Minimal Knowledge 4
Minimal Knowledge 4 HSC 201
Popular in Pathophysiology 1
Popular in Nursing and Health Sciences
This 18 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lydia on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HSC 201 at Illinois State University taught by Heather Mautino in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 43 views. For similar materials see Pathophysiology 1 in Nursing and Health Sciences at Illinois State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Fall 2015 Minimal Knowledge Lecture Pharmacology 1 Pharmacology The study of drugs their sources their nature and their properties Pharmacology is the study of the body39s reaction to drugs 2 Medication Prescribed by a physician it39s is a drug or medicine 3 Prescribed vs Dispensed vs Administered vs OTC Prescribed requires prescription written by HC provider requires 39prescription39 written by healthcare provider licensed to prescribed according to applicable laws and rules Have to be drug approved 0 State license to prescribe legend drugs categorized as Schedule Drugs IIV 2010 IL NPs ampPAs limited quantities of any five drugs on Schedule II In some state NPPA have limited prescription writing abilities if they do prescribe medication a lot of time the physician will cosign that medication Dispensed by licensed pharmacist o prepare and distribute medication Administered by CAN nurses licensed HC worker patient patient39s family to give as medicine remedially if you re an elderly person somebody responsible will dispensed your medications to you OTC Over The Counter can be purchased by anyone without a prescription sold lawfully without prescription Ex Tylenol Motrin cough medications 4 DEA federal agency The Drug Enforcement Administration of the US Department of Justice which regulates interstate commerce in prescription drugs to prevent them from being used as drugs of abuse Every prescription written in the US bears the DEA number of the prescribing physician medications has to have a DEA number in order for that drug to be dispensed to you Scheduled Drugs IIV list Schedule I Schedule I drugs substances or chemicals are defined as drugs with no currently accepted medical use and a high potential for abuse Schedule I drugs are the most dangerous drugs of all the drug schedules with potentially severe psychological or physical dependence Some examples of Schedule I drugs are heroin ysergic acid diethyamide LSD marijuana cannabis 34 methylenedioxymethamphetamine ecstasy methaqualone bath salts and peyote Schedule II Schedule II drugs substances or chemicals are defined as drugs with a high potential for abuse less abuse potential than Schedule I drugs with use potentially leading to severe psychological or physical dependence These drugs are also considered dangerous Some examples of Schedule II drugs are Combination products with less than 15 milligrams of hydrocodone per dosage unit Vicodin cocaine methamphetamine methadone hydromorphone Dilaudid meperidine Demerol oxycodone OxyContin fentanyl Dexedrine ADAH drugs Vyvanse Adderall and Ritalin Schedule III Schedule III drugs substances or chemicals are defined as drugs with a moderate to low potential for physical and psychological dependence Schedule III drugs abuse potential is less than Schedule I and Schedule II drugs but more than Schedule IV Some examples of Schedule III drugs are Products containing less than 90 milligrams of codeine per dosage unit Tylenol with codeine ketamine anabolic steroids testosterone LidoProfen Vicodin Schedule IV Schedule IV drugs substances or chemicals are defined as drugs with a ow potential for abuse and low risk of dependence Some examples of Schedule IV drugs are Xanax Soma Darvon Darvocet Valium Ativan Talwin Ambien Tramadol valium Schedule V Schedule V drugs substances or chemicals are defined as drugs with lower potential for abuse than Schedule IV and consist of preparations containing limited quantities of certain narcotics Schedule V drugs are generally used for antidiarrheal antitussive and analgesic purposes Some examples of Schedule V drugs are cough preparations with less than 200 milligrams of codeine or per 100 milliliters Robitussin AC Lomotil Motofen Lyrica Parepectolin 6 FDA federal agency 0 Legal responsibility to decide whether a drug may be distributed sold recalled federal entity Drugs are controlled and approved by the FDA Food amp Drug Administration Legal responsibility to decide whether a drug may be distributed sold recalled federal entity a federal agency responsible for monitoring trading and safety standards in the food and drug industries 7 United States Pharmacopoeia USP Nongovernmental notforprofit public health organization whose independent volunteer experts work under strict conflictofinterest rules to set its scientific standards that contains legally recognized standards of identity strength quality purity packaging and labeling for drug substances dosage forms and