Chapter 4 Notes
Chapter 4 Notes POLS 1101
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This 12 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kyla Brinkley on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to POLS 1101 at University of Georgia taught by Ryan Bakker in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 62 views. For similar materials see American Government in Political Science at University of Georgia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Kyla Brinkley POLS 1101 Notes Fall 2015 Bakker Chapter 4 Civil Rights a Racial profiling enlisting race or ethnicity as the primary criterion for identifying a suspect i Seen after 911 Arab males and Pearl Harbor west coast Japanese Americans b What Are Civil Rights i Civil liberties the Constitution s protections from government power 1 Gov can t take these freedoms speech liberty privacy away 2 Well served when gov does nothing ii Civil rights protections by government or that government secures on behalf of its citizens 1 Require govs to act 2today s civil rights include more than the civic rights of 18th century political expression amp participation 3include safeguard against any effort by government and dominant groups in a community 0 The Civil Rights of African Americans i The results of African American civil rights have redefined the rights and liberties of all Americans ii Tyranny dominant white majorities in South used slaverysegregation to gain permanent advantage over black minority iii Black obstacles for securing rights 1 Constitution reserves important authority for the states like power to determine voting eligibility 2separates powers over 3 branches making it difficult for national majorities to control the fed gov enough to strike against tyranny in the states iv politics based on selfinterest in a fragmented constitutional system explains why civil rights for blacks took so long v The Politics of Black Civil Rights 1 National majorities have fought discrimination forcefully twice a Reconstruction after civil war b Attack on segregation 1960s 2The Height of Slavery 18081865 a Congress passed law ending importation of slaves 1807 b Slavery became side issue north and south kept regional balance in senate c Matched states entry one slave one free into Union d Missouri Compromise I ii iii iv v vi vii viii 1819 Missouri petitioned congress for admission as slave state 1820 Missouri entered as slave state Maine entered as free state Maintained balance in senate Southern border of Missouri established as northern boundary slavery couldn t go above 36 30 line Eventually more free states began to join Abolition movement rose e Wilmot Proviso amp Compromise of 1850 iv V vi vii viii 1846 David Wilmot introduced bill that would ban slavery in new territories Said slave labor depressed wages for white free workers Passed in House but not in divided Senate Antislavery Free Soil Party Martin van Buren 1848 campaign Joined Republican Party Southerners mad about runaway slaves through Underground Railroad not being returned south agreed to admit California as free state in return of passage of Fugitive Slave Law forcing north to return southern slaves compromise of 1850 introduced by Henry Clay allowed residents of f territories to decide for themselves to apply for slave or free statehood Dred Scott Galvanizes the North i Supreme court Dred Scott v Sandford ii Decided that federal gov couldn t prevent slavery in the territories iii Republican Lincoln won 1860 election amp so did Republican members to Congress for first time president and majority of Congress against slavery iv Lincoln announced national gov wouldn t listen to minority South v Southern states seceded SC first vi Civil War began 3 Reconstruction 18651877 a 18651870 slaves emancipated 13th b c amendment Granted citizenship 14th amendment Guaranteed right to vote 15th amendment i Only some states gave them access to vote though ii Proof of property ownershipliteracy tests Even abolitionists thought granting slaves full citizenship was radical Black codes prevented former slaves from vo ng The 14th and 15th Amendments i 14th defines citizenship to include former slaves 1 No state shall deprive any person of life liberty or property without the due process of law nor deny to any personthe equal protection of the laws 2 If state fails to allow black males to vote in federalstate elections number of seats it has will be proportionally reduced 3 Reconstruction Acts disbanded governments of southern states amp replaced with military districts ii 15th secures vote for blacks g Rights lost the Failure of Reconstruction i Advancement of black civil rights was temporary ii 1877 all former Confederate states returned to white Democratic control iii Violence KKK intimidation iv Republicans getting defeated v Laws to protect blacks not enforced vi Reconstruction ended with 1876 election vii 1877 federal troops left South 4The Jim Crow Era amp Segregation 18771933 a Jim crow laws adopted in south in 1890s to disenfranchise black citizens and physically separate black and whites b Segregation of blacks and whites in access to schools hospitals