Psychology 1113, Week 6, Chapter 6
Psychology 1113, Week 6, Chapter 6 PSY 1113
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This page Class Notes was uploaded by Elsa Finley-Combs on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 1113 at University of Oklahoma taught by Jenel Cavazos in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Elements of Psychology in Psychlogy at University of Oklahoma.
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Intro to Psychology Chapter 6 Week 6 Classical Conditioning Leaming A noticeable change in behavior resulting from new experiences Behaviorism Theory of learning that speci cally focuses on behavior that one can see and observe 2 Major Types of Learning Associative learning When one learns an association between two events Observational events When one learns by observing and imitating another s behavior Classical Conditioning Type of learning where a natural response to a one stimulus is paired with a neutral stimulus until that neutral stimulus causes the same response Ex Pavlov s Experiment Ivan Pavlov Russian scientist alive between the years of 18491936 Pavlov intended to study the digestion of dogs by measuring their salvation but instead he incidentally trained them to salivate at the sound of a bell Pavlov s Classical Conditioning Experiment Pavlov set the dogs up in a device with a tube attached to their salivary gland Pavlov would ring a bell and give them food as he did so Repeated pairings Dogs would begin to salivate when Pavlov rang the bell even when there wasn t food involved Classical Conditioning does not have to involve an auditory stimulus like the bell Neutral Stimulus NS In an experiment the stimulus that does not produce an interesting or unique response EX The bell in Pavlov s experiment Unconditioned Stimulus Stimulus that naturally causes the studied response of interest EX The food in Pavlov s experiment causing salivation Unconditioned Response Natural response to the unconditioned stimulus EX Salivation in response to the food Conditioned Stimulus Previously a Neutral Stimulus that triggers a conditioned response after being paired with the unconditioned stimulus EX The bell in Pavlov s Experiment Conditioned Response Automatic response to the conditioned stimulus after the conditioned stimulus has been paired with the stimulus that normally causes that response EX Salivation in Pavlov s Experiment in response to the bell Acquisition First stages of learning the connection between the Conditioned and Unconditioned stimuli The two are repeatedly paired until the Conditioned Stimulus produces a response Contiguity Conditioned Stimulus and Unconditioned Stimulus are paired with very little time in between the two One stimulus is presented right after the other Contingency Conditioned Stimulus indicates that the Unconditioned Stimulus is coming up They are not just paired the CS signals that the US is on its way Neutral stimulus BECOMES the conditioned stimulus after it has been paired over and over again They are the same thing If stimulus is conditioned the response is conditioned learned If stimulus is unconditioned the response is unconditioned naturally occurring THE DIFFERENCE BETWEEN THE TWO IS LEARNING Can We Condition Humans John B Watson Extended classical conditioning to human subjects Conditioned a small boy Little Albert to be afraid of rats gt Easier to condition babieskids The Rat Experiment Watson wanted to make Little Albert afraid of white rats Unconditioned stimulus Loud noise Loud noise paired with white rat repeatedly Watson put the white rat in Little Albert s lap then made a loud noise that scared the child Little Albert grew afraid of rats and would cry when the white rat was put in his lap Albert s fear of white rats was generalized to other small white objects and small furry things like rabbits Stimulus Discrimination Being able to tell the difference between very different stimuli but not very similar stimuli like white rats and tiny white things gt Albert s fear was never undone but scientists ARE able to unconditionrecondition For example scientists could pair the rat with candy or toys to undo Albert s fear of the rat Because his fear was never undone this experiment is considered unethical Immunosuppression and Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning can even cause immunosuppression or the lesser production of anti bodies which will inhibit a persons ability to fight disease Scientists tested this theory on humans by giving patients with multiple sclerosis a drug to suppress the immune system accompanied with avored water Eventually the avored water alone was enough to lower the functioning of the subjects immune systems Taste Aversion Classical conditioning in which a particular taste will cause a person to feel nauseous Can also happen when the taste of the food does not cause the sickness but is instead just associated with a sickness like eating a hot dog and then being spun around quickly in a chair Classical Conditioning in Media In advertising products are paired with objects that are generally liked or desired so that consumers will want to buy said products EX CocaCola pairs adorable polar bears with its soda EX Car commercials frequently pair cars with sex so the cars are viewed as sexy