other therapeutic products including nutritionals and dietary supplements USP designated means that it has met its standards they basically set standards for the quality and safety of the medication 8 Drug Formu la ry o Identifies specific drugs that are available to the physician for prescription drugs that are approved for a diesase or condition by the FDA A list of prescription drugs both generic and brand name used by practitioners to identify drugs that offer the greatest overall value A committee of physicians nurse practitioners and pharmacists maintain the formulary 9 Hypercholesterolemia An excess of cholesterol in the bloodstream 10 Pravachol Lipitor Off Formulary which means that the physicians are not able to use Sometime the off formulary drugs are more expensive than the formulary drugs and if there was no other medications to use and you had to use quotLipitorquot then you would have to present something to the insurance companies so that they would cover that medication 11 Trade name 0 Proprietary 0 Private property of individual drug manufacturer registered trademark The trademark name or commercial trade name for a material or product that39s registered 12 Proprietary name Privately owned owned by company that manufactures the drug A commercial name granted by a naming authority for use in marketing a drugdevice product in a particularjurisdiction 13 Generic name 0 Identifies drug for legal amp scientific purposes 0 Official name 0 Generic name becomes public after 17 years of use The official nonproprietary name of a drug under which it is licensed and identified by the manufacturer 14 Chemical name 0 From chemical formula The exact designation ofthe chemical structure of a drug as determined by the rules of accepted systems of chemical nomenclature 15 As referenced in Pharmacology Figure NO 1 THERAPEUTIC RANGE Therapeut39c Etfect Tnerapeunc Rangequot Suboptimal Le39u els SubOptimal Icvcls Ting21 x39u39 i39Vr quot39t 39itrul 6711 lquoti uquot 39anal w 1h 4 39 39 4 o v L Ido IV J 39v l39p39L 39 0 4 Therapeutic effect In ll39o Cat4 of an ntr3939f 39mr 3 an n angtl 12 3 IN quotJ RNA 39lu anyway r 334 CL 393 at wj 1m r39 rot1quot of 39 39 Therapeutic range 739 112quot quot9 ifquot lquot 39 63 tr39393939v 391 Linm2 L J U39J 63939L393 that 39 c quotloquot39lj1t j 4133 391 a 131 9 o Toxic effect Tax 77 from the r Therapeutic Effect versus Toxic Effect What drug dose is needed to work that39s the range between therapeutic and toxic Suboptimal if you have too low and it39s not going to work m if you have too high it may work to help you get better but you may have more toxicities more side effects in your system if you have too high of a dose of a medication Therapeutic range there39s not too many side effects and the benefits versus the risks are acceptable so you39re going to have more benefits and there may be a slight risk maybe you re a little nauseous with this med or dry mouth but those side effects aren39t enough for you to take the med for you to feel better You have to have a balance you may have to get a side effect in order to get the benefit of the drug a Therapeutic Effect Is a consequence of a medical treatment of any kind the results of which are judged to be desirable and beneficial This is true whether the result was expected unexpected or even an unintended consequence ofthe treatment An adverse effect on the other hand is a harmful and undesired effect b Toxic Effect An adverse effect of a drug produced by an exaggeration of the effect that produces the therapeutic response c Addition action 112 2 drugs that work together and you get an okay reaction Aspirin amp Motrin d Synergistic action 113 2 drugs that don39t work well together and you get a worse reaction one adds to effect of other Valium amp Alcohol e Idiosyncrasy Unexpected effect opposite then what you expected it to be it has the opposite effect then what it39s supposed An abnormal physical reaction by an individual to a food or drug f Tolerance Decrease effects of give dose as prescription continues body becomes immune to it Your body39s ability to become adjusted to something such as a drug so that its effects are experienced less strongly or doesn t work at all so you either have to switch to higher doses or switch meds altogether g Side Effects Toxic effects routinely resulting from drug A secondary typically undesirable effect of a drug or medical treatment Contraindications Factors of patient continues makes drug administration quotdangerous amp ill advisedquot it may cause another medical condition so if you take this drug medication you run the risk of becoming ill with it Ex Drug for acne was causing organ failure birth control you could possible get blood clots A contraindication is a specific situation in which a drug procedure or surgery should not be used because it may be harmful to the person There are two types of contraindications Relative contraindication means that caution should be