Week 3 Notes - HIST 1302
Week 3 Notes - HIST 1302 Hist 1302
Popular in History of U.S. since 1865
Popular in History
This 10 page Class Notes was uploaded by Amanda Haynes on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Hist 1302 at University of Texas at El Paso taught by Ransom P. Cross in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see History of U.S. since 1865 in History at University of Texas at El Paso.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
HIST 1302 History of the US Since 1865 Week 3 I The Force that Drives the World A B C Economics 1 Economics and history are completely intertwined a Most moments in history are determined by economics Nothing can take priority over economics We all depend on economics in order to survive 1 We need food clothing water and shelter to survive 2 In order to meet these needs we must trade barter or buy 11 Economic Growth and Expansion A All industries were growing 1 Especially the manufacturing industry Railroads 1 Most significant contributor to economic expansion a Unfortunately this lead to the railroads having more power in the government b This in turn lead to the corruption within the railroad industry The Grange or the Patrons of Husbandry 1867 1 This organization became the first Political Action Committee PAC in the US a Advocated political and economic advancements for farmers b United farmers under a single organization which gave the farmers a voice that the government would actually listen to 1 More people more voices more power to be heard and listened to by the government 2 3 This organization lead to the beginnings of workers unions Known today as The National Order of the Patrons of Husbandry D Munn V Illinois 1877 1 This Supreme Court decision allowed states to govern certain business that were within its borders 2 One of the businesses included was railroads a This allowed for fairer pricing with which the railroads would charge packages delivered based on distance traveled E Technology played a key role in economic expansion 1 This can be said for all technology since the Agricultural Revolution 111 The Formation of the American Middle Class A Brief History of the Middle Class 1 Originated in Europe during the Middle Ages a After the Black Death AKA Plague killed off most of the population the lords of the land switched to a wage labor economy at the urging and threatening of the surviving serfs B In America 1 2 The class you are in depends on how much money you have a Upper Class b Middle Class 0 Lower Class The lives of African Americans and women improved drastically through the formation of the middle class and middle class companies IV Cities A Grew rapidly due to the fact that was were all the jobs were 1 All the industries were based there 2 This lead to the development of suburbs a An area to escape the overcrowded and bustling city but still be close enough to the action B Emergence of department and mail order stores 1 Cater to the cities increasing populations needs and wants a Sears emerges 1 Sends its catalog to every household through the railroad system 2 Provided goods that the middle class could afford and buy b Advertizing became a huge industry C Differences in wealth created incentives for people to earn more money and gain more property 1 Caused the subdivisions of the middle class a Upper Middle Class b Middle Middle Class c Lower Middle Class 2 Conspicuous consumption a People would buy unneeded luxury goods as long as they had the funds in order to display their wealth D Andrew Carnegie and John D Rockefeller 1 Andrew Carnegie founded the US Steel industry 2 John D Rockefeller founded the US Oil industry E The Antitrust Movement 1880s 1 Came about due to robber barons a These individuals owned tried to control the market by being the only company in that market monopoly b They tried to put smaller businesses out of business 1 This way they could charge what they wanted with no competition 2 Lead to a The Sherman Antitrust Act 1890 b US V E C Knight company 1895 1 The Supreme Court ruled that the government s power controlling monopolies would be limited 2 States would regulate the monopolies 3 The government could intervene only if the monopoly made offenses a For example The American Telephone and Telegraph AT amp T was broken into smaller companies baby bells by the government for that reason V Consumer Economy A The economy works and is driven by the consumer 1 Simple case of supply and demand a If the consumer doesn t by the product then the producer can t sell it B Advertizing 1 Extremely important industry 2 Keeps the economy going by advertizing things that a consumer doesn t need but can afford VI Labor Strife Workers were unhappy due to 1 Dangerous working conditions 2 Loss of selfgovernment amongst the workers a Workers became numbers instead of individual people National Labor Union 1866 1 The depression in the 1870s caused it to disintegrate The Great Railroad Strike of 1877 1 More and more laborers called for changes