Chapter 3 Notes
Chapter 3 Notes 1230.0
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Emily Clark on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to 1230.0 at Bowling Green State University taught by Lynne Hewitt in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see INTRODUCTION TO COMMUNICATION DISORDERS in Language at Bowling Green State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Chapter 3 The Social and Cultural Bases of Communication Children learn to use language in a remarkably short time span We use language to Learn Communicate Cooperate Problem solve Teach Plan Social and Cultural statuses have implications on language SLPs and audiologists need to be aware of these implications and how they affect the people they are working with Especially when the professionals social and cultural background differ from their patients Children learn the rules of communicating through everyday interactions with their family By having family interaction children learn the following about their language Why With whom How When Families in different cultures talk and interact in different ways Loud vs quiet families Spoken when spoken to vs performing certain tasks when mentioned These styles are related to a number of variables such as Ethnic background Family makeup size Religious beliefs Neighborhood Country of origin Gender Socioeconomic status Familial education To understand the differing worldviews it is helpful to reference the collectivismindividualism continuum These two perspectives in uence what people communicate about and how they interact They also in uence Parentchild communication School talk Peer interaction Vocational communication Parents who believe that all communication is intentional are more likely to interact with babies in a way that assigns meaning to things that they do Parents who don t believe that early sounds are intentional might not say anything as they try to meet the baby s needs What constitutes as rst words vary according to what parents believe about communication Some cultures believe that the first words are important milestones in children s lives Other cultures don t think children talk until they can use complete sentences or phrases Talking is the use of phrases and sentences not the production of single words in that definition A family s society and culture in uence their beliefs and customs Culture is constantly changing and adapting Socialization and acculturation are two terms used to describe how people learn about culture Socialization is the process by which an individual learns hisher own culture Including how to interact with others Acculturation is the process by which an individual learns or adapts to another culture When we learn a mutual language and the syntactic and pragmatic rules that govern that language we can communicate Specific customs and conventions govern how language is used Different languages have different grammar rules Different conventions govern language use pragmatics There are also regional differences within countries as well Such as east and west coast pragmatics and dialects The rules of your community may determine whether you get right to the point or beat around the bush These two values are consistent with individualism and collectivism perspectives respectively We tend to interpreted behavior based on our own expectations and experiences People who have different sets of expectations may misinterpret a behavior that seems reasonable for someone else Parents tend to teach ways of interacting that re ect their own cultures and values to their children They also teach their children behaviors that are important to them based off of their own culture and experiences Because parents cultures can differ from the mainstream cultures they are living within there is the potential for mismatch when the two different cultures come in contact with each other Shared knowledge from the school is based on mainstream culture expectations and experiences that focus on individual achievement Schools in the US tend to focus on an individualistic perspective centering on child independence and selffulfillment However many children from immigrant groups are socialized from a collectivistic perspective that focuses on group membership and social responsibility SLPs Audiologists and other educators can potentially reach inappropriate conclusions about children from diverse backgrounds We need to understand how lSt and 2nd languages are learned how languages and dialects vary and how socialization goals might affect school performance 2nd language learners take from 1 to 3 years to learn facetoface communications or basic interpersonal communication skills These children may take as long as 5 to 7 years to learn higher level decontextualized language Decontextualized language is also known as cognitive academic language proficiency CALP Sometimes children who are assessed in their 2nd language may appear to be uent in English because they have good BICS However they may score poorly on educational and language tests because they have yet to master the nuances of CALP A second issue with 2nd language children has to do with the ways languages are structured and the order of acquisition of these structures Examining performance in only one language of a bilingual child may exclude important information that is not specific to that language Some language tasks may be more complex in one language in comparison with another We need to have an understanding of the development of a child s lSt and 2nd languages to make appropriate judgments about the child s language ability The school situation has communicative demands and unwritten rules about how children and adults interact In American mainstream schools children are expected to be able to tell stories respond to knownanswer questions relate known events respond behaviorally to indirect requests ask and respond to direct questions The nature of 2nd language differences in language form and different socialization experiences may lead to mismatch between communication expectations and experiences This mismatch can lead to miscommunications lowered expectations stereotypes and inappropriate referrals and classification There are different languages and dialects around the world A dialect is typically defined as a variation of a language that is spoken by people from a particular geographical region Everyone speaks a dialect Some variety of the mother language that we learned as a child Often it is the sound of a particular dialect that we notice first Dialects are as legitimate as any language but they lack the power to promote themselves to a language level Dialects have evolved as the result of social transitions