prisons parks restrooms housing etc c Prevented blacks from voting i White primary excluded blacks from voting in primary elections ii Poll tax to be paid months before election iii Literacy test readinterpret passages of state s constitution difficult reading iv Grandfather clauses exempted from these registration requirements those whose grandfathers had voted before civil war v Sometimes caught poor illiterate whites vi By 1910 less than 10 of black males voted in South d Supreme court upheld segregation e 1896 Plessy v Ferguson i Supreme court said south s Jim Crow laws and segregation were constitutional ii Plessy 78 white but considered black sat in whites only railroad car iii Court said 14th amendment referred only to political equality iv Segregation allowed if separate but equal facilities v Separate but equal doctrine officially allowed segregation in South 5Democratic Party Sponsorship of Civil Rights 1933 1940s a Great depression ended Republican dominance in national politics b Blacks hit harder by great depression c The New Deal i FDR won 1932 amp New Deal caused blacks and democratic politicians to contemplate mutual interests ii New Deal s evenhanded treatment of black community appealed to black voters iii Programs offered blacks assistance for first time since Reconstruction but others didn t help them iv Roosevelt appointed over 100 black administrators some to prominent posts v Roosevelt supported fair employment d Blacks and the New Deal Coalition i Democratic Party began to embrace black voters ii Supreme Courtlower federal judiciary more sympathetic to civil rights claims iii Blacks shifted from republican party of Lincoln to democratic party of Roosevelt 1 many blacks moved north to vote and escape segregation 2 joined army WWII less racist less intimidating communities 3 jobs in wartime industry 4 farm mechanization made labor intensive farming obsolete iv 1948 Truman openly courted black vote for reelection at risk of alienating South 1 Integrated armed services 2 Sponsored civil rights bill first since reconstruction making racial lynching a federal crime provided federal guarantees for voting rights and prohibited employmenthousing discrimination 6Emergence of a Civil Rights Coalition 1940s50s a Renewed support for civil rights from Republican Party shifts from Democratic Pany b NAACP s Litigation Strategy i Began 1909 to represent black defendants throughout south and use federal judiciary to challenge segregation ii Convinced supreme court of inequality of separate but equal facilities esp in educa on c Brown Trumps Plessy i 1950 Oliver Brown tried to enroll daughter Linda into white neighborhood public school ii Brown v Board of Education of Topeka Kansas iii Supreme Court Justice Thurgood Marshall represented NAACP and took case iv Chief Justice Earl Warren crumbled Plessy ruling 1954 saying education is a right which should be made available to all on equal terms and separate educational facilities are inherently unequaV v Decision was met with massive resistance across the South 1 Virginia closed public schools and only opened private ones 2 Supreme court itself intervened in 1957 to order city of Little Rock Arkansas to enroll black students in all white Central High School a President Eisenhower sent US Army troops to escort black students to school d The 1957 Civil Rights Act Rehearsal for the 1960s i Lyndon B Johnson introduced it ii Allowed blacks who felt their vote was denied because of race to sue their state in federal court 1 Few gained right to vote through this limited law iii First civil rights LAW since reconstruction iv In 1964 election Democrats retained presidency and enlarged majorities in congress 1 Led to dismantling segregationvoting discrimination 7The Civil Rights Movement 1960s a Before 1960s civil rights movement led by NAACP tried to influence judges more than politicians b 1955 Rosa Parks didn t give up seat to white passenger to sit in the back of the bus as the law required i Launched Montgomery bus boycott c 1960 first sitin black college students in Greensboro NC sat in restaurant reserved for rights and wouldn t move until served or arrested d Shifted strategy from litigation to mass demonstration introduced collective action problems e Black southern preachers were able to mobilize congregations i Ex MLK Southern Cristian Leadership Conference f Nonviolent demonstrations g Free riding problem i Successful demonstration requires many people to voluntarily expose themselves to danger and other sanctions yet every individual knew that his or her participation wouldn t make or break the demonstration h The Birmingham Demonstration i SCLC leaders needed to produce results ii JFK early 1963 told them to be patient iii Birmingham had very intolerant police chief Eugene Bull Conner iv This would show graphic display of discrimination v Local law enforcement arrested thousands and used police dogs and fire hoses to disperse peaceful demonstrators 1 Seen on TV American horrified 2 JFK couldn t ignore a lnvited movement leaders to white house to plan legislative strategy i The Democratic Party s Commitment to Civil Rights i 6111963 