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EXSS 175 Week 8 Notes

by: Lynde Wangler

EXSS 175 Week 8 Notes EXSS 175

Lynde Wangler
GPA 3.836

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Digestive System notes
Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik
Class Notes
Human Anatomy
25 ?





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This 14 page Class Notes was uploaded by Lynde Wangler on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to EXSS 175 at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill taught by Dr. Johna Register-Mihalik in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see HUMAN ANATOMY in Physical Education at University of North Carolina - Chapel Hill.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
EXSS 175 Week 8  Endocrine System – 6A  Endocrine system: regulation of body activities by releasing hormones (chemical messengers transported in the blood from an endocrine gland to a target organ)  What is the Endocrine System? – not one organ or a group of physically connected organs; composed of “ductless glands” that synthesize and secrete chemical messengers (hormones) directly into the bloodstream; control and coordinate the body  Endocrine vs. Nervous System Characteristic Nervous Endocrine Mediator molecules Nerve impulses Hormones Cells affected Muscle, glands, other Virtually all body cells neurons Time to onset of action Miliseconds Seconds – hours – days Duration of action Generally briefer Generally longer Feedback Sensory input Ca2+, glucose, hormones, others  Homeostasis: condition of equilibrium/balance in the body’s internal environment; endocrine system helps maintain the body homeostasis mostly through negative feedback mechanisms  Negative Feedback Systems: negative feedback system reverses a change in a controlled condition (like a thermostat) o Negative feedback is seen when the output of a pathway inhibits inputs to the pathway  Glands: o Exocrine glands – secretion to ducts that carry the secretion into body cavities, lumen of organs, or outside of the body (ex. sudoriferous, sebaceous, mucous, digestive) o Endocrine glands – secretion into extracellular space for diffusion into the blood  Endocrine Glands (exclusive): pituitary, thyroid, parathyroid, adrenal, pineal  Endocrine glands – organs secreting hormones, but not exclusively endocrine glands: thymus gland, pancreas, testes and ovaries, kidneys, stomach, liver, small intestine, skin, heart, placenta  Hormones: more than 50 types in the body; affects only target cells (target cells have specific hormone receptors); hormone output controlled by: o 1. Input from the nervous system, 2. Chemical changes in the blood, 3. Other hormones o Amount released depends on the amount needed  Hormone Functions: o Help regulate – composition & volume of interstitial fluid, metabolism & energy balance, smooth & cardiac muscle contraction, glandular secretions, some immune activities o Control growth & development o Contribute to reproductive processes o Help establish cardiac rhythms  Specific Endocrine Glands and Hormones: o Pituitary glands –  Anterior pituitary – 5 types of endocrine cells and 7 hormones  Posterior pituitary – oxytocin and antidiruretic hormone o Thyroid gland – thyroid hormones (T3 and T4) and Calcitonin o Parathyroid gland – parathyroid hormone o Adrenal gland – steroid hormones and catecholamines o Pancreas o Pineal glands – insulin and glucagen o Others – melatonin  Pituitary Gland: o Location – hypophyseal fossa of sella turcica (sphenoid bone) o Structure – 0.5 inches in diameter; suspended from hypothalamus by infundibulum; anterior/posterior pituitary; pars intermedia o “Master Gland” = controls other endocrine glands and is controlled by the hypothalamus  Major link between nervous and endocrine systems  Receives input from various areas of brain and sends signals to the pituitary gland  “regulatory center”  Important roles in growth, development, metabolism, and homeostasis o Hypophyseal Portal System: amterior pituitary hormone secretion is regulated by the hormones released by the hypothalamus  Plexi (network of capillaries)  Portal veins  Hypothalamus communicates with the posterior pituitary  hypothalamohypothyseal tract  Hypothalamic Regulation of the Pituitary Gland (slide)  Pituitary Gland: o Anterior pituitary – (adenohypophysis) 75% of total mass; synthesizes, stores, and secretes hormones; influences other endocrine glands o Posterior pituitary gland – (neurohypophysis); stores and releases hormones; receives nerve impulses from the