lllus1orls he Illusion e Illusion in which the perceived line length i is affected by cues Slde llnes Seem to 7 seems fa er aWa e Bullheretlnz Images ul lhereu lines are equal 9102008 Fooling the Eye 1 1 HEARING Accessory Structures and Transduction in the Ear tympanic membrane anvil and stirrup wmaow membrane cells 9102008 Structures of the Ear Learning Ohlectwe 7 The Cochlea Movement ofthe uid within the deforms the which then converts sound waves into neural activity Obledive m The Chemical Senses Olfaction and Gustation Smell and Taste 9102008 The Pathway for Olfactory Information Accessory structures opening in the at back of mouth Transduction Receptors make a direct connection to the bulb located in the brain Obiedive The Olfactory System G ustati o n Accessory structures roof of back of o a collection of taste buds 9102008 Psychological and Cultural In uences on Perception We are more likely to perceive something What we can affect what we such as can influence perceptions of sensory information based on our previous experiences influence how we the world All are influenced by our 25 Chapter 12 STRESS HEALTH amp COPING STRESS AN D H EALTH 3 Psychology The study of the links between psycholo ical factors and physical hea th and What is stress Pattern of responses to soet blocks our assess to a goal stressor 39 Stressors range from to people who talk too slowly Stress is normal and natural Without the experience of stress we wouldn t work so hard to get things 00 rr D Learning Objective 1 Stressful Life Events Life events positive or negative to which you believe you must adjust events Life changes having to adapt Social Rating Scale Life Change Units Chronic stressors Daily hassles Frustrations Conflict Pressure to or conform eve nts Catastrophes Up to of adults in US have experienced at least one major extreme stressor in their lives Examples serious accidentnatural disaster rape or criminal assault combat exposure child sexual or physical abuse andor severe neglect hostageimprisonment torture sudden unexpected of a loved one Learning Objective 1 2 stress disorder Psychological disorder occurring in a minority of people who experience a event Rape war concentration camp Not normal Flashbacks Intense distress Otherwise low levels of emotion Life 0 How many of you have moved in the last year illness in the family Life Life Changes Include any alteration in one s living circumstance that require The Social Rating Scale SRRS includes both positive and negative and large and small events 0 People with higher scores on the SRRS tend to be more to physical illness Chronic Stressors Daily Hassles Frustrations Conflict Two or more motivations or impulses compete Can only chose one of the two Don t want to do either Chose a goal that has positive and negative aspects Mary s Story Mary achieved one of the first scholarships given to a woman to play on a university water polo team She moved across the country to begin her studies at a prestigious school Once there she took on a large load of challenging premed courses 18 hours It is the middle of the semester For weeks she has complained of being extremely quotstressed out She was considering leaving as she doesn t get along with one of the assistant coaches but she likes the academic possibilities here In addition she was given no parking permit and has to drive around for about a half an hour each morning searching for a place to park Last week she went to the counseling center in crisis after a violent date rape Now she is considering dropping out of school Mary s Stressors Catastrophic events Conflict doesn t get along with coach considering leaving Life moving starting college new athletic team Chronic stressors heavy academic work load Daily hasslesfrustration problems Stress Responses response Physical response PhVSiological Stress Response I activate the autonomic nervous system Heart rate increases blood pressure rises breathing deeper and slower digestion stops secretion of adrenaline Stress can provoke which impairs performance stress raises risk of illness Physiological Effects of Stress General Adaptation Syndrome S E a u 5 Normal level 5 of resistance 3 Shock 2 Phase 1 alarm resistance exhaustion Learning Objective 2 Phase 1 Alarm 0 Alarm caused by a sudden activation of your sympathetic nervous system 0 Mobilizes energy in stressful situations So our body recognizes danger and mobilizes for a 39fIghtorfllghtquot Situation System is activated but since you are in temporary shock your resistance drops below normal usually minor and short term May show various symptoms of headaches fever fatl ue sore muscles shortness of breath Iarrhea upset stomach etc Learning Objective 3 Imimed dwlaleml and 13mm promx mum ram adds in blood or cum hm WWI anme mamaquot mm mm and may muse sysmns lnumd metabul um e g mar heartbeaL mp n nn Fm blond Inning Increased pmducuon nl harmed 5mm auds Mood mgm law energy Phase 2 Time to fight the challenge Your body responds to the challenge with an outpouring of stress hormones causing your temperature blood pressure heart rate and respiration all remain high Everything is in full force to help you cope with the stressors As body defenses stabilize the symptoms of alarm seem to disappear The adjustment to stress and the outward appearance of normality are maintained at high cost During this stage the body is more able to cope with the original stress However its to any other stress is lowered Phase 3 During this phase the individual reservoir of resources is becoming The person is especially vulnerable to diseases and in extreme cases collapse and death immune system is being challenged by the longterm stress Example Stress Response Emotional responses irritability anxiety anger annoyance rage grief fatigue etc Can interfere with ability to cope with stress Affects Decision making Now look I had a bad day and I am not in the mood okay Chronic stress Appraisal I Some stress is unavoidably ba I I But a lot of stress is In the eye of the beholder Controllable Or at least an illusion of control Cognitive of stress Stage 1 Evaluate the threat Is it really a threat How bad is it Stage 2 resources to combat threat Can I cope with this Highest stress comes from biggest threats for which we have least resources to combat People in these cognitive appraisals And consequently in their long term stress response Cognitive Appraisal cognitive appraisal makes situation worse thinking Recurring intrusive thoughts about stressors Thinking Dwelling on possible negative consequences of stressors Catastrophic Thinking If I fail the SAT I m not going to get into college and I ll end up with some crap job and I ll have to marry someone who is stupid and ugly and then my kids will be stupid and ugly and my life will just be over Dwelling on po 39 consequences of stressor May increase incidence of depression Stress Response Changes in expression voice etc of stressors Quit job school Take it out on family Coping strategies Defensive coping Constructive coping problem focused Stress and Health Stress and Health some at slr s E ecls on me m Coping processes Illness An aversive state of arousal triggered by the perception that an event threatens the ability to cope effectively 0 Although stressful events have effects on the body the way people cope can health or illness Personality amp Heart Disease Two Personality Types Type Has a chronic sense of time urgency Rushed and hurried this person is always quoton edge Has quick and abrupt Often interrupting others Is very competitive Even in noncompetitive situations Is a harddriving achievementoriented and status conscious person 0 Frequently becomes hostile and Personality amp Heart Disease Two Personality Types Type This person has an lifestyle Is much more able to sit back and relax Less competitive More understanding and Enjoy leisure and weekends more Stress and Health The Physiological Effects of Stress Personality amp Coronary Heart Disease 39 People with Type A personality are 23 75 times more likely to suffer heart attacks or sudden death 39 The components of anger and hostility are particularly Percenlzge nl sulljecls Stress and Health The Physiological Effects of Stress Pathways From to CHD Catastrophes Major life events Microsuessors Type A personality hat Under stress people engage in t are less healthy and more phySIologIcally reactive contribute to coronary heart disease and Heart Disease disorders persistent feelings of sadness and despair 0 A person s chance of developing heart disease is doubled ifthe person has The emotional dysfunction of depression may actually cause heart disease came before the heart attack Stress and Health The System Stress and Health The Immune System B ce mlgrates K1 er T ce Macrophage taps to a blood attacks a tumor and ingests a Vessel 0611 bacterium Learning Objective 6 Stress and Health The Immune System Pathways From Stress to Illness M mm W l Negative emotional states stress can lead to unhealthy behaviors and trigger the release of hormones that suppress immune system activity Stress and Health The Immune System Duration and Illness Volunteers were interviewed about life stressors then infected with cold virus As length of stress increased so did the likelihood of catching the cold Stress impairs immune system functioning Relative Risk of a Cold lt1 16 624 gt24 No Stressur Duration 01 Life Stressor in months STRESS COPI NG STRATEGIES Two general types of coping strategies coping which is designed to reduce stress by dealing with the problem coping in which one tries to manage the negative emotions Thought Suppression Can be maladaptive Djstraction works better Relaxatlon Exercise Inappropriate Coping Learned Frustration aggression hypothesis Defensive coping Stress Coping Strategies Relaxation and the Heart patients were taught to relax their pace A control group received standard medical care After three years relaxationtrained patients suffered 399 9 3935 399 W fewer second heart attacks Cumulative percentage with recurrent heart attacks 4 N m b m m a Contrnl pallents Relaxatmn patients Coping With Stress The quotSelfHealing Personality It acts as a buffer against It is a personality style characterized by commitment challenge and control Sense of purpose in