in the railroad company system 2 More people Bigger power base Knights of Labor 1864 1 Lead by Terrance Powderly 2 The goal of this organization was to unite all the workers from all the different fields of labor into one large workers union a They stood for workers rights economic reform and social reform in order to improve conditions in the workplace 3 Employers viewed this organization as a form of communism The Haymarket Square Riot 1886 1 The workers in Haymarket Square were protesting so their employers used violence in response a Casualties 10 dead 50 wounded 2 This also hurt the Knights of Labor by making workers unions look bad in general The Problem 1 No regulation of how companies treated their workers a In order to improve conditions in the workplace workers would go on strike and picket the company b Employers in response would fire all of its employees and higher new ones called scabs c In order to protect themselves employers would also hire police officers to protect them by shooting any over rambunctious picketers G The American Federation of Labor 1886 1 This federation was a roughly connected group of trade and craft unions who wanted everyone who was who had to deal with employers to take part in it H Critics of the Wage Labor System 1 Henry George Progress and Poverty 1879 2 Edward Bellany Looking Backward 1887 a These to works were written individuals who thought the wage labor system was awed b Their theory was that if wages go up prices will go up c These people don t last very long due to the fact that without wagelabor the US would revert back to slavery or serfdom and the US government would never allow that to happen I Homestead Strike 1892 VII The Depression of 1893 to 1897 A This depression negatively affected all areas of the economy 1 It was a domino effect a Due to the fact that wages fell production fell consumer consumption fell etc B The railroad collapse started it all 1 The economy slowed down figuratively people aren t buying or selling as much and literally a Railroads were the main source of transportation in the US during that time frame C Coxey s Army 1894 1 Jacob Coxey a populist lead a group of unemployed workers on a march on Washington D C D Pullman Strike 1894 1 Employers at the Pullman Palace Car Company cut their workers low wages due to the depression 2 Desperate laborers of went on strike for higher wages a Were supported by others who refused to ride the Pullman train cars 3 They grew violent when their strike was being threatened 4 This nearly stopped the railroad industry in its tracks literally and figuratively 5 The government intervened to stop the violence and get the railroad industry back on track VIII Farmer s Movements A The expansion of production decreased agricultural goods prices which lead to an extended period of de ation B Farmers accused banks commission merchants railroads and overall the monetary system 1 The farmers accusations were well founded due to the fact that these organizations were trying to make a profit at the farmers expense C Greenback Party 1 The new US currency system that was off the gold standard a The money was backed by the full faith and credit of the United States government b This system is the same we have today D Free Silver Movement 1 BlandAllison Act 1878 2 Sherman Silver Purchase Act 1890 Repealed in 1893 a These two government acts tried to change the gold standard to the silver standard 1 Economists believed that the in ation of silver could be the start of getting the US out of the depression a Manufacturers could produce more goods because they had the funds to do so which would lower the prices of said goods b The issue was that this system would drive gold out of circulation 1 Due to the fact that no one wanted gold out of circulation both acts inevitably failed E The National Farmer s Alliance and Industrial Union 1890 1 This organization consisted of local and regional alliances who were going out of business because they had to sell their produce at next to nothing so that people could afford it deficit 2 In order to get politicians to listen and act the farmers created a political agenda for them a This gave the farmers a voice within the government IX The Rise and Fall of the People s Party A In 1896 a nationwide farmer s organization was formed 1 Left Democrats divided on who to nominate for their presidential slot a When a political party is divided they lose whatever they are fighting about history had proven this X The Election of 1896 A Populists joined forces with the Democratic Party and nominated William Jennings Bryan Republicans nominated William McKinley 1 The election was very invigorating McKinley won the election 1 McKinley s popularity would grow when he won the SpanishAmerican War lead to reelection a Gained Cuba Puerto Rico and the Philippines 2 The US was starting to make its way out of the depression McKinley was assassinated on September 14 1908 1 Therefore he didn t meet all of his political promises 10