Week 2 Notes on Audio and Powerpoint Presentations
Week 2 Notes on Audio and Powerpoint Presentations Nres 220
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Michelle wilde on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nres 220 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Katherine Clancy in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 31 views. For similar materials see Global Climate Change and Water Resource in Environmental Science at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Greenhouse Gasei Importance Abundance how much they make up of the atmosphere Heat potential Lifetime how long until they break down Natura vs anthropogenic Natura vs anthropogenic increases Regulations Global Warming Potential Index GWP Method to compare all GHG39s Carbon Dioxide is the standard Defined as ratio of global warming from one unit of mass of a GHG to that of one unit of mass of carbon dioxide over a period of time 100 year impact Uncertainty of 35 Anthropogenic vs Natural Natural sources Volcanoes Wetlands Erosions and Natural Climate Change Anthropogenic Agricultural Fossil fuels Typicaly no sinks for Anthropogenicplaces for these gases to be stored Long lifetime inert stable Often heavier than air determines where they are going to reside in the atmosphere High GWP Low abundance since designed in 198039s and 199039s Most Important GHG Relative Abundance H20 Heat Potential Sulfur hexa ouride Lifetime Per uorocarbons Carbon Dioxide Pre industrial in 1850 280 part per million by volume 1999 C02 367 ppmv No indication that these levels occurred in the last 500000 years 31 increase since preindustrial GWP1 Lifetime Variable Methane Natural and anthropogenic Anaerobic decomposition of organic matter Wetand rice cultivation Cows Natural gas elds Coa mining GWP21 Lifetime 1112 years 150 increase since preindustrial times Nitrous Oxide Anthropogenic and natural Agricutura sois GPW310 Lifetime 120 years 16 increase Water Vapor Most abundant breaks down Affects hydrologic cycle ncreases couds Anthropogenic increases are indirect Natura GWP 01 Lifetime very short Water vapor has increased probably due to higher temperature leading to higher evaporation Varies with altitude too Su urhexa ou de ndustria nsuation in windows and for electrical Low abundance Very dense GWP 22800 Lifetime 800 years Good Ozone 18 km above earth Natural part of oxygen gas cycle In balance with oxygen Created when UV rays hit oxygen CFCs interfere with balance and bond with the 02 molecules Layer that lters electromagnetic radiationallows life Bad Ozone Close to earth39s surface Human produced Produced by sunlight and N02 lmpairs lung function quotphotochemical smogquot quotred ozone daysquot Not included in Kyotobecause variable and breaks down easily so considered an air pollution issue Per uorocarbons Alternative to Ozone Depleting Substances Anthropogenic Aluminum and semiconductor production per uorocarbons CF4 tetra uoromethane and C2F6 hexa uoroethane GWP of CF4 is 6500 50000 lifetime GWP of C2F6 is 9200 10000 lifetime 0 Low abundance but growing 0 Annual Increase of 13 per year for CF4 and 32 per year for C2F6 Hydro uorocarbons HFCs are manmade chemicals many of which have been developed as alternatives to ozonedepleting substances ODS for industrial commercial and consumer products GWP range from 14011700 Short lifetime 15 years Small increase in atmospheric concentrations but growing Short Lived GHGs Nitrogen oxides NOx Carbon Monoxide CO Sulfur Dioxide SOZ Nitrogen Dioxide N02 Local problems USA considers these under the CAA Anthropogenic Gases Halocarbons Per urocarbons Sulfur Hex uoride Produced from various industrial processes Not going to breakdown Determine which GHGs should be regulated Abundance concentration in atmosphere Heat potential global warming potential Lifetime Source anthropogenic or natural The more centralised something isthe easier it is to regulate Greenhouse Gas es Part 2 Carbon and Nitrogen Carbon Dioxide SourcesBiomass soil rocksediment Sinks Ocean Transferredreleased to the atmosphere Natural sink source and transfers Ocean C02 pulled into the ocean and released by ocean surface or marine biota when decays deposits C02 into intermediate and deep ocean then stored as sediment lf humans changeddisrupted it will change the ux moving into the atmosphere Changing land use Reforestation Uptake of C02 Urbanisation Release C02 ux is in favour of release so there is little balance Fossil Fuels ux going into atmosphere Organic Carbon Stored in Sediments and rocs Fossi fuels are concentration of peat coal oil and natural gas 1 unit of coal produces approximately 15 to 2 times more amount of C02 than petroleum and 2 times more than natural gas Eastern Europeandifferent entity from Europe in Kyoto protocol cause of the economy collapsed That time period is being taken into consideration for levels of emission so therefore there is less production so lower than even developing countries Nitrogen Cycling Air is major reservoir Source Most organisms cannot use N2 so they have to quot xquot itchanging it from N2 to something else Fixation Atmosphericlightening strikes biological xation Industrial make ammonia urea and ammonium nitrate fertilizer Nearly 50 Decay after biological xation nitrogen passes through food chain Waste products decays and broken into ammonia Nitri cationAmmonia taken up by plants directlyconverted into nitratesnitrites by nitrifying bacteria Denitri cation Bacteria that reduces nitrates to nitrogen gas Replenishes the atmosphere
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