work family and life Challenge Openness to new experiences and change Control Belief that one has the power to influence important future outcomes Coping With Stress The quotSelfHealing Personality and the Risk of Death In Finland middle age men were rated for Six years later higher ratings of hopelessness of All cccc es Ca Iovasculardisease overall death cancer and heart attack Coping With Stress Support evidence shows that social support has therapeutic effects Women with breast cancer who joined support groups lived an average of eighteen months longer than women who did not join these groups Across gender age income level and ethnicity social support lowers rates Coping with Everybody s life contains Cope by being healthy and making adaptive changes 0 Health impairing behaviors increase stress Poor eating habits Lack of exercise Not seeking treatment for problems Coping and Stress Management I strategy I Plan of action for dealing with stress I coping I Confront the problem I coping l Confront the emotions l Memory wame Chapter 7 Outline Basic Processing Encoding Retrieval Systems of Memory Physiology of Memory Your Memory Human Memory Basic Questions How does get into memory How is information in memory 0 How is pulled back out i from memory putting into a form that our memory can use maintaining over time getting information out of memory Process of putting into a form that the memory system can accept and use and Retrieval Process of information in memory over time Retrieval Process of information stored in memory Getting Information Into Memory 0 The role of Focusing on different of stimuli leads to different kinds of codes 0 Different types of influence how well you Getting into Memory 0 Levels of Incoming processed at different levels Deeper longer lasting memory codes Encoding levels case shallow rhyme intermediate hh dngaboutthe deep Depth of processing 92m Thomson Haw Educalmn Level of processing Shoilow processing Infermediote pcocesiirig Type of encoding Structural encoding emphasizes the physical structure ofthe stimulus Phonemic encoding emphasizes what a word sounds like Semantic encoding emphasizes the meaning ofverbal input Example of questions used to elicit appropriate encoding Is the word written in capital letters Does the word rhyme with weight Would the word fit in the sentence streetquot Learning Objective 1 amp 2 Enriching linking a to other information at the time of Thinking of examples processing Imagery creation of images that represent words to be remembered techniques to make abstract information easier to remember Learning Objective 1 2 3 Tho nonmalqu gig I N042 whm was m fl N g E bomber agarn LeifHe 56 D 3 x 3 V315J Yeahi 31Lf1x231 dl 39 7744 H3 httpwawctscomiborderni Encoding for organizing information in order to remember it Encoding Processing Imagery Easier for objects versus giraffe Dual theory Form and codes Two codes memory word uses codes Information Processing information storage in computers information storage in human memory Informationprocessing Subdivide memory into different stores I I I Atkinson and Memory Model of Environmental input Sensory registers Shortterm store 7 Tempurary working memory by r comm processes Heh arsal 5 5 Grading Decimana mm myga Long39lerm store Permanent memory store Heaponsa utpui Memory Brief of information in original sensory Allows for recognition Large persists approximately second slightly longer Term Memory TM Limited about 20 seconds without the process of repetitively verbalizing or thinking about the information Limited capacity magical number plus or minus grouping familiar stimulifor storage as a unit Term Memory as Memory STM not limited to encoding and visual codes 0 Loss of information not only due to 1986 3 components of working memory rehearsal loop Sketchpad Executive system Storage LongTerm Memory Capacny 0 Permanent storage memories 0 How is represented and organized in and Scripts Networks Connectionist Networks and Models Knowledge Understanding what is like or how it works Remember information consistent with Semantic Organization of information Networks Patterns of activation of interconnected units The Fading Some unusual shocking or tragic events hold a special in memory Called memories because the term captures the surprise illumination amp photographic detail that characterize them Why are these memories so easy to recall and both involved in encoding Even memories have errors Getting Information The Out of Memory phenomenon Failure of cues are missing Reinstating the Context cues memories effect monitoring Cues Provide a But may also lead to memory Did you the word quotfrom the earlier list Why The context of the word list implied should be part of the list Memory is reconstructive The of Memory Memory for an event may include specific information context emotions and information that we saw or heard before or after the event effect postevent information Source Inability to determine where you got the information Bias Remember information that fits cultural beliefs or makes sense The of Memory likely when You have thought or heard about the event many times The image of the event contains many details The event is easy to imagine You focus on reactions to the event rather than what actually happened Increases although inaccurate Importance of Memory on Eyewitness Testimony Eyewitnesses are asked to recall events just as they happened a long after the actual event not always Factors which influence Cross identification effect Misleading information Postevent Information Loftus amp Palmer 1974 Subjects saw the same film of a car accident Later different subjects were asked How fast were the cars going when they Loftus and Palmer Results Subjects of speed varied with the verb they got in the question phase ofthe experiment Subjects who got the verb quotrememberedquot the cars were going Smashed mph Collided mph Bumped mph Hit mph Contact mph Loftus and Palmer Results 0 Two weeks after the film Did you see the broken note No was present in the original film 34 of reported yes s Testimony Under what conditions are more suggestible Being very When asked suggestive leading questions questioning 0 Not limited to children adults are susceptible too s Testimony Research by Leichtman and Ceci 1995 If asked if a visitor committed acts that had not occurred few year olds said yes of 3 year olds said yes When investigators used techniques taken from real child abuse investigations most children said yes leading questions quotWhen Sam tore the book did he do it on purpose questioning Why We Forget Encoding failure Memory trace fades over time Interference Pro Retro Authenticity of repressed memories Controversy When should we question recovered memories 0 If person says he or she has memories of first 0 If over time the memories become more and more lftherapist used techniques such as dream analysis age regression guided imagery and leading questions Forgetting 0 Similar items with one another 0 interference Learning info interferes with recall of old info What is your old phone number 0 interference info interferes with new info Confusing recently learned soc terms with previously learned psych terms Where did you park your car today not yesterday Interference Theory or Example A Example B of Memory Medial lobe memory system Includes the Important in the of memories Formation of new long term memories Important in memory for emotions cortex Memories are distributed across the Cerebral cortex Prefrontal cortex Hippoca Cerebellum a 2197 11mm Kate39smum Fig 716 p 224 Types of Memories LONGIERM MEMORY paccEDunAL MEMoRIEE DECLARATWE MEMORIES Knowlng howquot Knowmg mam i7 SEMANTIC MEMORIES EPISODIC MEMoRIEs 15mm knowledge Persona recollec nns Improving Your Memory information Be aware of the position effect practice Organize information and use processing Use and visual imagery Effect The tendency for recall of firstand items one list to surpass recall of items in the of the list Probability M mmmhariug Enginan Em Fnsluan Mme Item in me Im Practice 0 practice Cram studying into one chunk of time 0 Distributed practice Distribute study over of time with breaks Leads to better 50 N w 4 O O 0 Information recalled H O 1 2 3 4 ezwmmnmgnermmm Pradlce tnals Fig710 P 229 Learning Basic characteristics The belief that the universe is lawful and orderly The occurrence of phenomena as a function of the operation of specific variables Objective observation Controlled experiments with manipulation of independent variables Requirement that simple logical explanations are considered before complex ones We should study behavior not for what it can tell us about but for its own conditioning 0 AKA conditioning 0 AKA conditioning 0 Important area in research but underrepresented in research responses called 0 Deals with 0 Responses by certain stimuli 0 Not affected by 0 Examples 0 Salivating 0 Heart rate 0 Emotional responses Important Terms stimulus Stimulus that elicits a response any prior history elicits the response I response Response that occurs when the UCS is presented Important Terms stimulus Stimulus that is initially with respect to the response stimulus Previously stimulus that elicits a response due to pairing with the response Response that is learned Occurs following presentation of the CS The Apparatus Why should we be interested in dog spit First exam Ie of a scientific B 39 39 quotdiquot quotiquot9 p Na utral study of behaVIor stimulus Application to Watson therapy Cancer patient 39 NS 39 UCS NS UCS 9 UR NS becomes CS 9 Advertising John Watson 18781958 Psychology as a Behaviorist View It 1913 Brilliant and unconventional man Psychology should only concern itself with John Watson First psychologist to carry out experiments on J 24hour 24hour rest rest Drops of saliva elicited byCS 2 4 1o 12 14 20 22 Trials a 2m Thurman ngner man Learning Objective 3 Figure sis Acquisition mimicquot and spontaneous recovery More terms Spread of effect of to other perhaps stimuli The more the stimulus context the greater the probability of The CR is made only to one specific CS opposite of l Can be accomplished experimentally by providing stimuli similarto the without the SAL IVA Generalization Tone at which 01139 inal conditioning occurred FREQUENCY