JFK addressed nation proclaiming full support for civil rights and revision to civil rights bill ii After JFK s assassination LBJ continued support j The 1964 Civil Rights Act i LBJ persuaded Senate Republicans to join northern Democrats in breaking southern filibuster ii Authorized national gov to end segregation in public educationaccommodations iii Civil rights big campaign issue 1964 election 1 Republicans went from supporting civil rights to not 2 Largest presidential landslide in history k The Voting Rights Act of 1965 i Prior voting acts required proof of discrimination in court ii Spring 1965 demonstration in Selma AL 1 Displayed on tv iii Voting rights act was aggressive 1 Knew blacks would vote democratic iv Dramatic effects v For first time southern politicians aid attention to black constituents vi 19702002 number of black elected officials rose dramatically 8The Era of Remedial Action 1970s to Present a Civil rights movement lost momentum but advances continued b De facto segregation not mandated by law but arose as byproduct of former discriminatory housing laws that kept neighborhood schools segregated c Affirmative action policy that requires any employees or government agencies that have practiced past discrimination to compensate minorities and women by giving them special consideration in their selection for employment and education i Early efforts in 1970s used quotas setting aside certain of admissions contracts jobs etc for those who suffered from past discrimination ii Has caused problems in admissions students angry because of not being admitted to colleges iii 2012 Abigail Fisher denied admission to UT amp argued that rule to admit students in top 10 of their class precedes need for affirmative action vi The Legacy of the Civil Rights Movement 1Back civil rights movement built foundation of federal laws judicial precedents and administrative regulations that have been extended to other groups 2 Equal Rights for Women The Right to Vote a Suffragists women who campaigned for right to vote b 1869 Wyoming passed first women s suffrage law c 1920 19th amendment extended right to vote to all women i Registered much faster and easier than blacks ii Took longer than blacks though to actually get vote because didn t have advantage to either party iii Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B Anthony tried to include women in 14th amendment but it was limited to males iv Women s suffrage viewed as costly issue v After blacks technically got the vote women s suffrage became only a women s issue more difficult to pass vi Gradual increased support vii By 1919 15 states gave women right to vote in at least some elections 3The Modern History of Women s Rights a Sex discrimination was outlawed in 1964 Civil Rights Act b d National Organization for Women NOW formed 1966 in reaction for Equal Employment Opportunity Commission EEOC s refusal to enforce sex discrimination policies 1972 Title IX of Higher Education Act prohibiting funding for schools and universities that discriminate against women i Size of sports programs Employment equality 4Rights For Hispanics a b Similar to struggles of blacks Lack of language skills to exercise civil responsibilities in English c Language citizenship issues d 1970 voting rights act of 1965 required that ballots also be available in Spanish in areas when at least 5 of population is Hispanic A few states have adopted English only laws Alexander v Sandoval 2001 Applicant for Alabama driver s license challenged English only laws as civil rights violation i Ruled that individual couldn t challenge Alabama s regulations that all license tests be written in English Illegal undocumented aliens have less civil rights and legal aliens have less access to government than citizens Illegal workers don t report abuses like low wages for fear of deportation Tightening access to driver s licenses and forms of ID i Some laws required photo ID to vote ii Made it hard for those who don t drive to get a form of ID Hispanic voting power will grow most of them are young and are citizens so will be able to vote i More officeholders 5Gay Rights roe Murky area because of public s views Supreme court ruled that a voter approved amendment unconstitutionally denied gays equal protection but didn t confer any specific rights to them Fiomer v Evans 1995 Congress passed Defense of Marriage Act rejected same sex marriages and allowed states to ignore them i Married couples benefits 1 Social security survivors benefits Medicaid estate tax exemptions orreduc ons Hate crime protections extended Hate crime provisions of the criminal code that make illegal or stiffen penalties for violence directed against individuals property or organizations because of race gender national origin sexual orientation 2012 31 states had banned gay marriages by passing laws or amending constitutions Civil union allows samesex couples to receive many legal benefits of marriage but without being married Changing public opinion people more accepting of gay and interracial marriage Summer 2015 supreme court ruled samesex marriage legal
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