and desirable EXAMPLES CocaCola ad example Neutral Stimulus Coke Unconditioned Stimulus Polar Bears Unconditioned Response Aw the polar bears are adorable we like polar bears Conditioned Stimulus Coke Conditioned Response Coke is awesome like the polar bears We like Coke Car Commercials Neutral Stimulus Brand of car Unconditioned Stimulus Sexy woman or such Unconditioned Response Ooh sexy woman We like the sexy woman Conditioned Stimulus Brand of car Conditioned Response That car is totally sexy We like the car Operant Conditioning Operant Conditioning Learning the consequences of voluntary behavior Good responses are rewarded bad responses are punished in order to strengthen or weaken the responses Thomdike s Law of Effect Behaviors that appear to have good effects will be strengthened just as behaviors that have bad affects will be weakened Thondike came to this theory after placing a hungry cat in a box with a lever that would give the cat access to a fish The cat had to learn to press the lever in order to get the fish The pressing of the lever was the good behavior and the sh was the good effect BF Skinner Worked with operant conditioning Used a mechanism called the Skinner Box Rats would be placed in this box and as they explored if they pressed a lever they would be given food They learned that this food was a positive consequence and thus learned to press the lever gt Operant conditioning can somewhat be applied to human superstitions If a person was wearing a certain different pair of socks and in those socks they happened to win a soccer game once or twice those socks suddenly become lucky socks Reinforcement Positive Reinforcement Behavior is awarded by the addition of a positive stimulus Food etc Negative Reinforcement Behavior is awarded the removal of an undesirable stimulus EX Aspirin Taking an aspirin removes headache pain so the removal of that pain causes a person to continue taking the aspirin Positive and negative reinforcement do not deal with good and bad reinforcement but rather reinforcement through the removal of undesirable stuff or the addition of desirable stuff Avoidance Learning When a person or animal learns not to do a certain response or learns to do a response in order to avoid a negative stimulus Primary Reinforcer An object that reinforces behavior because it is naturally satisfying fulfills a biological need EX Food is most common Secondary Reinforcer Object that reinforces behavior because it is associated with a primary reinforcer It can be used to achieve a biological need EX Money Money can be used to buy food a biological need Positive Punishment Stimulus is added to decrease the probability of a behavior occurring Negative Punishment Stimulus is removed to decrease the probability of behavior occurring gt Research dictates that reinforcement is more successful in producing good desirable behavior Instead of showing what not to do reinforcement shows the subject what they should do Is more specific and trains good behavior gt Punishment especially physical sends the wrong message Don t hit kids on the playground Timmy Proceeds to spank Timmy for hitting kids on playground Ineffective hypocritical gt However punishment can be better in some situations Dangerous situations as punishment can produce immediate compliance Schedules of Reinforcement Different patterns of frequency and timing of reinforcement following desired behavior Continuous ReinforcementPunishment Response immediately issued every time a behavior happens EX Vending Machines Gives out food every time it s given money Partial ReinforcementPunishment Responding some of the time a behavior reoccurs EX Slot machines Gives out a bigger payout some of the time To establish a behavior a person should use continuous reinforcement To continue a behavior long term a person should use partial reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Fixed Reinforcement is on schedule Variable Reinforcement is not on schedule Ratio How many times behavior was done vs Interval Time interval during study Ratio schedule Fixed ratio schedule Reinforcement is given after a specific number of responses like a punch rewards cards that give you a free thing after 20 responses or so Frequency of Response Steady rate of response Variable Ratio schedule Happens based on number of responses but you never know when the reinforcement is coming Fixed Interval schedules Reinforcement given after certain period of time Weekly paycheck slower rate of response because not up to you up to time Variable Interval Schedules Reinforcement given after average time but we don t know when it will be applied Weakest rate of response but steady rate of response EX Pop quiz every week Observational Learning Albert Bandura says that many behaviors that are more complex are learned through observation of wellconstructed models Observational Learning A person learns by observing and recreating behavior 4 Main Processes involved in Observational Learning Attention Bring attention to the model doing behavior Retention Memories must be encoded by the observer s brain Motor Reproduction Person must have the necessary motor skills to recreate the behavior Reinforcement Positive or negative reinforcement of observed behavior to keep person doing it or keep them from doing it