hypothalamus  Anterior Pituitary: o 1. Somatotrophs – growth and metabolism (liver); Human Growth Hormone (HGH) o 2. Thyrotrophs – govern thyroid gland activity; thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) o 3. Gonadotrophs – affect ovaries and testes; follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH); Lutenizing hormone (LH) o 4. Lactotrophs – milk production (mammary glands); Prolactin (PRL) o Corticotrophs – adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH); melanocyte- stimulating hormone (MSH) – skin pigmentation  Posterior Pituitary Gland: o 1. Antidiruretic Hormone (ADH) – regulates water content; decrease urine production (kidneys & arterioles); water loss during sweating (sweat glands) o 2. Oxytocin (OT) – target cells: uterus and breasts; uterus: smooth muscle contraction during labor; breasts: milk let down from mammary glands o “suckling response”  Disorders: Pituitary Gland o Hyposecretion – not enough secretion o Hypersecretion – too much secretion o Dwarfism – hyposecretion of HGH (premature closure of epiphyseal plates); proportionate body segments; less common than achondroplasia o Giantism – hypersecretion of HGH during childhood o Acromegaly – hypersecretion of HGH during adulthood; thickening of bones; unable to lengthen due to closed epiphyseal plates Muscle Lecture #4 Muslces 36-55  Anterior Forearm o Pronator Teres o Flexor Carpi Radialis o Palmaris Longus o Flexor Capri Ulnaris o Flexor Digitorum Superficialis o Flexor Digitorum Profundus o Flexor Pollicis Longus o Pronator Quadratus  Pronator Teres Origin Humeral head: Medial supracondylar ridge and of the humerus; Ulnar head: coronoid process Insertion Midlateral surface of the radius Action Pronates forearm and elbow flexor Innervation Median nerve  Flexor Carpi Radialis Origin Medial epicondyle Insertion 2ndand 3 metacarpals Action Wrist flexion and radial deviation Innervation Median nerve  Palaris Longus Origin Medial epicondyle Insertion Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis Action Wrist flexion Innervation Median nerve  Flexor Carpi Ulnaris Origin Medial epicondyle and superior posterior border of the ulna Insertion Pisiform, hook of hamate, and base of th 5 metacarpal Action Wrist flexion and ulnar deviation Innervation Ulnar nerve  Flexor Digitorum Superficialis Origin Medial epicondyle, coronoid process, and anterior surface of radius Insertion Middle phalanx of each finger Action Flexion of PIP Innervation Median nerve  Flexor Digitorum Profundus Origin Anterior medial surface of the ulna Insertion Base of distal phalanx of each finger Action Flexion of DIP th th Innervation Ulnar nerve (4 and 5 ) and median nerve (2 ndand 3 )d  Flexor Pollicis Longus Origin Anterior surface of radius and interosseous membrane Insertion Base of distal phalanx of thumb Action Flexion of DIP and PIP of thumb Innervation Median nerve  Pronator Quadratus Origin Distal anterior portion of shaft of ulna Insertion Distal anterior portion of shaft of radius Action Pronates forearm Innervation Median nerve  Posterior Forearm o Brachioradialis o Extensor Carpi o Radialis Longus o Radialis Brevis o Extensor Digitorum o Extensor Digiti Minimi o Extensor Carpi Ulnaris o Anconeus o Supinator o Abductor Pollicis Longus o Extensor Pollicis Brevis o Extensor Pollicis Longus o Extensor Indicis  Brachioradialis Origin Lateral supracondylar ridge Insertion Base of radial styloid process Action Flexion of elbow Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Carpi Radialis Longus Origin Lateral supracondylar ridge Insertion Base of the 2 ndmetacarpal Action Extension and radial deviation at wrist joint Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Digitorum Origin Lateral epicondyle Insertion Distal and middle phalanges of each finger Action Extension of DIP, PIP, MCP, and wrist Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Digiti Minimi Origin Lateral epicondyle Insertion Dorsal surface of base of 5 proximal phalanx th Action Extension of 5 MCP and wrist Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Carpi Ulnaris Origin Lateral epicondyle th Insertion Dorsal surface of base of 5 metacarpal Action Extension and ulnar deviation at wrist joint Innervation Radial nerve  Anconeus Origin Lateral epicondyle Insertion Lateral surface of the olecranon process and posterior surface of ulna Action Extension of elbow Innervation Radial nerve  Supinator Origin Lateral epicondyle and supinator crest Insertion Lateral surface of proximal 1/3 of radius Action Supination of forearm Innervation Radial