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Week Two Notes

by: Marisa Loken

Week Two Notes Bio 385

Marisa Loken
GPA 3.0
Human Physiology
Dr. Jennifer Bray

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About this Document

Here is week two of notes and some notes added in from the book! One and a half more weeks until our first test! Keep an eye out for the first study guide coming soon!
Human Physiology
Dr. Jennifer Bray
Class Notes
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Marisa Loken on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 385 at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point taught by Dr. Jennifer Bray in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 78 views. For similar materials see Human Physiology in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Stevens Point.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Physiology Notes Week Two Tuesday September 8 2015 Endoplasmic Reticulum ER Synthesizes proteins and lipids Two kinds 0 Rough ER more dense Contains ribosomes that synthesize the protein Synthesized products move from rough to smooth ER 0 Smooth ER More sparse Lacks ribosomes Serves primarily as a central packaging and discharge site Portions of smooth ER form transport vesicles that enclose the new molecules Golgi Complex Separate membrane 0 Modi es molecules into nished products 0 Sorts packages and directs molecules to appropriate destinations 0 Produce lysosomes Contain digestive enzymes Exocytosis A secretory vesicle fuses with the plasma membrane releasing the vesicle contents to the cell exterior o Opposite of this is endocytosis Mitochondria Convert energy in food molecules to usable energy stored in ATP molecules Powerhouse of the cell Heart contains many as does liver skeletal muscle Cytoskeleton Complex protein network that acts as quotbone and muscle of cell Three main types 0 Microtubules Rigid hollow tube individual tubal segments Found in cilia and agella o Micro laments Smaller exible Made of actin in muscle Microvilli 0 Intermediate laments Made of keratin Found in the skin END OF CHAPTER TWO BEGIN CHAPTER THREE Membrane Functions 1 Controls movement of molecules between ICE and ECE 0 Highly Selective 0 Maintain ionic concentration inside and outside 0 Intake nutrients releasing waste 2 Participates in joining cells to form tissues and organs 3 Plays important role in ability of cell to respond to changes in environment 0 Internal hormones Membrane Structure A bilayer of a phospholipid molecules with interspersed b proteins C carbohydrates attached an outer surface 0 Cell marker attached to cell identify cell type D cholesterol molecules located between the phospholipids contribute to uidity o Kind of like vegetable oil 0 Cholesterol helps keep uidity without it it would crystalize Phospholipids 1 cell has one billion phospholipids Have a polar head and two nonpolar fatty acid chain tails 0 Polar end is hydrophilic quotwater lovingquot because it interacts with water molecules Phosphate group negative charge 0 Nonpolar end is hydrophobic quotwater fearingquot will not mix with water No charge 0 Two Main Types lntegral membrane proteins 0 Are embedded in lipid bilayer o Peripheral membrane proteins 0 Do not penetrate the membrane on surface only 0 Hydrophilic Membrane Protein Functions Channels for passage of small ions Carriers for transport of substance 0 Glucose transporter helps glucose Docking marker acceptors for secretory vesicle Membrane bound enzymes 0 ATPases break down ATP Receptors for responding to chemical messengers o Neurotransmitter Cell adhesion molecules CAMS hold the cell together Membrane Carbohydrates Location on outer membrane surface Can be bound to proteins glycoproteins or lipids glycolipids Serve as selfrecognition markers 0 Important in development 0 Involved in tissue growth Cell to Cell Adhesions The extracellular matrix ECM binds cells together Consists of three types of protein bers 0 Collagen o Elastin o Fibronectin Cells are also held together by desmosomes tight junctions and gap juncUons Desmosomes Act like quotVelcroquot and anchor two adjacent nontouching cells Plaques held together by cadhering molecule Keratin strengthen cells Most abundant in tissues that are subject to stretching Lab 1 Lecture Notes Permeability Rate at which cell allows things in Study of transport Water can move in and out of the cell at regular Phospholipid lnclude long carbon chains attatched to two hydrogen ions 0 Hydrocarbon 0 Example gasoline Can refer to lecture notes from Tuesday September 8 Water Soluble Transport protein 0 Pore or channel Allows protein