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Week 3 of Philosphy Notes

by: William Bartek

Week 3 of Philosphy Notes PHIL 1000 - 01

William Bartek
General Introduction to Philosophy
Matthew McGrath

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About this Document

Notes from the third week of class, covering Hume and his arguments on reason, passion, morality, and utility.
General Introduction to Philosophy
Matthew McGrath
Class Notes
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This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by William Bartek on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 1000 - 01 at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Matthew McGrath in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see General Introduction to Philosophy in PHIL-Philosophy at University of Missouri - Columbia.

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Date Created: 09/12/15
Philosophy 1000 Hume on Reason Passion and Morality Reason o It judges of truth and falsity o Demonstrative Reason Judges quotrelation of ideas think math 0 Probable Reason Judges matters of fact cause and effect Passion o It moves the will moves us to act 0 Passion can t judge of truth and falsity Can reason move the will 0 No Neither demonstrative nor probable reasoning can move the will Reason can only direct passions it can t produce or oppose them Passion is contrary to truth and reason only if it s directed by a belief that s contrary to truth or reason I False belief about existence of a certain object I False belief about what s efficient means to an end 0 Moral judgements can move the will 0 If reason can t move the will where do moral judgements come from o Passion 0 Willful Murder Example 0 quotExamine a murder in all lights and see if you can find that matter of fact or real existence which you call vice o In a willful murder only looking at the facts cannot lead to the passion behind the crime Looking at murder weapon can t tell you how vicious the attacker was No deriving an Ought from an Is 0 Reason can tell you the is what is the case 0 Reason can t tell you the ought what ought to be the case 0 So if there is a piece of reasoning that seems to derive an ought from an is it s faulty reasoning Hume s Moral Judgements Plato s Question 0 Ask yourself quotWhy do what s right 0 If you tell yourself it s right you approve of it o If you approve of it you ought to do it o The answer is NOT that reason demands you to do it Hume Why Utility Pleases Social Virtues Virtues concerning social life generosity mercy Utiity Serving the good of humanity or society First Line of Reasoning o Hume says our praise of social virtues is not based on selflove o quotA generous brave deed performed by an adversary commands our approbation o If an enemy acts brave we recognize and applaud their bravery despite their being our enemy o If you only cared about yourself you would condemn your enemies bravery Second Line of Reasoning We praise social virtues for their utility We praise the means because we value the end Utility is means to an end of bettering humanity and not only oneself So our praise of social virtues for their means to an end of bettering humanity and not PENNquot only oneself Egoism v Altruism o Egoism We do what we do always in order to pursue selfinterest o Altruism We sometimes do what we do at least partly in order to promote the interests of others 0 Egoists Argument against Altruism Appeal to the feeling of satisfaction of doing a good deed for others Don t look at how we act but how we react Our feelings indicate we care about others All this is natural not taught in school or church says Hume Can anyone be completely indifferent to the good of mankind I No almost everyone cares about humanity OOO Sympathy o Sympathy is natural 0 Not motivated by selflove o Reduces with distance less able to visualize the farther away problems are


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