nerve  Abductor Pollicis Longus Origin Posterior surface of middle of radius, ulna, and stterosseous membrane Insertion Base of 1 metacarpal bone Action Abduction and extension of thumb at CMC and radial deviation of wrist Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Pollicis Brevis Origin Posterior surface of middle of radius and interosseous membrane Insertion Base of 1 proximal phalanx Action Extension of thumb & radially deviate wrist Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Pollicis Longus Origin Posterior surface or middle of ulna and interosseous membrane Insertion Base of distal phalanx of thumb Action Extension of thumb Innervation Radial nerve  Extensor Indicis Origin Posterior surface of ulna Insertion Extensor expansion on dorsal surface of proximal phalanx of index finger Action Extension of index finger Innervatoin Radial nerve Muscle Lecture #5 Muscles 56-66  Hand o Abductor Pollicis Brevis o Opponens Pollicis o Flexor Pollicis Brevis o Adductor Pollicis o Palmaris Brevis o Abductor Digiti Minimi o Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis o Opponens Digiti Minimi o Lumbricales o Interossei Dorsales o Interossei Palmares  Abductor Pollicis Brevis Origin Scaphoid, trapezium, and flexor retinaculum Insertion Base of proximal phalanx of thumb Action Abduction of thumb Innervation Median nerve  Opponens Pollicis Origin Flexor retinaculum and trapezium Insertion Lateral side of 1 metacarpal Action Moves thumb across palm to meet little finger (opposition) at CMC Innervation Median nerve  Flexor Pollicis Brevis Origin Flexor retinaculum, trapezium, and 1 st metacarpal bone Insertion Base of proximal phalanx of thumb Action Flexion of CMC and MCP of thumb, assists in thumb adduction Innervation Median nerve  Adductor Pollicis Origin Oblique head: capitate, trapezoi, and 2nd and 3 metacarpals; transverse head: 3 metacarpal Insertion Medial side of proximal phalanx of thumb Action Adduction of thumb Innervation Ulnar nerve  Palmaris Brevis Origin Flexor retinaculum and palmar aponeurosis Insertion Skin of palm Action Steadies and corrugates skin of palm to help with grip Innervation Ulnar nerve  Abductor Digiti Minimi Origin Pisiform and tendon of flexor carpi ulnaris th Insertion Medial side of proximal phalanx of 5 finger Action Abducts fifth finger Innervation Ulnar nerve  Flexor Digiti Minimi Brevis Origin Flexor retinaculum and hook of hamate Insertion Medial side of proximal phalanx of 5 th finger Action Flexion 5 finger at MCP Innervation Ulnar nerve  Opponens Digiti Minimi Origin Flexor retinaculum and hook of hamate Insertion Medial side of 5 metacarpal Action Moves little finger across palm to met thumb (opposition) at CMC Innervation Ulnar nerve  Lumbricales Origin Tendons of flexor digitorum profundus of each finger Insertion Lateral sides of tendons of extensor digitorum on proximal phalanges of each finger Action Flexion of each finger at MCP and extension of each finger at PIP and DIP Innervation Median nerve (1 and 2 ) and Ulnar nerve (3 and 4 )th  Interossei Dorsales Origin Adjacent sides of metacarpals Insertion Proximal phalanx of each finger Action Abduction of fingers 2-4 at MCP (relative to midline of the long finger); flexion of fingers 2-4 at MCP; extension of each finger at DIP and PIP Innervation Ulnar nerve  Interossei Palmaris Origin Sides of shafts of metacarpals of all digits (except the middle one) Insertion Sides of bases of proximal phalanges of all digits (except the middle one) Action Adduction of the fingers (relative to the midline of the long finger); flexion of fingers at MCP Innervation Ulnar nerve 6B Endocrine System Continued  Thyroid Gland: o Location – inferior to larynx o Structure – “butterfly” shaped; lateral lobes (right and left); isthmus – connects lateral lobes (sits directly anterior to trachea – tracheal cartilages 2-4 or C6 leven); highly vascular  Thyroid Hormones: o T3 (triiodothyronine) & T4 (thyroxine) – oxygen and basal metabolic rate; cellular metabolism; growth & development o Parafollicular Cells – calcitonin (calcium uptake by bone)  Hypothyroidism – symptoms and signs may be overlooked if it develops gradually; severity may become evident in retrospect, after treatment begins associated with weight gain o Congenital Hypothyroidism – (cretinism) pot-belly, puffy face, large tongue, mental and growth retardation  Hyperthyroidism – associated with weight loss; Grave’s disease: unique clinical features – Grave’s ophthalmopathy, dermopathy, and acropachy (weird finger nails); endemic goiter – can be due to deficiency