Objective 3 Realworld examples of respondent conditioning amp can openers Heart rate amp amp certain songs amp girlfriend s perfume Or amp EXgirlfriend s perfume Heart rate amp Conditioned Applications of conditioning Repeated pairin of an while Simultaneously aVIng the partICIpant engage In a Teach Have participant engage in relaxation response while presenting of the CS Gradually increase the of the CS as the CR begins to decrease Commonly used for Consideration VERY important that the CS amp UCS during this process Contact with CS can be or cm 2 l a Applications of respondent conditioning Used primarily for phobias Expose client to feared stimulus for extended periods of time Uses Can have some very undesirable conditioning therapy Involves pairing an stimulus with a previously enjoyed stimulus Commonly used for different forms of Example My UC5 NS 9UCR QM c5 9CR D ugho Nau Loopholes CS CR History with stimulus quot quot I we of quottreatment alcohol versus quotbar alcohol Example treatment center in central FL Conditioning behavior Behavior by the organism not Affected by Origins Thorndike Watson Skinner Any consequence of behavior that the future probability of that behavior Can be or reinforcement Presentation of a stimulus following a response that the future probability of that response lfthe probability increases the stimulus can be called a quotreinforcer Examples reinforcement ofan stimulus followinga response that the future probability of that response Examples I Any consequence of behavior that the future probability of that behavior Can be or punishment of an aversive stimulus following a response that the future probability of that response lfthe probability of the response decreases the stimulus can be called a quotpunisherquot Examples punishment of a stimulus following a response that the future probability of that response Examples Operant Conditioning Reinforcement amp Punishment Note These are defined functionally not structurally It s not a reinforcer unless it increases behavior Primary amp Secondary reinforcerspunishers Affect behavior without with other stimuli Examples reinforcers Must be with other stimuli to have reinforcingpunishing effects This is a process Examples Increasing behavior Reinforcement Reinforcers can be delivered following behavior on certain I Schedules can be or Schedules can be based on the orthe schedule schedule Examples Schedules of Reinforcement Simple reinforcement schedules produce characteristic response ines mean respon se rates schedu Ies produce more responses than do schedu man 31 g Numberniresvanses m in On an nnmimmuies Fixed m fixed mun elwi Varmhin mun Varmhin mlarval amp Like but don t get confused stimuli occur when a behavior is in the presence of those stimuli amp Stimulus 9 Behavior 9 Reinforcer Example picking up a ringing telephone Acting one way at a party and another with your parents That behavior is more likely to occur in the presence of the stimulus Behavior also occurs in the presence of other similar You will pick up phones with novel rings Ways to increase behavior amp get new behavior increases current behavior allows formation of new behavior Involves reinforcement of terminal response fag ning 739 716 Miniu39fzsl Ways to Decrease Behavior procedures decrease behavior ie quottime out the maintaining reinforcer for a behavior Example Elevator button pressing vending eats your money Punishment v Extinction Punishment Extinction Problems with Punishment Person administering punishment is paired with punishment Leads to person becomes a II II Potential Problems with Extinction Ineffective I THINK I39LL IGNORE J V WE quot jmoxvrys AVD MAvy ll MIG ANDEXTINGWSH CooIE5 LATER 655 I WONDER w EXTINCTION DDN HY WORK an often fail Figure 4 2 An extreme example of why attempts to apply extimti The actual Ieinlorcer for the behavior must always be th Potential Problems with Extinction Impossible try to Ignore Him He s its attention seeking Potential Problems with Extinction Emotion amp Aggression httpvideogoogecomvideoplavdocid 8011124620592732795ampqta ntrum Behavior Modification amp Behavior Therapy Use the principles and techniques of behavior analysis to improve behavior More commonly known as Commonly used to Decrease quotbehavior therapy Increase teach new skills Increase teaching gun safety implementing procedures to improve driving improving workplace safety Help businesses come up increase sales amp worker productivity Explain commonly occurring behavioral phenomena how language works why people gamble why people make particular choices Examine the behavioral effects of Learning Learning that takes place when one the behavior of others lStudies of Children and others model both and behavior Observational Learning The Process of Modeling Involves 0 One must pay attention to a behavior and its consequences 0 One must recall what was observed 0 Observers must have the motor ability to reproduce the modeled behavior 0 Observer must expect reinforcement for modeled act Social Behavior Chapter 15 Social Psychology Topics I Conformity and obedience J Staniord Study in Milgram39s Study I rocesses I Attitudes I Behavior in groups i ocial Loa ng I Person perception J Stereotypes and Prejudice Philip Zimbardo39s Stanford Prison Experimeni u worm quotreSimilummtsnnirpmmmn u Witmumzmmmammunimmi Stanford Prison Study Question 7 How do people react when given particular roles Participants 7 Healthy yog men agreed to stay for 2 weeks aid 7 Randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards Results 7 quot distressed helpless amp panicky 7 G rdsquot some mean malicious and abusive Study was ended after Evaluating Stanford Study I Attributed behavior to influence of social roles I about how to behave I of the situation 392Leads some people to abuse Conformity and Obedience I Asch s studies Group size and group unanimity I studies C39Question Would people obey an authority and violate their own ethical standards I Milram s Obedience Study Method 7 Participants told that the experiment was investigating the effect of learn n e Instructed to another person when an error was ma e d i supposed to be given in ascending sequence I Milgram s Study cont I Results quotl participants gave some shock 7 gave all shocks despite cries of pain I Many participants ut backed down when told to continue I Criticisms of study quotaSubjects were highly stressed Extensive without consent 1 Milgram s Study Factors Affecting Obedience When leaves room Victim right there in room n conflictin wo demands w Nonprofessional VVShowIns obedlonce 654 Peers in room together Milgram Conclusions Obedience is a function of not personality Relationshi to authorit affects obedience Attributions Attribution theory 7 People are motivated to explain their own and others 7 Attribute the behavior to a or disposition 7 external attributions 7Disposition internal attributions 1 Attributions ActorObserver Bias Tendency to attribute other people s behaVIor to factors and our own behavior to the situation attribution error 7 Tendency to dispositional factors when explaining others behavior 7 Affected by culture more common in individualistic cultures Attributions Selfservin g bias 7 When dealing with your own behavior Attribute actiuns m situatlun 7 lfe ted by culture more prevalent in Western cultures Justworld hypothesis 7 Need to believe that good people are rewarded and bad people are punished 7 Can lead to t evictim Attitudes Stable containing beliefs and emotional feelings about a topic Positive or negative evaluations Egtltplicit We are aware e t rn m luence uurbehaviur butva are nut aware and Ambivalence V Strength and accessibility are currelated at w mmn lm m n Factors Influencing Changes in Attitude factors person sending message 7 Credibility 7 Expertise or Trustworthiness 7 Likeability 7 attractiveness Message factors 7 Twosided arguments 7 Validity effect matters 7 Feararousing 39 Factors Influencing Changes in Attitude factors 7 Forewarning 7 Disconfirmation bias 7 of existing attitude theory Classical conditioning pair products with positive emotions Operant conditioning I SverVIew Factors Influencing Attitude Change Social environment 7 Repetition increases feelings 7 Exposure to a particular perspective from an admired person 7 Linking message to good feelings classical conditioning be avior 7 Need for consistency 39 rs when a 7 Cognitive Occu erson ho as a 5e Ief that Is Incongruent with is or her behaVIor Coercive Persuasion or emotional Problems explanatio ers love acceptance attention and other positive things New identity is exhibited based on are reduced to one simple n o en Access to is controlled Conformity in Real Life Jonesville 1978 Branch Davidians Switzerland cult Terroris s Tendenc for all members ofa group to think alike an suppress dissent Pressure tn cunfurm Occurs when need for agreement gverwhelms the need to make The Wisest ecis Ion Can lead to disastrous decisions explaslun Counteracted by 7 Rewards for dissent or critical thinking 7 Basing decisions on majority rule instead of requiring unanimity Social loafing More likely when 7 Members are nut e Wurking ha furtheirvvurk rder duplicates ffurts Wurkersfe luthers are getting a free ride 7 Wurk is Less likely when 7 individuals are held respun ible ach individual must make a distinct necessary cuntribut inn 7 Challenge ermerebrs 39vr 739 Stereotypes DI Beliefthat all members ofa group shar comm n e ositive negative or neutral Helps processing of new information will behave Distorl reality 7 erenees between gruups e Pruduce selective perceptiun e an r enees mmn gruups Prejudice Negative characterized by a strong unreasonable dislike ofa group or its members Origins Memory bias remembering only the negative and forgetting the positive attribution bias Observational learni 9 0 social identity Defining amp Measuring Prejudice Prejudice can take many forms norms against prejudice 7 Report prejudice even if prejudice exists Makes prejudice difficult to study 7 Studies of prejudice Measure behavior other than selfreported attitudes Measure word associations with different target groups Reducing Prejudice Both sides have equal economic opportunities amp power Authorities egalitarian norms Both sides work and