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Chapter 5 Notes

by: Crysta Meekins

Chapter 5 Notes BIO 208

Crysta Meekins

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Introduction to Microbiology
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crysta Meekins on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 208 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr.Richard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Microbiology in Biology at University of Kentucky.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 5    Define metabolism, and describe the fundamental differences between anabolism and  catabolism. How is ATP an intermediate between catabolism and anabolism?  ● Metabolism​ is the buildup and breakdown of nutrients within a cell.  ● Anabolic pathways​ build up macromolecules by combining simpler molecules, using  energy in the process. (ATP breakdown)   ● Catabolic pathways​ break down macromolecules into simple component parts, releasing  energy in the process. Catabolic reactions provide the energy needed for anabolic  reactions. (ATP synthesis) Some energy released by catabolic reactions is stored in the  form of chemical bonds in ATP.    ● ATP​ stores energy derived from catabolic reactions and releases it later to drive anabolic  reactions and perform other cellular work.     What happens to an enzyme below its optimal temperature or pH? Above its optimal  temperature or pH?  ● Elevation beyond the optimal temperature drastically reduces the rate of reaction.  (decline)    Distinguish competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. Where do inhibitors bind in each  case? Why is feedback inhibition noncompetitive inhibition?  ● Competitive inhibitor fill the active site of an enzyme and compete with the normal  substrate for the active site. The shape is similar to those of the normal substrate.  ● Noncompetitive inhibitor do not compete with the substrate for the enzyme’s active site;  instead they interact with another part of the enzyme (allosteric site).  ●  Noncompetitive inhibitors stops the cell from making more of a substance than it needs  and thereby wasting chemical resources.    Explain the term oxidation­reduction.  ● A coupled reaction in which one substance is oxidized and the other is reduced.     What is the overall purpose of metabolic pathways?  ●     Know where each of ​ following occurs in the cell and how many ATP, NADH, or FADH2  are produced.  – Glycolysis  ● Eukaryotes: cytoplasm  ● Prokaryotes: cytoplasm  ● 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 0 FADH2  – Intermediate Step  ● Eukaryotes: cytoplasm  ● Prokaryotes: cytoplasm  ● 0 ATP, 2 NADH  – Krebs cycle  ● Eukaryotes: mitochondrial matrix  ● Prokaryotes: cytoplasm  ● 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2  – Electron transport chain (also know the role of electron carriers, ATP synthase, and  oxygen here)  ● Eukaryotes: mitochondrial inner membrane  ● Prokaryotes: plasma membrane  ● 38 ATP    Compare the energy yield (ATP) of aerobic and anaerobic respiration.  ● Aerobic (requires oxygen) : 38 ATP  ● Anaerobic(does not require : 30 ATP    Other important information  ● Glycolysis produces ATP and reduces NAD+ to NADH while oxidizing glucose to pyruvic  acid. In respiration, the pyruvic acid is converted to the first reactant in the Krebs Cycle,  acetyl CoA.  ● The Krebs Cycle produces some ATP by substrate­level phosphorylation, reduces the  electron carriers NAD+ and FAD, and gives off CO2. Carriers from both glycolysis and  the Krebs Cycle donate electrons to the electron transport chain.   ● In the electron transport chain, the energy of the electrons is used to produce a great  deal of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation.  ● In respiration, the final electron acceptor comes from outside the cell.  ● In fermentation, the final acceptor is a molecule made in the cell.  ● In fermentation, the pyruvic acid and the electrons carried by NADH from glycolysis are  incorporated into fermentation end­products. Oxygen is not required.        ​wo types           *alcohol fermentation           *lactic acid fermentation  ● At high temperatures, enzymes undergo denaturation and lose their catalytic properties;  at low temperatures, the reaction rate decreases.  ● The pH at which enzymatic activity is maximal is known as the optimal pH.  ● Enzymatic activity increases as substrate concentration increases until the enzymes are  saturated.  ● Feedback inhibition occurs when the end­product of a metabolic pathway inhibits an  enzyme’s activity near the start of the pathway. 


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