Introduction to Anthropology
Introduction to Anthropology SOCA 105
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Era King on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to SOCA 105 at West Virginia University taught by Douglas Sahady in Fall. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see /class/202805/soca-105-west-virginia-university in Sociology at West Virginia University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
s t EXAM STUDY GUIDE 9 Anthropology the systematic study of humankind 0 Anthropology stands apart because of its four sub fields 9 Anthropologies four sub fields 0 Physical Anthropology I Is he branch of anthro Concerned with humans as a biological species Most closely related to natural science 0 Archaeology I The branch of anthro Examines the material traces of past societies informs us about the societies the shared way of life of a group of people that includes their values beliefs and norms o Linguistic Anthropology I The relationship between language and culture how language is used in society and how the human brain acquires and uses language 0 Cultural Anthropology or Ethnology I Examines various contemporary societies and cultures throughout the world 9 Anthropology is quotholisticquot o A broad comprehensive account that draws on all four subfields under the umbrella of anthropology O Hypothesis o Is a testable proposition concerning the relationship between particular sets of variables in the collection data 9 Theories o Statements that explain hypothesis and observations about natural or social phenomena 9 Science 0 Process of inquiry or the intellectual and practical activity encompassing the systematic study ofthe structure and behavior of the physical and natural world through observation and experiment 9 Scientific method 0 A system of logic used to evaluate data derived from systematic observations I Inductive Method 0 The scientist 1St makes observations and collects data many ofthe data collected are referred to as variables I Deductive Method 0 Begins with a general theory from which scientist develop testable hypotheses 9 Natural Selection 0 Genetic change in population resulting from differential reproductive success I Measure of Success 0 Variation 0 Heritability 0 Differential reproductive success 9 Lamarck JeanBaptiste Pierre Antoine de Monet Chevalier de Lamarckll1744 m 0 Proposed that species could change as a result of dynamic interactions with their environment As a result of changing environmental conditions behavioral patterns ofa species would alter increasing or decreasing the use of some physical structures 9 Inheritance o Mendel I Laid groundwork for genetics I Principal of segregation o Heredity or genes occur in pairs and that offspring receive half ofa pair from each from each parent I Dominate and recessive traits o PM o the fragmentary remains of bones and living materials preserved from earlier periods 0 Fossil Records I Separations in the level ofthe ground depending on depth to tell a time period in which the fossil lived O Speciation o The development ofa new species 9 Mutation o Alterations of genetic material at the cellular matter I Mutations serve as the primary force behind evolution because it is the only source of new genetic variation 9 Taxonomy 0 System traditionally used for classifying living organisms 0 Proposed by Carolus Linnaeus O Primates 0 Characteristics I Dexterity fingers and toes I Opposable thumb I Dentition number form and arrangement of teeth I Omnivorous diet I Enhanced vision I Complexity of brain 0 Primatology I study of primates O Bipedalism o The ability to walk erect on two hind legs I Adv 0 Better for long distances 0 Free up hands or other use 0 Further enhances manual dexterity O O O O o Cont 0 Human skeletal features related to Bipedalism I Pelvis legs feet hips knees and adaptations such as phalanges and foramen magnum opening in base of skull where spinal cored passes Paleontologist o is the study of prehistoric life including organisms evolution and interactions with each other and their environments Ethnogragher O Ethnologist 0 An anthropologist whose focus on cross cultural aspects of ethnographic studies Definitions 0 Gene Flow the exchange of genes between populations as a result of interbreeding 0 Genetic Drift change in allele frequencies within a population as a result of random processes of selection 0 Species groups of organisms with similar physical characteristics that can potentially interbreed successfully o Arboreal living in trees 0 Genus a grouping of organisms having common characteristics distinct from those of other such groupings o Prehensile chiefly of an animal s limb or tail capable of grasping o Miocene relating to or denoting the fourth epoch of the Tertiary period 0 Hominids the family of primates that includes modern humans and their direct ancestors o Stereoscopic a device by which two photographs ofthe same object taken at slightly different angles is viewed together creating an impression of depth and solidity o gracile a hominid species of slender build 10192010 I Food Producing Society a r if i 5396 Foundation of domestication i Change gradual Evidence 2 types 1 Artifacts 2 Biologicalartifacts ii Population increase ll 3 Basic Food Producing Categories a s in Farming using human labor amp simple tools i Larger groups greater control over food sources 1 More stable amp sedentary 2 Organized around kinship Many practice polygymy ii Essentially u 7 Everyone is pretty much equal 1 But require some formal organization a Beginnings of leaders amp labor specialists b Concept of ownership amp territory c Recognize multiple supernatural beings u Emphasis on the herding ofanimals i Basis for subsistence amp worldviewcultural system 1 Most nomadic n 2 Egalitarian 3 Socioeconomic Stratification more animals more wealth 4 Vague leadership 5 Labor is divided by sex 6 Ancestor worship ii Found in areas unsuited for other subsistence activities Farming using animal or mechanical labor amp complex technologies EX Plow a Greater control over plant food sources i Surpluses virtually ensured 1 Fulltime labor specialists Formal social stratification 2 3 belief in one God 4 Centrally located government and center for economic transactions Cities developed Cultures with an agricultural surplus social stratification labor specialization a formal government rule by power monumental construction projects system of record keeping bureaucracy i Need for record keeping Extraction amp working of natural metals ll Which Pattern works best a Best Given for the Situation b Earlier in time i Increases in disease because of a lesser variety in diet c Later in time i Life expectancy goes up as we progress d Negative aspects of agricultural i Storage of surplus rodents disease ii Large groups lack of sanitation I Political Organization a Institutions that organize amp direct i Small societies informal 1 Larger population more formalized leadership amp more complex the political organization ii Social Control 1 v mechanism of social control a Least organized societies laws amp political organization exist independently b As political organization becomes formalized government institutions can develop b PO 4 basic forms From least to most complex i Simplest Based on kinship no social stratifications 1 Found with foraging economies 2 Low populations densities amp high seasonal mobility 2050 people 3 Leadership informal a Called llbig men 4 Members related 5 Influenced by resource of availability llCollection of Bandsquot 1 Formally organized institutions unite scattered residential communities EX Native Americans a Based on kinship lines but combined into large units often called lineages or clans 2 Some formalized political amp religious offices Still essentially egalitarian a Most leaders were selected based on the basis of personal qualities amp individualment b Little economic specialization among tribes Like tribes multicommunity political units 1 Unlike tribes they had a formalized amp centralized political system a Governed by a single hereditary chief EX Aztecs or Mayans 2 Associated with horticultural or large pastoral societies in which craft or regional specialization had emerged Socioeconomically placed between egalitarian amp agriculture 3 5 quoti H Attempts to smooth out inequalities through economic exchange iv One centralized political authority 1 Large population living in individual units a Complex economic interactions 2 Presence of a bureaucracy a 3 levels 1 The Rolling Elite 2 A Bureaucracy and 3 The Population 3 Socioeconomically Market Systems amp Balanced reciprocity of symbols a L 4 iquot open closed ex Born poor you stay poor forever
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