socialize together Both sides worktoward a goal 1 Takehome points All humans have potential for good and evil Often depends more on social organization than human No is wholly virtuous or villainous Personality Theory Research and Assessment Chapter M Assessing personality 3 A True mama Heading Defining Personality The word comes from the Latin persona meaning I II Personality An individual s distinct and relatively enduring pattern of feelings motives and Stability in behavior over time and across situations Behavioral differences among people reacting to the same situation Defining Personality Personality Traits Personality Traits and dimensions The Model Extraversion Openness to experience Agreeableness Studying Personality The Approach The five factor model Psychodynamic Perspective Behavioral Approaches Perspective Biological Perspective Perspectives psychoanalytic theory Structure of personality Pleasure principle Ego Reality principle Morality Levels of awareness Conscious Unconscious Psychodynamic Perspectives Freud s psychoanalytic theory and Aggression Anxiety Defense S E Moral imperatives e mm Thomson Hangmanan ID Pleasure principle Primaryprocess thinking 0 m Contact with outside world I PRECONSCIOUS Material just beneath the surface ofawareness UNCONSCIOUS Difficult to retrieve material well below the surface of awareness Figure 112 Freud s model of personality structure 3 x mu 5 1 my 91ml Thurman Hlnmx E ummn Figure 113 Freud s model of personality dynamics Defense Mechanisms Keeping distressing thoughts and feelings buried in Projection Attributing your thoughts feelings or motives to someone else Divert emotional feelings anger from original source to substitute Reaction formation Behaving exactly opposite of your true feelings Reverting to immature patterns of behavior Rationalization Creating a false excuse to justify unacceptable behavior Increasing self image by forming with person group Freud on Development Stages 0 physical pleasure Psychosexual stages Oral Phallic Latency Excessive gratification or frustration Overemphasis on psychosexual during fixated stage ORAL 02 Infant achieves gratification through oral activities such as feeding thumb sucking and babbling Stage Early or delayed weaning leads to talkativeness over eating a lot quotbitingquot sarcasm ANAL 23 The child learns to respond to some of the demands of society such as bowel and bladder control Adults who remain fixated at the anal stage tend to be Stubborn Obsessed with orderliness Sloppy disorganized SacU a En39nl Wu 7 I if 4 Seeking to avoid discrimination suitsUS companies work to accomcidate employees wiih Dbsessivemompulsive dismay Stage PHALLIC 37 The child learns to realize the differences between males and females and becomes aware of sexuality Stage The Complex Boy s id impulses involve sexual desire for and a desire to eliminate the Eventually identifies with his The Complex Girl has strong attachment to mother and develops envy where she blames her mother for not having a a penis Eventually transfer love to quot ErNicc tattou adipusquot father identifies with If fixated at this stage adults tend to have Problems with sexual identity Problems with stable love relationship Period r 39 LATENCY 711 The child continues his or her development but sexual urges are relatively quiet GENITAL 11Adult The growing adolescent shakes off old dependencies and earns to deal maturely with the opposite sex Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives Strengths The importance of early experiences Spurred other research and theories The The role of internal conflict The use of to respond to unpleasant experiences Evaluating Psychodynamic Perspectives Weaknesses Violates the scientific principle of falsifiability poor Inadequate base Based on experiences of a few atypical individuals Theory is based on retrospective accounts and fallible memories views Perspectives views Conditioning and response tendencies Bandura s social theory Observational learning Behavior is shaped by models Self efficacy Mischel s views The controversy Situational factors determine behavior rather than traits Stimulus situation Large party where you know relatively few people ezom Tnmvuarl Ham Edummn Figure 115 Operant response tendencies Circulate speakingto others only ifthey approach you first Stick close to the people you already know Politely withdraw by getting wrapped up in host s book collection Leave at the rst opportunity HM A behavioral View of personality Stimulus context Telling jokes ammunqu Figure 116 Personality development and operant conditioning Evaluating Behavioral Perspectives 0 Pros Based on controlled research Explains different behaviors in different situations I Major events in life can change Cons Over dependence on animal research quotPersonalityquot not a valid Perspectives Carl Rogers s theory Selfconcept Conditionalunconditional regard and anxiety Abraham Maslow s theory of of needs The healthy personality Actual Selfconcept experience Congruence Selfconcept meshes well with actual experience some incongruence is probably unavoidable Actual Selfconcept experience lncongruence Selfconcept does not mesh well with actual experience a 2mm momma my Educnun Figure 117 Rogers s view of personality structure a 2m Thurman may Educmun Figure 118 Rogers s View of personality development and dynamics Fiogressian ii lower needs are saiis ed Need ior sellaclualizatinn Realizaliun oi paieniiai Aesthelic needs Dvdeiand beauty Cognitive needs Knowledge and understanding Reglessinn ii lower needs I Esteem needs are not being Achlevemeniandgalmngoivemgmilan 5mm Belongingness and love n A liailun and atcepiance Safety and security needs Langrtenn survival and sinbiiily Physiological needs Hunger inirst and so form nznnnmmn mgr Ednuim Figure 119 Maslow39s hierarchy of needs Clear ef cient perception of reality and comfortable relations with it Spontaneity simplicity and naturalness Problem centering having something outside them selves they must do as a mission Detachment and need for privacy Autonomy independence of culture and environment Continued freshness of appreciation m 2M1Thnmaun HgnerE ucnunn Mystical and peak experiences Feelings ofkinship and identi cation with the human race Strong friendships but limited in number Democratic character structure Ethical discrimination between good and evil Philosophical unhostile sense of humor Balance between polarities in personality Figure 1110 MasloWs view of the healthy personality Evaluating Humanistic Perspectives Pros Recognized importance of subjective views Recognized importance of self Led to some effective Laid foundation for psychology Cons Many aspects of theory are difficult to test Unrealistic More empirical research needed Biological Perspectives theory Determined by genes Extraversionintroversion Behavioral genetics studies Heritability estimates 0 The evolutionary approach Traits conducive to reproductive Traits W W W Habitual responses 93 Spgci c responses mum Thurman Higher mmquot Figure 1111 Eysenck s model of personality structure Evaluating Biological Perspectives 0 Pros Convincing evidence for influence Extensive carefully controlled research of neuralbrain patterns and personality traits Cons Too much reliance on estimates Cannot explain all behavior no comprehensive theory of Personality Tests projective tests Thematic Test TAT Self report inventories Factor Trait Inventory The 1 Far S1de LAET IMPRESSIONS 2001 June 5 Mia v quotIt s just a simple Rorschach ink him rem Mr Bramwcl SE 1113 calm down and tall me what each an Euggcsm m yumquot Psychoanalysis Personality Tests Tests Allow people to unconscious needs wishes and conflicts onto stimuli A test in which people are asked to report what they see in a set of inkblots Psychoanalysis Personality Tests Tests Thematic Test TAT A test in which people are asked to make up from a set of ambiguous pictures Activity 113 Review of TAT 0 We will go over each picture and discuss what you found 0 There are no right answers quotWhy did I marry him she mm dam Personality Scales Answer a series of question about self Tor F T or F I am easily I like to go to Assumes that you can accurately report There are no right or wrong answers From responses develop a picture of you called a profile glass is half Emp39iy Minnesota Personality Inventory Most widely used personality instrument Now the MMPI 2 Clinical amp settings Measures aspects of personality that if extreme suggest a problem eg extreme Long test questions Characteristics of the MMPIZ Has several different multiphasic Scales thought to measure different kinds of psychological eg depression Scale scores indicate how you compare with others Overall assessment is From inspecting profile of different scales MMPI Score Profile HYPDChondrialis concern with way symmoms Deprgsslnn Passisism hopIslsness NyilBl i uses symmoms m serve problems 9 Psychopathic ds llanCY dvlwgavd 3907 social smudards Mascu I lylammln uy Interests like hoae of mm m 5 delusions Psychasmenla 7 Iwonied gum fulings Schlxaphrenln withdrawn blurrethnughts a Hypemama overactive excued Impu swe 9 Sacha Intraverslnn shy lacks con dence 0 39 2 The Model Some version ofthe factors reliably appear in many culturescountries may be basic component of human 0 However there are some drawbacks to adopting this view of personality theories are better at describing people than them The Model Artistic curious imaginative insightful Efficient organized reliable ethical Active assertive energetic gregarious Appreciative forgiving generous considerate Anxious selfpitying tense impulsive touchy Influences on Personality 123 pairs of identical twins and 127 pairs of tquot fraternal twins WW 1 Measured on quotBig quot 39 personality dimensions mm Results suggest that Agmmnm personality differences in the population are 0 ID 2030 iD 77D ED 50 genetically determined Fralemal wins ldenucal xwms Evaluating Tests Strengths Normed against a variety of samples Allows you to determine what is outside the bounds of normal in comparison to a group Relies on selfreport But with caveats to catch Elevated scores on MMPI correlate to a variety of different disorders suggests some kind of utility Evaluating Objective Tests Limitations measures Deception