in diet or hyperthyroidism  Parathyroid Glands: o Location – attached to posterior surface of lateral lobes of thyroid o Two parathyroid glands per lateral lobe (for a total of four)  superior and inferior right and left parathyroids  Parathyroid Hormone (PTH) – produced by principal cells; regulate blood Ca2+ and Mg2+ levels o Secretion controlled by the blood Ca2+ level – increase number and activity of osteoclasts (bone destroying cells); promote formation of calcitriol in kidneys (promote calcium absorption from the GI tract)  Calcium Cycle: high blood Ca2+ level stimulation of the cells in the Thyroid Gland release of calcitonin inhibition of bone reabsorption lower blood Ca2+ level low blood Ca2+ level stimulation of the cells in parathyroid gland release of PTH promotion of bone reabsorption elevation of blood Ca2+ level BEGINNING with high blood Ca2+ content  PTH increases serum Ca2+: o PTH acts at three sites:  Bone – increases bone reabsorption (activates osteoclasts release Ca2+ from bone)  Kidney – increases tubular Ca2+ reabsorption  Gut – (indirectly) increases dietary Ca2+ absorption  activates vitamin D activation gut Ca2+ absorption  Adrenal Glands: o Location – superior to each kidney (pyramidal shaped) o 2 Regions –  Adrenal cortex: 80-90% of total mass; outer portion  Adrenal medulla: inner portion  Adrenal Cortex: produces essential steroid hormones o Subdivided into three zones:  Outer (zona glomerulosa) – mineralocorticoids (aldosterone)  Middle (zone fasciculate) – glucocorticoids (cortisol and cortisone)  Inner (zona reticularis) – gonadotropic hormones (mainly androgens)  Adrenal Medulla: direct innervation from ANS; quick release of hormones o Sympathomimetic – mimic effects brought on by sympathetic division of ANS o Consists of chromaffin cells that secrete catecholamines epinephrine (adrenaline) and norepinephrine (noradrenaline)  Pancreas: o Location – posterior and slightly inferior to stomach o Structure – 3 sections:  Head – more inferior (tucked in small intestines)  Body – middle part  Tail – more superior (next to spleen) o Both an endocrine and exocrine gland o Exocrine Tissue: about 99% of pancreatic cells are Acini cells – produce digestive enzymes that flow into GI tract o Endocrine Tissue: scattered in tiny clusters among Acini cells  Islets of Langerhans (4 hormone secreting cells)  Alpha cells (20%) = glucagon – raises blood sugar levels  Beta cells (70%) = insulin – lowers blood sugar levels  Disorders: Pancreas o Diabetes mellitus – inability to produce or use insulin  Type I (insulin dependent) – requires regular injections of insulin; typically younger population (50% present after age of 18)  Type II (non-insulin dependent) – “adult onset” diabetes; most common (90% of all cases); people over the age of 35 and overweight; controlled via diet, exercise, and weight loss  Pineal Gland: o Location – attached to roof of brain; covered by the pia mater o Secretes melatonin – promotes sleepiness; role in setting biological clock  Other glands: o Thymus – development of immune cells o Ovaries – estrogen and progesterone production; relaxin o Testes – testosterone production o Gastrointestinal Tract (several hormones) – communication between parts of the digestive system; food in duodenum, hormonal release, gall bladder contraction & production of bile in liver o Kidneys – erythropoietin (EPO) RBC volume in blood (doping for performance enhancement) o Placenta – (several hormones) maintain fetal health and prepare mother for birth 7A The Digestive System  Introduction: food contains substances and energy the body needs o Food must be broken down before it can be absorbed and used by the body o Organs that perform these functions compose the digestive system o Medical professions that study the structures, functions, and disorders of the digestive tract gastroenterology (for the upper end) and Proctology (for the lower end)  Overview of GI tract Functions: o Mouth – mastication, swallowing o Pharynx and esophagus – transport o Stomach – mechanical disruption, absorption of water and alcohol o Small intestine – chemical and mechanical digestion and absorption o Large intestine – absorb electrolytes and vitamins (B and K) o Rectum and anus – defecation  Organization: o The gastrointestinal tracts is a tube at both ends for the transit and processing of food – divided into 2 major divisions upper GI tract and lower GI tract o Functional segments – mouth, esophagus, stomach, small intestine, and large intestine o Accessory structures – teeth, tongue, salivary