to enter or exit cell Built of amino acids For very small molecules or ions Transporters 0 Many proteins make up these channels 0 Can change and alter the shape of the proteins Passive Transport No added energy Things move from high concentration to low concentration Active Transport Transporter proteins with an energy producing system ATP breakdown Concentration Everyday vs Clinical Setting 0 Every day example Blood alcohol content 0 Clinical setting example Drugs Measurements in moles per liter Thursday September 10 2015 Chapter 3 Continued Tight Junctions Firmly bond adjacent cells together Seal off the passageway between the two cells Found primarily in sheets of epithelial tissue 0 Skin digestive tract lining Gap Junctions Small tunnels formed by proteins called connexons o Connexons made up of six subunits2 form a gap junction 0 Connexin is one subunit Allow direct transfer of small molecules from one cell to another 0 Small molecules like ions Abundant in cardiac and smooth muscle Always open Permeability If a substance can cross the membrane the membrane is permeable to the substance Two properties determine permeability o Lipid solubility fatty 0 Particle size smaller is better Permeation through Lipid Bilayer Gases can actively pass through Steroids can pass through 0 Both Hydrophobic Small uncharged polar molecules Dslowly glycerol water Will not cross 0 Large uncharged polar molecules sucrose glucose 0 lons sodium potassium Membrane transport Passive Transport 0 No energy required 0 Down concentration gradient 0 3 types Simple diffusion unassisted Osmosis Facilitated diffusion Simple Diffusion Diffusion is the movement of molecules from high concentration to low concentration Unassisted and passive Uniform spreading out of molecules due to random intermingling Occurs until equilibrium is reached Ion Channels lons move across the membrane through channels 0 Speci c to one type of ion lons move hrough channel 0 Down their concentration gradient 0 Down electrical gradient Friday September 11 2015 Chapter 3 continued Fick39s Law of Diffusion Factors in uencing the rate of net diffusion of a substance across a membrane 1 Concentration of gradient of substancerate of diffusion goes up 2 Surface area of the membranerate of diffusion goes up 3 Lipid soubiityrate of diffusion goes up 4 Molecular weight of substancerate of diffusion goes down 5 Distance thickness of membranerate of diffusion goes down Osmosis Is the process of water moving passively down its own concentration gradient to an area of higher solute concentration Water channels D aquaporins o 4 types and important in kidneys De nitions Pure water 0 One hundred percent water 0 Zero percent solvent Solvent 0 What is dissolved in a solute Solute o Ninety percent water and ten percent solvent Hydrostatic pressure 0 Pushing pressure opposes water Osmolarity Total number of solute particles per liter Moles and osmols o Osmol one mole of solute particles 0 1 mole glucose 1 osmL o 1 mole NaCL 2 osmL o 1 mole CaCl2 3 osmL Osmotic Pressure The pressure required to stop osmosis o Pulling Pressure Tonicity The effect a solution has on a cell volume lsotonic solution 0 Has the same concentration of solute as normal body cells 300 osmL Hypotonic solution 0 Below normal concentration of solutes 0 Cells expand Hypertonic solution 0 Above the normal concentration of solutes o The cells shrink Facilitated Diffusion Requires a carrier protein Assisted membrane transport The carrier moves the particle down the concentration gradient 0 Carriers are bidirectional ows to where concentration is higher Passive Example glucose 0 Binds to carrier protein changes so binding site is exposed to lower concentration released into cell Assisted Membrane Transport Carriermediated transport 0 Carrier opens to ECF binds to site 0 Carrier changes shape exposing same site to other side of membrane o Moved to other sides and detaches from membrane 0 Goes back to original shape 3 characteristics 0 Speci city Each protein specialized for certain proteins 0 Saturation Transport maximum 0 Limit a cell can be transported 0 Competition Amino acids compete for carrier proteins Active Transport Energy is required Area of low to high concentration Against concentration gradient Assisted means requires carrier proteins Two types 0 Primary active transport Requires direct use of ATP Examples Sodium Potassium Calcium 0 Secondary active transport Driven by an ion concentration gradient Two types Symport 0 Driving ion concentration down 0 Helps other ion Antiport o Opposite direction 0 Sodium usually present


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