Social Response sets eg quotnay utility Particularly for tests other than You re outgoing so Bias Characteristic of almost all personality theoriestests Know the pattern Correlate it to other things to explain where it came from and how it will affect future behavior Easy to different ways that your personality could have been Psychological disorders can affect persons of any age race sex religion or income Prelecture Instructor s Guide l iii 1 Mental illnesses are not the result of a personal weakness lack of character or poor upbringing Why should I care Because understanding of mental health issues brings awareness to the community and our surrounding 0 We will become a society that is accepting of others who do not fit our idea of a perfect population Myths of Mental Illness Mental illness is caused by bad parenting Fact Most diagnosed individuals come from supportive homes The mentally ill are violent and dangerous Fact Most are of violence People with a mental disorder are not smart Fact Numerous studies have shown that many have average or above average intelligence Poetry Fiction Nonfiction Theater Social sciences Social gure Social activism Natural sciences Public office Military Music performance Musical composing Sports Exploration Business Art Architecture Creativity and Mental Illness 20 40 EU 80 100 a Percentage What are some possible reasons that the rate of mental illness in general is slightly higher among those in the arts than those in other professions Availability Heuristic We make a judgment based on what we can remember rather than complete data In particular we use this for judging the frequency or likelihood of events Various factors can affect availability MORE NAMES FOR MEN FEMALE NAMES WERE MORE CURRENT High profile or stereotypic views of persons with mental illness are often the EXCEPTION not the rule Defining Normal and Abnormal A Psychological Disorder is a condition in which a person s thoughts feelings or behavior is judged to be Three criteria The person experiences significant pain or distress Their behavior deviates from acceptable behaviors for that society Their everyday behavior is maladaptive Psychological Disorders 4 Models of Abnormality Model Mental disorders are caused by biology and can be treated medically Historical Hippocrates 460 BC four humors lmbalances of bodily fluids Yellow bile Phlegm Blood amp Black bile Modern Brain treatment drugs brain surgery etc Models of Abnormality Model Mental disorders are caused and maintained by one s life experiences Death of mother before age 7 doubles risk of depression Model Psychological disorders are influenced by culture Poor and unemployed are more often depressed US troubled teenagers get into fights take drugs Thailand troubled teens sulk go quiet amp sleep Eskimos experience Pibloktoq intense excitement followed by seizures and 12 hr coma Anorexia nervosa is uniquely Western quotSynthetic Modelquot of Mental Illness Mume Naming Causes Gamma M Mr gammyng F V F I r E v r v v v v V min 5mm and mm h h m y n Mind mam u m M mm mm mm MMquot mquot mg u i e Unique Person ln 3 Speci c Social World An individual39s behavior in relation 0 Ihe peonlel places summons and olher aspecls of his or herenvlronrnenl Speci c Mental Illness schizuphferlla personality dlscmers 7 v Common Psychological Disorders Disorder Frequency Male Female Substance abuse 5 More common for men Anxiety disorders 19 About 23 disorders 718 About 12 Antisocial 13 More men than personality women Schizophrenia lt 1 Psychological Disorders Diagnosis Diagnosis The process of identifying and grouping mental disorders with similar symptoms Acronym for the American Psychiatric Association s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Edition Originally 1952 with 60 disorders today 410 Beware medical students syndrome availability heuristic Five Axes Axis I Clinical Syndromes Axis II Disorders or Mental Retardation Axis III General Medical Conditions Axis IV Psychosocial and Environmental Problems Axis V Global Assessment of Functioning Anxiety 1 disorder Acute fear helplessness hopelessness Periods of acute terror Shortness of breath irregular heartbeat unreality clammy sweat feel like going to die Anticipatory anxiety fear of having attack Attacks are embarrassing prefer to avoid situations 31 men 19 women Medical Model Appears to be inherited Treatable with drugs Psychological model 1st attack usually occurs after severe illness or other trauma amp become anxious around cues associated with that event Anxiety 2 Anxiety Disorder quot Free floating anxiety evoked by nothing in particular 39 Causes difficulty making decisions The common cold of psychiatry Excessive worry or anxiety about multiple issues which lingers six months or more can indicate generalized anxiety disorder Anxiety 3 disorders Fear of Agoraphobia open spaces Social phobia other people Specific phobias fear of snakes spiders darkness heights etc Learned via classical conditioning or vicarious conditioning 0 Biological basis more likely to fear snakes than cars Anxiety Disorders Frequency of the Most Prevalent Simple Phobias Simple Bugs mice 739 Phobia An snakes bats Y intense Eights irrational fear Water of a specific object or swim Situation Clnseti places Percentage reporting an Severe M ot Severe 3 Classical conditioning Acquisition of phobic fear b Operant conditioning Maintenance of phobic fear negative reinforcement e 2on1 Thmnmn Hignec Education Figure 134 Conditioning as an explanation for phobias Anxiety 4 Obsessivecompulsive thoughts that will not go away dirty Compulsions behaviors one must keep performing washing hands Compulsive behavior defends against anxiety typically cleaning Obsessions fearuncertaintydoubt Anxiety will do something terrible rarely do have heart attack wet self Anxiety Disorders Social Phobia An intense fear of situations that invite public scrutiny Socially phobic and non phobic adults prepared a speech Both groups showed increased heart rate in anticipation of the speech but those with social anxiety react more strongly Hnnn Ram in bpl n 100 I Easdine chipanun Planning Phobias Spench Phobias Controls Learning Objective 3 Anxiety Disorders Phobias 70 i 0 However only 6 l those with social i 50 phobia reported a l feeling more 0 l anxious 3 m Basehne Anticipation Speed Phobias Cnnruls Anxiety Disorders In uences 0 Three findings from cross cultural comparisons are Anxiety is universal and is exhibited by the same bodily reactions Culture influences the cognitive component of anxiety ie what people worry about and their beliefs about the causes of it Treatment needs to acknowledge cultural diversity Disorders Somatization Disorder Conversion Disorder Hypochondriasis Etiology of somatoform disorders Cognitive factors Personality factors The sick role Dissociative Disorders Dissociative amnesia and fugue Dissociative disorder Etiology severe emotional trauma during childhood Controversy Media creation Mood Disorders Major Depressive Disorder Characterized by sadnessdespair feelings of worthlessness and low selfesteem Depression is universal Depression rates are on the rise Women are 2x more likely to seek treatment Some eople get depressed on a seasonal baSIs easonal Affective Disorder SAD Depkressive episodes often last only a few wee s Dysthymic Disorder Chronic state but not severe enough to be claSSIerd as major depreSSIon What is Depression is a medical issue that affects a persons mood to be down blue andor fed up Depression is the most common mood disorder affecting approximately 20 million people each year Signs and of Depression Fatigue or loss of energy Thoughts of death or suicide including suicide attempts Feeling guilty hopeless or worthless Difficulty concentrating remembering or making decisions Persistent sad anxious or empty mood Sleeping too much or too little odd time of waking Reduced or increased appetite which results in weight gain or loss lrritability or restlessness Triggers Evidence that some people have a genetic predisposition to major depression but not everyone with a family history develops depression Some life event that may trigger episodes of depression Death of a one Major loss or change Chronic stress Alcohol and drug abuse Heart disease and cancer medications IncreaseI Reduced r I t TE 1 0f sen lnntyto serotonin ltI 225312quot 9 res n lum levels Oversli I led stress hormone produclion uraired sleep patterns Over dreaming 39 reiness or Innaired RmFTIigss exhaustion w gt motivation eupention 39 39 9 Impaired basic nee s relationships exercise goals elm nepressive thinking styles Feelings of hopelessness and anxiety key oath I Ran am Mood Disorders Depression Ages of First Depression is seldom ms 7 W identified before adolescence m 39 Rates of depression ms A increasethrough adulthood N X It is most commonly diagnosed in middle age thahllltyofnnset First onset of depression is rare among the elderly l 21 31 o7 57 m 77 av Agelvears rmnales Males Mood Disorders Styles and Depression Explanatory styles among first year college students Two years later those with a negative style tendency to attribute negative events to factors that are internal stable and global were more likely to experience depression Percentage with depressive disorder 39 Major Minor depression depression I Positive explanatory style I Negative explanatory style Mood Disorders The Vicious of Depression Depression can lead to behaviors that cause social rejection which worsens depression Learning Objective 6 Mood Disorders amp Roughly one million people worldwide commit suicide each year Women are three times more likely to attempt suicide but men are four times more successful About 75 of suicides are committed by people who suffered from depression The single best predictor is a sense of hopelessness What is Mania Mania is part of a condition called bipolar disorder also known as Bipolar disorder usually causes a person s mood to alternate between symptoms of depression and mania a heightened energetic state This mood disorder affects more than two million Americans Signs and Symptoms of Mania Increased physical and mental activity amp energy Excessive irritability aggressive behavior Decreased need for sleep without experiencing fatigue Exaggerated optimism