used when two drugs or procedures are used together It is acceptable to do so if the benefits outweigh the risk Absolute contraindication means that event or substance could cause a lifethreatening situation A procedure or medicine that falls under this category should be avoided i Iatrogenic Effect Produced by treatment Conditions do not necessarily result from medical errors such as mistakes made in surgery or the prescription or dispensing of the wrong therapy such as a drug In fact intrinsic and sometimes adverse effects of a medical treatment are iatrogenic 16 Topical on body a Antiseptic are routinely thought of as topical agents for application to skin mucous membranes and inanimate objects although a formal definition includes agents which are used internally such as the urinary tract antiseptics Capable of preventing infection by inhibiting the growth of infectious agents A PT AM 21 I1 u ecu0n Cull 10th es ab 39 Bsi c 39 rou quot5 I M In re 9h quotseq thequot 333 0 men quot1 30w hands an 39 quot an 39 quot 11 us gentla form Cracked hquot bun 5 g mesu h wn hrskinquotquotn x Ind 51th a mm 5d e and by fightlnmzq39stu s 39 quot b Antipruritic preventing or relieving itching ortizone39a c Patch transdermal is a medicated adhesive patch that is placed on the skin to deliver a specific dose of medication through the skin and into the bloodstream Often this promotes healing to an injured area of the body NiQH39LCiH STOP SMOKING AID IIIII it nciosc mslruu I hSI 39 39 39 u 0 lhe reach and sight of hildron ada kanakkanak 1 4 H 39A V a mm mm 4 m anquot Claxn vmllm 17 Oral popo by mouth a Liguid W a x iland com a c Capsule d Wafer e Enteric coated Coated with a material that permits transit through the stomach to f Time released consisting of or containing a drug that is released in small amounts over time as by dissolution of a coating usually in the gastrointestinal tract g Extended release means the pill is formulated so that the drug is released slowly over time This has the advantage of taking pills less often Also means that there may be fewer side effects as the levels of the of drug in the body are more consistent in extended release formulations 18 Sublingual SL SL below tongue Underneath the tongue Sycre St 10mg sublingual tablets asenapine I guJMs 19 Inhalation Aerosol The inhaling of medicines or anesthetics in the form of a gas or vapora preparation to be inhaled in the form of a vapor or spray A colloid system in which solid or liquid particles are suspended in a gas especially a suspension of a drug or other substance to be dispensed in a cloud or mist Inhalation Aerosol 20 Parenteral Taken into the body or administered in a manner otherthan through the digestive tract as by intravenous or intramuscular injection ir I Intramuacular Subcutaneous a Subcutaneous subcusubq Under the skin For example a subcutaneous injection is an injection in which a needle is inserted just underthe skin Subclu tameDUE ti ssue b Intradermal Situated occurring or done within or between the layers of the skin also administered by entering the skin c Intramuscular IM Situated ortaking place within or administered into a muscle d Intravenous IV Existing or taking place within or administered into a vein or veins e Intrathecal Occurring within or administered into the spinal theca I T Vertebra Spinal cord Cerebrospinal uid Skin 1 Needle Diagram showing how you have a lumbar puncture Copyright CancerHelp UK f Intracavitary Situated or occurring within a body cavity especially of relating to or being treatment as of cancer characterized by the insertion of especially radioactive substances in a cavityEx Bladder abdomen 21 Antiinfective Antimicrobials antibiotic of a drug used to prevent infection 22 Antimicrobial Ending to destroy microbes to prevent their multiplication or growth or to prevent their pathogenic action Effectiveness is to specific organisms 0 Viral bacterial fungus protozoan spirochete Ex Ceclor cefactor Keflin cephalothin amoxicillin Amoxil penicillin V potassium PenVee k 23 Antibiotic A medicine such as penicillin or its derivatives that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms 24 Viral Infection caused by the presence of a virusin the body Depending on the virus and the person39s state of health various viruses can infect almost any type of body tissue from the m to the SKA Lal infections cannot be treated with typical antibiotics antibacterial antibiotics in fact in some cases the use of antibacterial antibiotics may cause sideeffects that complicate the viral infection 25 Bacterial Of relating to or caused by bacteria 26 PO Per os by mouth that is orally 27 IM Intramuscular 28 IV Intravenous 29 Systemic vs Local Systemic effect the whole system Local effects one general area 30 Antihista mine Immune system shuts down allergic response A drug or other compound that inhibits the physiological effects of histamine used especially in the treatment of allergies Ex Dra mamine Benadryl 