Chapter 5 Notes
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Crysta Meekins on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 208 at University of Kentucky taught by Dr.Richard in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Microbiology in Biology at University of Kentucky.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Chapter 5 Define metabolism, and describe the fundamental differences between anabolism and catabolism. How is ATP an intermediate between catabolism and anabolism? ● Metabolism is the buildup and breakdown of nutrients within a cell. ● Anabolic pathways build up macromolecules by combining simpler molecules, using energy in the process. (ATP breakdown) ● Catabolic pathways break down macromolecules into simple component parts, releasing energy in the process. Catabolic reactions provide the energy needed for anabolic reactions. (ATP synthesis) Some energy released by catabolic reactions is stored in the form of chemical bonds in ATP. ● ATP stores energy derived from catabolic reactions and releases it later to drive anabolic reactions and perform other cellular work. What happens to an enzyme below its optimal temperature or pH? Above its optimal temperature or pH? ● Elevation beyond the optimal temperature drastically reduces the rate of reaction. (decline) Distinguish competitive and noncompetitive inhibition. Where do inhibitors bind in each case? Why is feedback inhibition noncompetitive inhibition? ● Competitive inhibitor fill the active site of an enzyme and compete with the normal substrate for the active site. The shape is similar to those of the normal substrate. ● Noncompetitive inhibitor do not compete with the substrate for the enzyme’s active site; instead they interact with another part of the enzyme (allosteric site). ● Noncompetitive inhibitors stops the cell from making more of a substance than it needs and thereby wasting chemical resources. Explain the term oxidationreduction. ● A coupled reaction in which one substance is oxidized and the other is reduced. What is the overall purpose of metabolic pathways? ● Know where each of following occurs in the cell and how many ATP, NADH, or FADH2 are produced. – Glycolysis ● Eukaryotes: cytoplasm ● Prokaryotes: cytoplasm ● 2 ATP, 2 NADH, 0 FADH2 – Intermediate Step ● Eukaryotes: cytoplasm ● Prokaryotes: cytoplasm ● 0 ATP, 2 NADH – Krebs cycle ● Eukaryotes: mitochondrial matrix ● Prokaryotes: cytoplasm ● 2 ATP, 6 NADH, 2 FADH2 – Electron transport chain (also know the role of electron carriers, ATP synthase, and oxygen here) ● Eukaryotes: mitochondrial inner membrane ● Prokaryotes: plasma membrane ● 38 ATP Compare the energy yield (ATP) of aerobic and anaerobic respiration. ● Aerobic (requires oxygen) : 38 ATP ● Anaerobic(does not require : 30 ATP Other important information ● Glycolysis produces ATP and reduces NAD+ to NADH while oxidizing glucose to pyruvic acid. In respiration, the pyruvic acid is converted to the first reactant in the Krebs Cycle, acetyl CoA. ● The Krebs Cycle produces some ATP by substratelevel phosphorylation, reduces the electron carriers NAD+ and FAD, and gives off CO2. Carriers from both glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle donate electrons to the electron transport chain. ● In the electron transport chain, the energy of the electrons is used to produce a great deal of ATP by oxidative phosphorylation. ● In respiration, the final electron acceptor comes from outside the cell. ● In fermentation, the final acceptor is a molecule made in the cell. ● In fermentation, the pyruvic acid and the electrons carried by NADH from glycolysis are incorporated into fermentation endproducts. Oxygen is not required. wo types *alcohol fermentation *lactic acid fermentation ● At high temperatures, enzymes undergo denaturation and lose their catalytic properties; at low temperatures, the reaction rate decreases. ● The pH at which enzymatic activity is maximal is known as the optimal pH. ● Enzymatic activity increases as substrate concentration increases until the enzymes are saturated. ● Feedback inhibition occurs when the endproduct of a metabolic pathway inhibits an enzyme’s activity near the start of the pathway.