and selfconfidence speech and thoughts flight of ideas Impulsiveness poor judgment Reckless behavior erratic driving sexual indiscretions spending sprees Grandiose delusions Depression Bipolar Disorder Formerly known as Disorder One or more manic episodes followed by depression Mania mood elevated to point of euphoria Not as fun as it sounds Can t sleep amp need to get lots of things done Affects 12 of population both genders equally Cyclothymic disorder Bipolar disorder with chronic but relatively mild symptoms What Causes Mania The Symptoms of Schizophrenia Incoherent Thinking word salad False beliefs influence eg thoughts broadcast in public grandeur eg President King etc persecution Hallucinations Sensory experiences that occur in the absence of actual stimulation auditory voices The Symptoms of Schizophrenia Disturbance of Affect flattened blank expression exaggerated laughing inappropriately etc Behavior Withdrawal Parroting Lack selfinsight quotOnly sane person in a crazy world of Schizophrenia Disorganized Exhibit signs of illogical thinking and speech lack personal hygiene Catatonic Exhibit extremes in motor behavior Paranoid Delusions or hallucinations often include extreme suspiciousness and hostility Undifferentiated Do not clearly fit into a type Residual Experienced prior episodes of schizophrenia but are not currently exhibiting symptoms Types of Schizophrenia Symptoms cognitive emotional and behavioral excesses hallucinations delusions thought disorders and bizarre behaviors better prognosis Negative symptoms cognitive emotional and behavioral deficits apathy flattened affect social withdrawal inattention and slowed speech or no speech worse prognosis What Causes There is no one cause to this complex and puzzling illness but it is believed that some combination of genetic biological virus bacteria or an infection and environmental factors play a major role There is currently no reliable way to predict whether a person will develop the disease Prenatal viral infection Prenatal malnutrition Obstetrical complications Other brain insults a my mumquot Highs Edumnn Figure 1515 The heurodevelopmemel hypothesis of schizophrenia 5 mm Thommn mm Educllmn Figure 1313 The dopamine hypo lesis as an explanation for schizophrenia From The Looks of It Schizophrenic brain Normal brain The risk of developing schizophrenia in one s lifetime increases as the gene c relatedness to a person with schizophrenia increases Why isn39t risk for identical twins 100 Why is it 2 for a spouse Relationships and Schizophrenia Relationship l antic al twins Dimming nthm schizophrenic parents Fraternal twins D sipring nf one schizuphmnm parent Sibling Nephew or niece Spouse U nrelated person Genetic Ire latedng 1 1 UD 551 50 5 lm 25 1 ME Hi k 43 45 17 17 5 4 2 1 With all three ofthese illnesses treatment with the right combination of medications andor therapy can help stabilize the moods that interfere with a productive life Environmental Fit amp Recovery We may operate on a continuum of mental health and adaptive functioning is related to the quotfitquot between a person39s resources and the demands of the environment Llwl of I39Iallil39l ll What Ihe loam can achieve with 533ile lam of proximal dmlopnwm p Scaffolding i occurs through hum quotm 5 at What 13 hame OW be able to achieve independently Whal the learner can currently P achieve independently erdnn Laval of competing Eating disorders Severe disturbances in eating caused by preoccupation with weight and unhealthy cognitions about eating nervosa Fear of gaining weight Disturbed body image Refusal to maintain normal weight Taking dangerous measures to lose weight Bulimia nervosa Habitually outof control overeating followed by unhealthy compensatory efforts laxatives exercise vomiting Binge eating disorder Out of control overeating but NO inappropriate compensatory behaviors Which image is your ideal for your gender Anorexia39 Prevalence rates of eating disorders are diagnosed in females and anorexia accounts for about half of these cases about 5 million in US have an eating disorder IWomen lt 35 I Men lt 35 Women 35 l Men 35 Patrick amp Stahl 2008 WVU data Chapter 2 The Research Enterprise in Psychology Looking for Laws The Scientific Approach to Behavior Basic assumption events are governed by some Goals Why Do Research Common sense is the collection of prejudices Common sense acquired by age eighteen Albert Einstein Is not enough bias Tendency to believe after learning an outcome that one would have it Example effects of absence on love We tend to think than we do Prediction of our own behavior Examples of overconfidence Word search In reality most participants took 3 minutes Prediction of social behavior Vallone 1990 Students who felt that they could predict their behavior with 84 confidence were correct only 71 of the time Prediction of your behavior is the only way to really know Features of Psychology Research hopefully Research questions based on with speci c refutable more on this later System of used to explain a series of observations Speci es relationships among and are de nitions define terms in hypotheses by specifying the for observing and measuring the process or phenomenon Clarifies exactly what is being studied Problem with Precision Often very dif cult to achieve Especially with applied research Lots of extraneous variables that are dif cult to control Example Positive interactions with peer improves selfesteem Potential Scientists do not accept ideas on faith or authority means treating conclusions both old and new with caution Example Claim People emit auras which can be seen by those trained to do so Test Skepticism Science v false science Characteristics associates itself with relies on and accepts sidesteps Does not make refutable testable predictions dangerously reduces complexity to to a consumer society Critical Thinking Zodiac Signs Astrologers say that behavior can be predicted by zodiac sign Testable hypotheses Zodiac Personality Characteristics Correspondence Reliance on evidence A scientist relies on evidence to determine whether a is true Evidence is evaluated based on accepted standards Willingness to make risky Principle of A scientific theory must make predictions enough to con rm and or disconfirm the theory that is the theory must predict not only what will happen but also bias Tendency to look for or pay attention only to information that a Hypothesis I Falsifiible quotRiskyquot Prediction I Possible Outcomas I Condusionl Anxious people ale more 4 Supports hypothesis Misery loves 4 When people are anxious vmpanyquot tlieyye mme likely to want to likely to wait with niheis 39 DUIEVS in the Same 5a 5 ati n situation Anxiuus people am more a Refutes likely to want to he alone hypothesis Anxiety has no effect a Refutes on behawur hypothesis 391 Hypnihesis I Nonfalsifiable Prediction 1 Possible Outcomes Conclusion Dowsing gt Dowsrls will valiany nd Dowsers nd Walsh gt Supports ievea wateriunless the planets are hypothesis subterlanean misaligned observes give Dowsm d not nd gt gamer mud waterquot i 39 5 etc water a bad v thatresultssuppotl hypo thesis anyway Scientists must be willing to tell others where they got their ideas how they tested them and what the results were Peer review publishing and replicating research gives science a built in system of Be willing to let go of a that you have worked very hard on when it is by empirical evidence General Research Process Find a topic of interest Review Allows generation of better hypotheses Make sure no one has done what you re interested in Develop your and procedures Formulate Design the study Undergo Human Institutional Review Board IRB Animal Institutional Animal Care and Use Committees Collect and analyze Write submit amp publish Scientific Method in Psychology Careful of behavior Can t observe everybody whole Select an unbiased Conduct Ask everybody the same questions Same experiment etc Critical thinking Focus of Studies Measurable conditions events characteristics or behaviors Manipulated and assessed in scienti c studies Question What is the effect of on Table 21 Key Data Collection Techniques in Psychology newwon Questionnaire Examination of The Manuel archlwal records medical legal educational and business records nrha ran u nrnnnmlr a 2m Thurman Haney Edumfmn Table 21 Key Data Collection Techniques in Psychology Looking for Causes Research manipulation of one under conditions so that resulting changes in another can be observed Detection of variable manipulated variable affected by manipulation How does X affect Y X Variable and Y Variable Identifying IVs amp DVs Which is the best method of treatment for depression cognitivebehavioral therapy drug treatment or no treatment control Is it better to cram for a test massed practice or better to s aceoutquot our studying distributed practice w en trying to remember information for an exam Does the number of people resent affect the likelihood that someone will elp another person in need ls overall health in uenced by one s deepest thoughts feelings and attitudes about coming to college Quick Quiz Professor Zappy wants to study the effects of shock on student learning The dependent variable is Shock Student learning Professor Zappy None ofthe above DOW Experimental and Control Groups The Logic of the Scientific Method group group assignment Manipulate variable for one group only Resulting differences in the two groups must be due to the independent variable and variables Hypmhesis Anxietyimeases desire m affiliate Random assignment Manipuiatinn nf independent variable Measummenl 0 dependent variahk sldn mnclu Amish dues irciease desiie a aiFliate bum Thmlml Hum Printaimquot Figure 24 The basic elements of an experiment Experimental Designs Expose a group to two conditions Reduces variables Manipulate more than one variable Allows for study of interactions between variables Use more than one variable Obtains a more complete picture of effect of the independent variable conclusions about Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Research be drawn nature of experiments and issues The Concept of Correlation of relationship of relationship Correlation Correlation and Correlation and Posltlve correlation Negative correlation gh scores