31 Anticonvulsant A medication used to control prevent seizures convulsions or stop an ongoing series of seizures Ex Phenytoin Dilantin phenobarbital Tegretol carbamezepine 32 Antidepressant chiefly of a drug used to alleviate depression Ex Elavil Prozac Paxil 33 Anxiolytic chiefly of a drug used to reduce anxiety Ex Valium Xanax 34 Antidiabetic Counteracting diabetes denoting an agent that reduces blood sugar Ex Insulin Regular Humulin Iletin Lente Oral Drugs Diabinase Glucophage 35 Anticoagulant Having the effect of retarding or inhibiting the coagulation ofthe blood Ex Herparin circulation Coumadin sodium warfarin Liver tPA clot buster circulation 36 Ca rdioton ic Exerting a favorable socalled tonic effect on the action of the heart usually intended to indicate increased force of contraction Ex Lanoxin digoxin Crystodigin digitoxin 37 Antiarrhythmic Are drugs that are used to treat abnormal heart rhythms resulting from irregular electrical activity of the heart a Betablocker any of a class of drugs that prevent the stimulation of the adrenergic receptors responsible for increased cardiac action Beta blockers are used to control heart rhythm treat angina and reduce high blood pressure Ex Inderal propranoo b Calciumchannel blocker are prescription medications that relax blood vessels and increase the supply of blood and oxygen to the heart while also reducing the heart39s workload Ex Procardia nifedipine Isoptin verapami c ACEInhibitor angiotensin converting enzyme class of drugs that block the conversion of angiotensin I to angiotensin II used in the treatment of hypertension and congestive heart failure and in the prevention of microvascular complications of diabetes mellitus DM 38 Antihypertensive Beta blockers amp Calcium channel blockers ampACEinhibitors Vasodilators Ex Capoten captopril Diuretics Ex Lasix furosemide Something that reduces high blood pressure hypertension 39 Vasodila tor Are medications that open dilate blood vessels They work directly on the muscles in the walls of your arteries preventing the muscles from tightening and the walls from narrowing 40 Va soconstrictor Is the narrowing of the blood vessels resulting from contraction of the muscular wall of the vessels in particular the large arteries and small arterioles The process is the opposite of vasodilation the widening of blood vessels Ex Norepinephrine helps raise blood pressure 41 Diuretic chiefly of drugs causing increased passing of urine 42 Cholesterollowering Cholesterolreducing drugs are medicines that lower the amount of cholesterol a fatlike substance in the blood Ex Lipitor Mecacor lovastatin Pravachol decrease cardiovascular disease 43 Hormone Replacement Therapy HRT a Androgen A male sex hormone such as testosterone methyltestorserone Virilon treats testosterone deficiency treats prostate cancer b Estrogen Any of a group of steroid hormones that promote the development and maintenance of female characteristics of the body Such hormones are also produced artificially for use in oral contraceptives or to treat menopausal and menstrual disorders Ex Premarin Estradiol Menopause for short term bases only treat breast cancer c Progestin A natural or synthetic steroid hormone such as progesterone that maintains pregnancy and prevents further ovulation during pregnancy Ex Provera medroxyprogesterone Menopause or hormone control is used for replacementlong term use d Thyroid A large ductless gland in the neck that secretes hormones regulating growth and development through the rate of metabolism Ex Synthroid levothyroxineTreat hypothyroidism e Glucocorticoid Any of a group of corticosteroids eg hydrocortisone that are involved in the metabolism of carbohydrates proteins and fats and have antiinflammatory activityEx Decadron dexamethasone perdnisone DeltasoneTreat immune system problems 44 Antiacids chiefly of a medicine preventing or correcting acidity especially in the stomach nutrilizes stomach Ex Mylanta Gaviscon 45 Antiulcer Used to treat ulcers in the stomach and the upper part of the small intestine GI acid prevention drug Ex Tagamet cimetidine Zantac ranitidine Pepsid 46 Antid ia rrheal of a drug used to alleviate diarrhea Ex Imodium ioperamide Paregoric 47 Cathartic stool softeners chiefly of a drug purgative strongly laxative in effect Laxatives mild Purgatives strong 48 Antie metic chiefly of a drug preventing vomiting Ex Compazine Tigan Antivert meclizine Zofran 49 Bronchodilator A drug that causes widening of the bronchi eg any of those taken by inhalation for the alleviation of asthma Ex Proventil albuterol aminophyline TheoDur theophylline 50 Stimulant A substance that raises levels of physiological or nervous activity in the body Ex Amphetamine quotuppersquot Caffine 51 Hypnotic A sleepinducing drug Ex Ambien Dalmane Restoril Halcion 52 Ba rb iturate Any of a class of sedative and sleepinducing drugs derived from barbituric acid Ex Phenobarbital
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