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Introduction to Psychology

by: Samantha Hettinger

Introduction to Psychology PSYC 101

Marketplace > West Virginia University > Psychlogy > PSYC 101 > Introduction to Psychology
Samantha Hettinger
GPA 3.87


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Class Notes
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This 27 page Class Notes was uploaded by Samantha Hettinger on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 101 at West Virginia University taught by Staff in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see /class/202802/psyc-101-west-virginia-university in Psychlogy at West Virginia University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
ocial Behavior Chapter 15 Social Psychology Topics I Conformity and obedience 1 Stanford Study ii Milgram s Study l processes I Attitudes I Behavior in groups i 7 Social Loafing I Person perception fZi Stereotypes and Prejudice Philip Zimbardtn39s Stanfard Pris Experiment Sandman Bullet Ham rm Shaman Frisian rm1min 1533M4 uthllllp I73 Imbanig and Etaan University Stanford Prison Study Question How do particular roles Participants people react when given Healthy young men agreed to stay for 2 weeks paid Randomly assigned to be prisoners or guards Results distressed helpless amp panicky Guards some mean malicious and abusive Study was ended after days 1 Evaluating Stanford Study l Attributed behavior to influence of social roles iii about how to behave I of the situation Di Leads some people to abuse Conformity and Obedience l Asch s studies Group size and group unanimity I studies quot Question Would people obey an authority and violate their own ethical standards Milgram s Obedience Study Method Participants told that the experiment was investigating the effect of on learning Instructed to another person when an error was made supposed to be given in ascending sequence Milgram s Study cont I Results participants gave some shock gave all shocks despite cries of pain I Many participants but backed down when told to continue I Criticisms of study r Subjects were highly stressed r l Extensive without consent Milgram s Study Factors Affecting Obedience When leaves room Victim right there in Two demands Nonprofessional Peers in room together room manual suiWithiijl iiijy vr i i m l 1 Milgram Conclusions Obedience is a function of not personality Relationship to authority affects obedience Attributions Attribution theory People are motivated to explain their own and others Attribute the behavior to a or disposition external attributions Disposition internal attributions Attributions ActorObserver Bias Tendency to attribute other people s behavior to factors and our own behavior to the situation attribution error Tendency to dispositional factors when explaining others behavior Affected by culture more common in individualistic cultures Attributions Selfserving bias When dealing with your own behavior Attribute actions to disposition Attribute actions to situation Affected by culture more prevalent in Western cultures Justworld hypothesis Need to believe that good people are rewarded and bad people are punished Can lead to the victim Attitudes Stable containing beliefs and emotional feelings about a topic Positive or negative evaluations Explicit we are aware of them influence our behavior but we are not aware Dimensions Strength and Ambivalence Strength and accessibility are correlated l v4 CHILDREN 1 i KlLbbED 5 NFIRIi a 2007 Thomson Higher Educa on Factors Influencing Changes in Attitude factors person sending message Credibility Expertise or Trustworthiness Likeability attractiveness Message factors Twosided arguments Validity effect matters Feararousing Factors Influencing Changes in Attitude factors Forewarning Disconfirmation bias of existing attitude theory Classical conditioning pair products with positive emotions Operant conditioning averwew Factors Influencing Attitude Change Social environment Repetition increases feelings Exposure to a particular perspective from an admired person Linking message to good feelings classical conditioning behavior Need for consistency Cognitive Occurs when a person holds a belief that is incongruent with is or her behaVIor Access to Coercive Persuasion Under stress Problems are reduced to one simple explanation often Leader offers love acceptance attention and other positive things New identity is exhibited based on group norms Entrapment or emotional is controlled Jonesville 1978 Branch Davidians Switzerland cult Terrorists 7 manual y h Tendenc for all members of a group to think alike an suppress dissent Pressure to conform Occurs when need for agreement overwhelms the need to maRe the Wisest deCISIon Can lead to disastrous decisions explosion Counteracted by Rewards for dissent or critical thinking Basing decisionson majority rule instead of requiring unanimity Social loafing More likely when Members are not for their work Working harder duplicates efforts Workers feel others are getting a free ride Work is Less likely when Individuals are held responsible Each individual must make a distinct necessary contribution Challenge of the job is 1 Stereotypes Belief that all members of a group share common positive negative or neutral Helps processing of new information organizing experiences predicting how people will behave Distort reality MEMMMu MM differences between groups Produce selective perception differences within groups Prejudice Negative characterized by a strong unreasonable dislike of a group or its members Origins Memory bias remembering only the negative and forgetting the positive attribution bias Observational learning to social identity Defining amp Measuring Prejudice Prejudice can take many forms norms against prejudice Report prejudice even if prejudice exists Makes prejudice difficult to study Studies of prejudice Measure behavior other than selfreported attitudes Measure word associations with different target groups Reducing Prejudice Both sides have equal economic opportunities amp power Authorities egalitarian norms Both sides work and socialize together Both sides work toward a goal Takehome points All humans have potential for good and evil Often depends more on social organization than human nature No is wholly virtuous or villainous


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