on X 39 39 and Low scores on X are associated with low scores on M X Y X High College High allege Absences Ahsences school GPA school GPA scores GPA GPA a mu mmquot Haw Eduutmn Figure 26 Positive and negative correlation 39 39 39 Y and low scores on Xare associated with high scores on Y scores Correlation and Causation Correlation shows the strength of the between two variables A correlation between two variables does not imply that one variable the other Correlation mean causation Correlation Coefficient Positive Correlation X X SAT Score X X x X First Semester GPA Correlation Coefficient Negative Correlation X X Amount of X X X alcohol X X consumed during X nals week X X First Semester GPA Correlational Research Hours of X X Violent TV Hits at Recess com gt health Researchers ol Columbia University and Iho New York Slale Psychialric Inslimle tracked more IIwn 700 bays and girls over 17 years The Iollowing shows daily number GI lelevisian viewmg or mean 19 IA and II percemage quggressivc acls lIven committed al mean age 16 or Swdy Graup Less than 1 hour 1 In 3 hours 3plus hours ASSAUlT OR PHYSICAL FIGHTS RESULTING IN INJURY 89 19 275 31 A 7 FemGIcs 23 36 A 93 33 TaiaI 57 5393 1811 6 253 ROBBERY THREATS TO INJURE ANOTHER OR WEAPON USED TO COMMIT CRIME Me as 39 39 39 FemoIcs TaIaI 34 96 146 ANY AGGRESSIVE ACT AGAINST OTHERS MD as 89 391 325 339 452 Females 23 96 118 RS 127 TOICII 57 K 225 5 288 96 Scmvr wow 5 1 IL m march 2002 What was that study Tilth 4 Conclannns between mcdu luhxls and parental hmns and uumrms w Nka Trail Arguman Physical Grades hosullty39 with teachers ghts Amnum variables Amount urvidcu yum play 020 my Amuum nl um watching TV A 011 4129 010 lt3 lquot 7019 mmmt ormndmg for plenum 43026 Violent content vzu39mhks lecm wdm game cxposurc MI 010 33 41339 Prcl39crmd 39n39olcnoc in nan gunai 031 025 036 439 w prcrcmxi violentz compared to 2 at 3 years ago 023 me my 14 Parental invalwzmcm scale 4314 702quot 41W 027 39400 mac05 quotpai li p But yet D 4 firm 2 a1 Journal 9f m nbmme 7 2mm 5 2 F m Correlation and Causation Parenting Practice m Correlations The perception of a relationship where Examples Sugar makes children hyperactive Getting cold amp wet will make you sick Related to perception of What are the odds of being dealt J hearts Q hearts A hearts K hearts 10 hearts 9 spades 3 diamonds 5 clubs 8 clubs 6 hearts One reason why we can t rely on anecdotal evidence Methods Methods used when a researcher cannot the variables under study observation Allow researchers to describe patterns of behavior and discover links or associations between variables but causa on mm mzlho bamplr mm museum EXDEV39IIEM anim i minim piuimmimim anliwdsimiims nn indunlr eil minimum mammmnma nkuani vii omiri wiiibleumei immwuimui imamism mmmamiui nie uHimMialm miuni mm ii ahumcamampmb iaailini pizkludl mn llinnsimee I eivuyeisian 5 Wenwuinnshps an mam whemz zwmms mm In a immninl iiumi39qlis rm in a epemieni imam s iuillnil mm Niman mu ulduLmalv Vuunwcra39 mm Minimmmi a m mlllomnuin nroianphbseivalinn a lizuiuginndn ng mm whth di m numr un tumlimiia iv39il asl ohmInd umoblmeY ma quotmm mm Dhsnnmua my mini m mimnlliliui Elma usearziiesiimmim imizimnis imviw a min Yhmmn I iqmr mum mniieammsims m i up mnmusmmiin mnxlnthusenr mama st mumi mm mm uesiinnna39le mi uk hE Munmazai smna oiammiskm minim iiuinuw n1 imam imiinr Ml immmai summmwamii mmlnvhwumsni r194 lns ewhil we angmiieumpeiiini upmunxunisen ilmm iuixmwwun mum a imrv VIM H mm iaimsaaxaun Suli mil aho en iiiizuiimism unnliihln an m asmisai maviur munmi namiiiun veiaimiyiasiimiim uuiaesmixiiniu samnmimmmu ilswnmsmmlma Buses am wish iii Vi in Figure 210 Comparison of major research methods Evaluating Research Methodological Pitfalls Distortions in Social the bias effects data bias set bias solution Ethics of Research The Ethics of Studying Humans consent Freedom to at any time Minimize Keep data If is necessary debrie ng must occur A P A E t h i c a l A subiect39s participation in research should be voluntary be coerced into participating in researchThey should be 4 might be expected to in uenge theirwillingnessto couperr ate Furthermoret eys oul be permitted towithdraw from a study at anytime ifthey so desire Guidelines f o r R e s e a r c h Subiects rights to privacy should never be violated Infor study must be treated as highly confidential and should he er 39 ofthe participant Harmful or painful procedures imposed upon animals 2 i 5 Fmrharmnm mill in cleaning ham Tlm 39 emotional discomfort are largely prohibited However procedures that carry a modest risk of moderate mental discomfort may be acceptable 6 rim earrhAr is required to explain and correctanv misunderstandings feeding and so forth Prior to conducting studies approval should be obtained m t r e u r rately and raw data should be promptly shared with other 39 39 39 39 pa uuieu in ueurleriiig a 2on7 Yhommn Hroner Educutian Figure 212 Ethics in research The Ethics of Studying have always been used in a small percentage of psychological studies To conduct basic research on particular species To discover practical To study issues that cannot be studied experimentally with To clarify questions To improve Ethics of Studying IACUC Reviews all procedures to be conducted with animals Must use the quot animal species possible Cell cultures Rodents amp birds Larger mammals dogs amp cats 9 apes Ethics in Psychological Research Do the Ends Justify the Means The question of The question of Controversy among psychologists and the public Ethical standards for research the American Psychological Association Ensures both human and animal subjects are treated with dignity Chapter 2 The Research Enter rise in Ps39 choloquot 8212008 Looking for Laws The Scienti c Approach to Behavior Basic assumption events are governed by some Goals Why Do Research rnnn sense 5 tne Common sense Alben Einstein Is not enough bias 7 Tendency m behave after earmng an nutcume have n tnat une qud 7 EXamp e effects ufabsence un uve 7Wetendtutmnk7 7 imam We do 7 Predmtmn ufuur uvvn behavmr 8212008 Examples of Ward searen 7 n veamy mus1 pammpamsmuk mmmes Predmtmn uf suma behavmr VaHune man 7 Smdemswnu VthaHhey mum pvedm hew benawuvwnn 84cun denceweve tuned Emmaa Dune nme Predmtmn ufyuur behavmr 7 7 sthe un ywaym veaHy knuww Features of Psychology Research hopefully Research questions based on i with speci c refutable more on this later system of 7 77 senes ot oBseiyations 7 used to explaln a denne tenns in hyputheses py speeitying tne 7777 77 77 DrDbSENlrlg and measurlngthe pmeess pi Enumenun e Clannes exactly Wnat is bElrlg studled 8212008 Problem with Precision Often very dif cult to achieve 7 Especlally vyitn applied researen e Luts pt extraneuus yanaples tnat are dlfflculttu euntrul Tpus 777 itiye inteiaetipnsWitn peei impipyes seltresteern e F39utentlal 7 7 Scientists do not accept ideas on faith or authority means treating conclusions both old and new with caution Example 7 Claim Peuple Emlt auras wnien can be seen by thuse trained tn dd su est 777 Skepticism Science v false sciencequot Characteristics 7 assu F 77 uesnutmakevemtable teslablepvedlctluns e dangeruusly reduces Bump EXlty m 7777777 741 a unsumer sumety 8212008 Critical Thinking Zodiac Signs Astrologers say that behavior can be predicted by zodiac sign Testable hypotheses Zodiac Personality Characteristics Correspondence Reliance on eVIde nce A scientist relies on evidence to determine whether a is true Evidence is evaluated based on accepted standards 8212008 Willingness to make risky u Principle of e A scientific theury must make predictiuns 7 Enuugh m cun rm and ur discunfirm the theury that is but alsu 7777777 7 bias 7 Tendency m luuk fur ur pay attenuen unly m infurmatiun that num Mm Scientists must be willing to tell others where they got their ideas how they tested them and what the results were Peer review publishing and replicating research gives science a built in system of Be willing to let go ofa that you have worked very hard on when it is by empirical evidence 8212008 General Research Process Fwd a topic utmterest W 7 AHuws tmn u ett yputheses 7 Make suve rm and has dune What yuu ve mievested in Deveiup yuur 7777777 and procedures 7 Design the study Undergo Human7 inmmmnat me Euavd ma 7 Ammair instnutmnaiAmmai Cave and Use Cummittees Cuiiectand ana yze 7 7777 7 Write submit e pubhsh Scientific Method in Psychology Careful of behavior 7 Can t observe everybody WhDiE Con uct 7 Ask everybody the same duesudns 7 Same experiment etc Critical thinking Focus of Studies Measurable conditions events characteristics or behaviors Manipulated and assessed in scienti c studies Question What is the effect of 39 u Mme er m marmm rmwwm m M th mama Maw mam MuMmm W w an autumn mm m mum 8212008 Looking for Causes Research manipulation of one un er condItIons so that resulting changes in another k quot etection of variable manipulated variable affected by ma ula p n How does X affect Y X Variable and Y Variable Identifying IVs amp DVs Wmeb lsthe best methud brtreatmentrbreebressrbn ugmtlverbehavlural therapy drug treatment br nu treatmerrt ebrrtrbw ls lt better tb era fur a test massed bramee br better tb spaceruut uur studylng dlstrlbuted practlevvhen trymg tb remembermfurmatlun rurarr exam7 Duesthe number at penple present arreettbe llkellhuud that sbmeeme Wlll help anuther bersem m need ls uverall health lnfluenced by une s deepest thuughts feelmgs and attltudes abuut ebmmg tb ebllege7 Quick Quiz Professor Zappy wants to study the effects of shock on student learning The dependent variable is A Shack El Student learning C Prufessur Zappy D Name at the abuve 8212008 Experimental and Control Groups The Logic of the Scienti c Method grou assignment Manipulate variable for one group only Resulting differences in the two groups must be due to the independent variable Va hles Mm m mmm mum mm WWW M mam 8212008 777 gruup tn Wu cundmuns Expuse a educes 7777 77W vanables Mampulate mare than une 777777 vanable v Use mare than une Alluvvs fur study at mteraetmns between anables 777777 W Va rObtams a mu cumplete pmture unfetterth the meepeneem vanable Strengths and Weaknesses of Experimental Research conclusions about be drawn nature of experiments and issues The Concept of Correlation of relationship