glands, liver, gallbladder, and pancreas o Mouth pharynx esophagus stomach small intestine (duodenum jejunum ileum) large intestine aka “colon” (cecum ascending/right colon transverse colon descending/left colon sigmoid colon) rectum anus  Functions of the Digestive System: o Six basic processes –  1. Ingestion  2. Secretion  3. Mixing and propulsion  4. Digestion  5. Absorption  6. Defecation  Digestion: 1. Ingestion: taking food into the mouth; mastication = chewing 2. Secretion: the release of water, acid, buffers, and enzymes into the tract 3. Mixing and propulsion: churning and propulsion of food a. Motility – the capability of the GI tract to mix and move material along its length b. Deglutition – the act of swallowing c. Peristalsis – rhythmic, wave-like contractions that move food through the GI tract 4. Digestion: a. Mechanical digestion – breakdown of food by teeth, and movements of the stomach and small intestine b. Chemical digestion – chemical reactions that break down food; largely via enzymes secreted by accessory organs 5. Absorption: the passage of end products of digestion from the GI tract into blood or lymph 6. Defecation: emptying of the rectum, eliminating indigestible substances  Mouth: only part of the digestive system involved in ingestion; begins propulsive process; lips and cheeks (contains buccinators muscle that keeps food between upper and lower teeth); vestibule (area between cheeks and teeth); oral cavity proper (roof = hard, soft palate and uvula & floor = the tongue)  Oral Cavity: gingiva = gums; palates = roof of the mouth; o Hard palate – anterior; formed by maxilla and palatine bones; bony separation between oral and nasal cavities o Soft palate – muscular arch posterior to hard palate  Uvula: cone-shaped projection of soft palate; swallowing – soft palate and uvula drawn upward, closes off nasopharynx  Oral Cavity: o Tongue – moves food through the oral cavity; assists with swallowing and speech o Lingual frenulum – anchors tongue to floor of oral cavity; limits posterior motion  Salivary Glands: saliva production o Saliva – 99.5% water, 0.5% solutes  Wets food for easier swallowing  Dissolves food for tasting  Chemical digestion of starch begins with enzyme (salivary amylase)  Enzyme (lysozyme) – helps destroy bacteria  Protects mouth from infection with its rinsing action o Parotid Gland – largest salivary gland, anterior and inferior to the ear, site of mumps infection o Submandibular Gland – inferior to the body of the mandible o Sublingual Gland – inferior to tongue on floor of oral cavity  Mumps: Myxovirus that attacks the parotid gland o Symptoms – inflammation and enlargement of the parotid (unilateral or bilateral); fever, malaise and sour throat (especially swallowing sour foods) vaccine available since 1967 o Sterility rarely possible in males with testicular involvement  Teeth: there are two dentitions (aka sets of teeth) in an individual’s lifetime o Deciduous (primary) – milk teeth or baby teeth; 20 teeth; come in from 6 months to 2.5 years; lost from six years old to teens o Permanent (secondary) teeth; 32;  Central incisors – cutting and shearing  Lateral incisors – cutting and shearing  Cuspids (canist) – hndding and tearing  Bicuspids (1 and 2 premolar) – crushing and grinding  Molar (1 , 2 , and 3 ) – crushing and grinding o Tooth Structure – crown, neck, roots, and pulp cavity  Composition of Teeth: o Enamel – hardest substance in body; calcium phosphate or carbonate o Dentin – calcified connective tissue o Cementum – bone-like, periodontal ligament penetrates it  Pharynx: funnel-shaped tube posterior to oral cavity; composed of skeletal muscle and lined by mucous membrane  Nasopharynx – respiration only  Oropharynx – digestive and respiratory functions  Laryngopharynx – digestive and respiratory functions o Origin of peristalsis  Tonsils: located in pharynx; nodes of lymph tissue; palatine (tonsillectomy) – lateral, posterior region of oral cavity; lingual – base of tongue; pharyngeal (adenoid) – posterior wall of nasopharynx  Epiglottis: cartilaginous, leaf-like structure; positioned on top of glottis that covers the trachea during swallowing (prevents fluid/food entry)  Esophagus: portion of the GI tract connecting the pharynx to the stomach (about 10 inches long); collapsible muscular tube posterior to the trachea  Lower Esophageal Sphincter: junction between the esophagus and the stomach; constricts to prevent regurgitation of stomach contents back into esophagus (heartburn, GERD – acid reflux)


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