Fabian PSYC 1000: 29 Feb - 4 March Notes
Fabian PSYC 1000: 29 Feb - 4 March Notes PSYC 1010
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kayden McKenzie on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 1010 at Tulane University taught by Melinda Fabian in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 24 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
CH 9 MEMORY The Misinformation Effect Participants watched a video of a minor car accident, one group was asked how fast the cars were going when they hit each other and another group was asked how fast the cars were going when they crashed into each other The second group recalled faster speeds and broken glass that was not there Source Amnesia/Misattribution Memories from a movie or book, a story, a dream, or a sibling’s experience Misattributing the source to your own experience Constructed Memories in Court and in Love Mistaken testimony People are overconfident about their fallible memories, not realizing that memoires are constructions Unreal memories feel like real memories Constructed Memories and Children Kids are more prone to implanted memories because they have underdeveloped frontal lobes Imagined events are hard to distinguish from experienced events When interviewing kids, do not lead but instead be neutral and nonsuggestive in questions Recovered Memories of Past Abuse Can people recover repressed memories? Abuse memories are more likely to be “burned in” to memory than forgotten An active process of searching for such memories is more likely to construct detailed memories that feel real (guided imagery, hypnosis, dream analysis -> recovered memories are especially unreliable) Questioners inadvertently implant memories in others, unjust false accusations can sometimes happen CH 10 INTELLIGENCE Overall question Does each of us have an inborn level of talent or ability that can be measured and represented by a test score? Definition of intelligence How to construct tests to try and assess intelligence Genetic vs. Environmental Influences Group differences in ability “Definition” of Intelligence Intelligence – whatever intelligence tests measure Generate scores, allows us to compare individuals College entrance test measures how good you are at scoring well on that test Beyond the test Intelligence – the ability to learn from experience, solve problems, and use knowledge to adapt to new situations There is not an agreement over whether intelligence is one construct or different abilities General intelligence or g Charles Spearman performed a factor analysis of different skills and found that people who did well in one area also did well in another These people have a high “g” (general intelligence) Thurstone’s Seven Clusters of Abilities These distinct seven abilities make up intelligence, not just one Found that these abilities tend to correlate Howard Gardner’s Multiple Intelligences 8 relatively independent intelligence “savant syndrome” Sternberg’s Intelligence Triarchy A lot of research support for his theory 3 intelligences: practical, analytical, and creative Intelligence and Success “success in life” is more than high intelligence Wealth tends to be related to intelligence test scores PLUS daily effort/practice, social support/connections, and hard work/persistence Success – gift of nature plus a lot of nurture Social and Emotional Intelligence Being socially aware and self-aware Components of Emotional Intelligence Perceiving, understanding, managing, and using emotions Benefits – ability to delay gratification while pursuing long-term goals (not be driven by immediate impulses), contributes to success in career marriage and parenting situations Aptitude vs. Achievement Achievement tests – measure what you have already learned Aptitude tests – attempt to predict your ability to learn new skills SAT, ACT, GRE – supposed to predict your ability to do well in future academic work Origins of Intelligence Testing Problem – Paris schools needed to identify children in need of special classes Solution – Alfred Binet devised tests The goal was to measure each child’s mental age Binet -> Stanford-Binet Lewis Terman (Stanford professor) modified Binet’s test for American children He called it the Stanford-Binet intelligence test William Stern’s scoring of the test resulted in intelligence quotient (IQ) IQ = mental age/chronological age x 100 What do scores mean? Lewis Terman thought intelligence was inherited Later, he saw that scores can be affected by level of education and their familiarity with language and culture used in the test. Low scores – Binet would say study and develop self-discipline and attention span, Terman would say remove genes from population David Wechsler’s Tests: Intelligence PLUS Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale (WAIS) and Weschler Intelligence Scale for Children (WSC) measure “g”/IQ and have subscores for: verbal comprehension, processing speed, perceptual organization, working memory Principles of Test Construction In order for intelligence or any psychological tests to be accurate, tests and scores must be standardized, reliable, Standardization To evaluate performance, we need to compare a score to other individual’s scores Average IQ score is 100 Reliability and Validity A test is reliable when it generates consistent results Split-half reliability – test split in half has same results Test-retest reliability – retesting gets relatively the same score as before Validity – a test accurately measures what it is supposed to measure Content validity – test is not doing what it is supposed to Predictive validity – test does not predict what it is supposed to Predictive validity: broad ranges Predictive power of aptitude scores diminishes as students move up the educational ladder At higher range of weights and success, weight is less of a valid predictor of success of football linemen Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence Even if we agree that “success” in life is caused in part by intelligence, there is still a debate over the origin of that intelligence Are people “successful” because of inborn talents or because of their unequal access to better nurture? Studies of Twins Raised Apart Difference in intelligence between identical twins raised together and identical twins raised apart which is proof of nurture Then, difference in intelligence between identical twins and fraternal twins which is proof of nature Adoption Studies With age, IQ scores of adoptees look more and more like their biological parents Environmental Influences on Intelligence Environment has more influence on intelligence in extreme situations such as abuse, neglect, extreme poverty, and malnutrition (depresses cognitive development) Schooling and Intelligence Schooling and intelligence interact, and both boost children’s chances for success What predicts college students’ academic achievement – study motivation and study skills Fixed mindset – intelligence is biologically set and unchanging Growth mindset – intelligence is changeable Praise EFFORT not ability Understanding Group Differences in Test Scores Boys are more likely than girls to be at the high or low end of the intelligence score spectrum Male-Female Ability Differences Girls are better at locating objects, detecting emotions, and tend to be more verbally fluent Boys tend to perform better on spatial ability tests In overall math performance, girls and boys are very similar Within-group vs. between-group differences Group differences including intelligence test score differences between “racial groups” can be caused by environment factors Racial groups are not genetically different More differences within groups than between groups CH. 11 Motivation and Work Motivation Motivation – a need or desire that energizes behavior and directs it toward a goal Instinct theory Instinct – fixed pattern of behavior that is not acquired by learning and is likely to be rooted in genes and the body Humans are motivated by instincts Drive Reduction Theory Drive – an aroused/tense state related to a physical need (hunger, thirst) Humans are motivated to reduce these drives which restores homeostasis Drives come from within and push us to do something Incentives are external and pull us into our actions We have a drive to have food, money, .etc Seeking Optimal Arousal Some behavior is not directly linked to a biological need Human motivation aims not to eliminate arousal but to seek optimum levels of arousal Hierarchy of Needs/Motives Abraham Maslow – proposed that humans strive to ensure that basic needs are satisfied before they find motivation to pursue goals that are higher on the hierarchy People need to satisfy hunger and thirst BEFORE satisfying their self-identity Hunger Research shows that when we are hungry, thoughts about food dominate our consciousness Physiology of Hunger Stomach contractions when hungry Receptors throughout the digestive system monitor levels of glucose and send signals to the hypothalamus in the brain Hypothalamus can send out appetite-stimulating hormones or appetite-suppressing hormones Regulating Weight Set point – a stable weight to which most mammals keep returning When a person’s weight drops or increases, the body adjusts hunger and energy use Basal metabolic rate – rate of energy expenditure for maintaining basic body functions when at rest How much do we eat? Eating depends in part on situational influences Unit bias – we may eat only one serving/unit of food but will eat more if the serving size is larger Buffet effect – we eat more if more options are available
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