of relationship Correlation Correlation and Correlation and Memum Ni wnmlmummwnwnmw aullwmmm Aumwulvdnnbmmml 39 y l 39 39 m m an m Amem w M a a m m m mm mm manmmwmuuan m mmmmmmmmm wwnvhhrvnml wwnw my 8212008 Correlation and Causation Correlation shows the strength of the between two variables A correlation between two variables does not imply that one variable the other Correlation mean causation Correlation Coefficient First Semester GPA 8212008 Correlation Coefficient First Sem ester GPA Correlational Research H39s at Recess gt health Violaquot behavior and TV viewing H i aiaggmm on men commmcd a mean age m at 22 Smdy Group us than 1 mm 1 m 1 5mm Splus I mu ASSAUD on PHY5CAL nsms RssumNG m INJURY Mai 9 as 27 5 as M 7 es cha c 23 an v31 Tami 57 34 253 now mums I0 INJURE momsn on wuvon usEn m comm calm Main 57 mass 207 cha c 0 A a as a 5 Tami 3 A v a x u a as ANY AGGRESSIVE Act AGAINSY amsns Main 59 325 452 cha c 23 H596 i271 i 5 7 9e I Turn march 2002 8212008 What was that study nu among Mam Mm uldlu39cll lwuls mdauumrc u may mu 1mm mm mm lmlv Aber Avmnm man Ammlm 4 Man pm pm 01139 Amman 4 mum um Am a msng u Ham 4m 4 1quotquot 4H mn39 l mknl Wm umlvk mluu Ma y nlmmk Ikmml Mm m Ham 5m huch mum mw yv llnl m z m 1 ye m Jquot 7U l V 03quot n Nquot 02739quot ywm pltu9 quotpawl quot39pltmm But yet Correlation and Causation Paul an mu Y 8212008 Correlations The perceptmn Ufa rerauensmp Where EQFpEsi Sugar makeschridren hyperamwe e Getimg emu ampWetwrii make yuu srck Reiated m perceptmn er e M E eE s uvbemg deait Mneans 0 hearts A hearts K hearts 1 u hearts a Spades 3 mamnnesx 5 was a dubs 6 hearts one reasun Why We can t reiy un anecuutai evreeneer Methods Methods used when a researcher cannot the variables under study observation Allow researchers to describe patterns of behavior and discover links or associations between variables but causation Evaluating Research Methodological Pitfalls ias elfects Distortions in ocial the 8212008 Ethics of Research The Ethics of Studying Humans consent Freedom to Minimize Keep data at any time f is necessary debrie ng must occur 8212008 APA Exumal slimline luv Rpsravzn Wmllmmyhuumlamurmm m rulimwulmmummulmhm uummuumamnw39nmmhmwmnn quotmmmuu nmwmxmmm um mum inquot H001 l Mimimmm mum mmmmmmwm lumwlunawuluxdmlmMunmmh Iwwunluhwmkwmmaadm mudmhmvlllltlmlwlnlvlwlmmmwmu 2 ammunmmwemwmm eyeemmwm 5mm mmmmmklmwe mummwwwmm mnmmmumwmmwwwaw mlwuwmnMAmMMawmwmbu mulmlmudmmhmlymw m w Mmer m m mmmm mumw immuume mWmmwnmmmmwe m 1mlmnmmummmammulumm 6 hm lllullwnm lwlallmmh mi 3 laxMlmum ullumlmmvlmmrnwlon quotawnmmhnwhnumnwmxu ymminnwlnnynmmmwmm new wwwmmmm u winnme mmm m New quotmunnewxumwwummm I Mkn kmmrl ll mhmnnlmnxllul quotWNWquot wwwmmnw mmlhummmmmulwum mm mm new in mm The Ethics of Studying have always been used in a small percentage of psychological studies 7 Tu eendm basl research un pameular species 7 Tu dlscuver prameal 77 77 7 Tu study lssues that annut be studied Experimentally Wlth 7 7 Tu elaniy 7 7 Tu lmpruve 7 questluns Ethics of Studying 39 IACUC e ReweVs all eeiuresm be cunducted Wlth animals 7 Musi use the 7 pusslble Cell culluves animal specles i Rademsa lands Lavgevmammals dagsa mis ewes Ethics in Psychological Research Do the Ends Justify the Means The question of The question of Controvers amon I stcholoists and the ublic Ethical standards for research the American Psychological Association Ensures both human and animal subjects are treated with dignity 8212008 Biological Bases of Behavior Tennlnilhnlmns and synapsu These are the basic parts What do neurons look like I Types of Neurons g I 7 A wr 1 Spinal cord Thalamus Cerebellum Cortex motor neuron What do neurons really look like What do neurons do Collect inputs on their f sufficient input then produce an Send action potential down where it can influence other process with effects like a battery Neurons die and Neurons in the News The production of new neurons from immature 3 Liver 6 is stem cells 523 5r 33 cells Immature cells that renew themselves and have the potential to develop into mature cells Pancreatic cells How do neurons communicate The The axon of one neuron connects with the dendrites of the next Terminal 39Denmile Cell Budy Snmz What s an 3l mU I m u39 Threshold Objective 14 ff LEWl Equot 439 my Restinig P t ntl l Time ms 1 ms What s an 0 An electro chemical event A I I 0 Like a digital computer 1 or O communicate are chemical junctions between neurons How do work How do work Action potential comes down Action potential arrives at Causes is released Into cleft absorbed on Three Major Chemical Messenger Classes Released by neurons cause other neurons to fire Aka quotEndogenous opioid peptides Also function as or neurotransmitter modifiers Released by glands into Help regulate normal bodily functioning Major neurotransmitters a selection Acetylcholine Dopamine Endorphins Norepinephrine Serotonin GABA First identified Involved in control Disorders implicated in disease dementia loss poison black widow spider Drugs affecting Promotes release of acetylcholine can cause paralysis amp death toxin Poisonous agent produced by bacteria Blocks release of acetylcholine Reduces breathing rate can cause death Binds to and activates cholinergic receptors Blocks cholinergic receptors Quick acting quickly cleared from the body Involved in Disorders implicated in disease mainly motor but also Reward emotional blunting i control d sease cognitive confusion Drugsthat stimulate Alcohol indirectly indirectly indirectly Involved in Drugs that alter cycles LSD state happysad Disorders implicated in quotmagic mushrooms Gammaaminobutyric acid Major neurotransmitter in the brain Involved in disorders Drugs that affect major tranquilizers minortranquilizers Gamma hydroxybutyrate Structure of the Nervous System Brain 9SELELWW Spinal Cord o Nervous System penpuem nnwuu mm Sympathetic NS Parasympathetic NS Nervous System Co rd Midbrain hemisphere Thalamus Hypothalamus Cerebellum Spinal 0rd COFtEXES com pa FEd The Structure of the Brain The bram can be lelded lntO the and Fambrain Cerebrum Cerebral coer Thalamus u x Hypothalarnus quot39 Iv 39 Hlppmmpus 133 Limbic 39 system quotV Pituita glandw quot Amgdal L r 39 V Midbrain e Hlndbral 39 Fons quotst Spinal cord Madulla Cerebellum Cortex x i b 1qu Cortex Saggital Section Brain Damage Phineas Gage Phineas Gage Tamping iron blew up in his face Phineas Gage Phineas Gage Took two years to recover Changed personality quotGage was no longer Gage Doctor 0 Dogs with quotcut brains were calmer late 1890 s 1930 s lobes are severed using a variety of Results Patients generally calmer less Patients have difficulty things planning or following through on activities Suggests functions of lobe Many patients have rather extensive brain damage more than was purposeful The Callosum Millions of connecting the brain s hemispheres Provides a pathway for between hemispheres If surgically severed to treat hemispheres cannot directy Hemispheres Experiment Subjects were presented information to one or the other side of their brains Patients identified the pictures to the Le boy When asked to to the face seen the patients pointed to the picture Slimulus In ugm mum visual new Stimulus in laquot tum visual al M m High 9v mu m hunispherl hamispkln Comm or mm a righl hand 1 ha 09th quotwas callusum Informilinn delivell m Iigh visual mayquot ma inrnrmzxion deliverd m len mun Fmessinx am 9 mm Thulmarl ngnzv Enuollh39m Two Hemispheres Split Brains left visual field Right visual field To Ief I J 39 Optic To ri ht hemisphere chiasm hemisp ere broi fbraln The Two Hemispheres Allies or Opposites Research on split brain patients show us Nearly all righthanded and the majority of lefthanded individuals process mainly in the hemisphere Many researchers believe in dominance Others insist important for spatial visual problem solving comprehending nonverbal sounds and some language abilities Peripheral Nervous System Nervous System Sensory afferent inputs Motor efferent outputs Nervous System jective 5 Somatic Nervous System Re ex Arc Reflex Arc cu may m m mquot ram mum Winnawn mm mmquot W muth Autonomic Nervous System yy1c 5mm mm mm K sumus WW 5 mm 5555 L wun W quot mms 7 l as eases Ewmw E g m 322 t indpancnas W 7 WA m 1 7 a n ma quot K ma v 39 rmeaa 51m fSm quotMax515 mm mm a mm mm d sex mga mm ANS Sympathetic g c 2 Fight or Flight Large inlesiine ltIIIIII 39 Kidney h r BladdevandGenilals ANS Parasympathetic Tracheal Brnnchi Genes Evolution and W Environment e i go a u 0 803 0 0000 Geneenvironment Both and playa role in behavior Naturenurture debate still strong Focused on the DEGREE of influence lNTERACTION OF NATURE AND NURTU39RE INFLUENCE HUMAN BEHAVIOR Human Interacter Behavior DiseaseCondition Envinmnwnl Saws Unlocking the Secrets of Genes structures within cells that carry genes functional units of heredity which are composed of and specify the structure of proteins acid transfers characteristics by way of coded instructions for the structure of proteins A 4 Ms and Each human has f B ii If C chromosomes 1 2 3 4 5 393 W H H 3 Sex chromosomes X amp Y r a an I it 6 7quot 3 9 1D 11 32 Differences in ii ha M as 2 Izijggqju 13 14 15 15 39W 13 Can have too many or too 7 few chromosomes 15 H a 39 1939 20 21 22 X 1 Eg Down s Syndrome structure Joined by pairs of 4 amino acids Adenine Thymine Cytosine Guanine Errors in DNA can cause problems disease Definitions A change in within a population over many generations A by which genetically influenced characteristics of a population may change Changes may occur due to or errors occurring during copying of original DNA sequence selection Evolution Selection 0 Individuals with genetically influenced traits that are adaptive in a particular environment tend to and to in greater numbers As a result their traits become more in the population Natural Selection Misconceptions Now That39s what I39m Talking nbuutl Chainsawl Chainsnwl CHAINSAWI Natural Selection Fitness Leaves i 39v I 7 I me Darwm s chhes 333 PM HDAPTI39II39E RADIATION lrx e Seeds f Insects a I 1 if a Grubs Tool Using Finch HRH x ff 7 a Natural Selection 0 Every human gene has features Many features quotcome along for the ride Associated or linked to adaptive traits Examples Any others
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