such as largescale geographical patterns of movement by people the development of transportation routes or the establishment of education systems and government A perfect example is the English spoken in the United States and English spoken in England Over time the lack of contact among those in the Colonies and those in England resulted in two distinctly different forms of English A hallmark of dialect variation is intonation prosody and phonology These sound differences are referred to as accents Language is dynamic dialects change and evolve as communities change and evolve In isolated communities dialects often don t evolve or change To outsiders people from these communities often have speech that sounds oldfashioned or unusual Although language scientists have no difficulty in defining dialect in a neutral manner society seems to have much more difficulty with this concept Individuals attribute often unfairly certain characteristics to people with certain dialects To know more than one language can be seen as positive or negative depending on which languages the individual speaks The speech pattern of a group often become as stigmatized as the group Historically the dialects of American English evolved as immigrants came to the US Dialects can also be indicative of close contact with other languages AAE is also called Black English Negro dialect NonStandard Negro dialect and Ebonics Their dialect is stigmatized because they are socially stigmatized The dialect has been incorrectly presumed to refer to the use of slang used by impoverished individuals with less education or to street language AAE is not bad or broken English AAE is not slang It is the language variety used by a large segment of the African American Population It has pronunciation conventions grammatical rules and semantic rules that are similar to MAE and West African languages Some distinctions from NigerCongo languages remain in the AAE used today such as regularized agreement and some tense and aspect patterns AAE is a product of interactions between slave workers and the amount of time spent with MAE speakers and the field Slaves were not often taught English properly and few were taught to read and so they didn t feel much need to assimilate to their new country This is much different from regular immigrants as immigrants were given plenty of opportunities to learn and readily accepted their new country This AAE language form has survived so long because of the Jim Crow Segregation laws that were put in place after slavery had ended This segregation allowed AAE to remain isolated enough to preserve the speech patterns of AAE Even without the Jim Crow Laws socioeconomic stratification has continue to sustain the isolation of AAE There are some features of AAE that are considered to be re ective of West African language rules Such as the aspectual marker be which is not in MAE AAE has many features that are both present and not present in MAE called contrastive features There are two types of contrastive features Those with no MAE counterparts Those that are obligatory in MAE but used variably in AAE These are mostly morphological endings Where MAE requires irregular agreement AAE calls for regularized agreement People switch between just AAE and a type of AAE where aspects of MAE are integrated into it or MAE is used more often This can be known as code switching Unlike other dialects that have geographically boundaries AAE has no boundaries Still most linguists consider AAE to be a dialect of English because it has more similarities than differences to MAE To be bilingual means that individuals speak and understand two languages There are varying definitions of bilinguals and different implications for the practice of speech language and hearing sciences The balanced definition re ects the idea that a bilingual individual must have equal uency in both languages However bilinguals move in and out of relative uency in both languages based on the social and educational demands that affect their lives There are different types of bilinguals based on how the two languages are learned and when the person learned the language o people who study foreign language in school to then travel live or work in a country where that language is spoken o people who learn a second language because they have immigrated to another country and must learn a second language to interact in a community are people who are exposed to two languages from birth are people who learn a second language in school or learn as an adult Different types of bilinguals will have different language development profiles Bilingualism is the continuum of relative proficiency in a speakers first and second languages Individuals may be proficient in their first language for certain tasks but their second language for others It is not uncommon for people to have a home language and a school language Bilinguals in interaction with other bilinguals may mix switch or borrow words across languages in a rule governed way Code switching is also used to describe instance in which bilinguals mix their languages Understanding bilinguals language learning circumstances may help audiologists and SLPs make better clinical judgments It is important that testing to be performed in all the languages of an individual to gain complete understanding of the person s speech and language functioning When two languages come into contact with each other they typically in uence each other mutually There is also evidence that the second language may in uence the first language Spanish speakers rely on nounverb agreement as an important grammatical cue English speakers rely on word order as a primary cue A final issue important to consider when working with individuals who come from different language backgrounds is that of culture Also consider the process of acculturation Reasons for acculturation may vary because some families want to maintain the home culture some want to adapt to the new culture immediately and others want to blend cultures Major federal legislation focus on improving reading achievement Despite these efforts the NAEP showed that reading proficiency scores were stagnant from 1995 to 2013 That is an unusually high rates of reading failure for culturally and linguistically diverse children Clearly significant improvements in education are needed if our nation s school are to meet the literacy needs of all students 1St graders tend to reduce their use of AAE in the school setting and use more MAE during second grade Students who adapt to the language and literacy tasks of the school curriculum by using more MAE language tend to have higher reading and writing scores
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