Geography 1010, French IndoChina
Geography 1010, French IndoChina GEOG 1010-002
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Justice Notetaker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOG 1010-002 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Carmen Brysch in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 40 views. For similar materials see Global Geography in Geography at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
French IndoChina France was the leading colonial power in Southeast Asia, dividing the empire into five units. These three states emerged as a result: Vietnam, Cambodia, and Laos- each achieving their own separate independences. "Indo" refers to the cultural imprints of South Asia (Hinduism and Buddhism) while "China" refers to the role the Chinese played throughout the area. Southeast Asia's Role in the Global Economy o Has been the center of all global trade for more than 1,500 years o The rapid growth of Southeast Asia's economies in the 80s-90s have earned them the nickname "tigers" However, in 1997 there was a financial crisis of slow negative growths in the economy o This growth was caused by capitalism- the government of the state and those in its favor propped up businesses with link to the government o These artificial companies failed to gain global market share, therefore only a few global brands come from Southeast Asia Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN) A regional trade organization Indonesia, Thailand, Malaysia, Philippines and Singapore were the founding members (as of 1967) Brunei, Vietnam, Laos, Myanmar and Cambodia were later added in 1984 Because of the 1997 crisis (mentioned above), their focus has been on growing domestic consumption product rather than working towards an export income Much growth was reported from this plan in 2009 China now has a free trade agreement with China and other Asian countries Singapore While one of the smallest countries, it has one of the largest global economic impacts. British had colonized the region and used it as a fishing port in 1819 At this time, China contained 75% of the world's population Thus, all the wealth was located in Southeast Asia Container shipping yards that rival that of Pearl River Delta of China and Hong Kong Bunkering ports that fuel as many as 182 thousand ships Regional and Global Center of Manufacturing and Finance Singapore specializes in electronics, financial services and capitalist development in China Informal Economy (street vendors or others who don't pay taxes to the government): Plays a huge role in the livelihood in the region Economists thought the informal economy would shrink as the countries developed and expanded, but it didn't In fact, the informal economy has grown Women are most likely to work in the informal economy, along with young people, internal and international migrants Golden Triangle: Opium and Heroin Trade Mainland Southeast Asian had been a major part of the informal economy o Areas such as northern Thailand, Myanmar, and Laos They became one (of two) of the largest heroin producing regions in the world o Dominated opium trade in the 1990's to the 90's o The largest heroin producing region in the 90's was Afghanistan Historical and present trade routes have shifted in response to crackdowns on the trade in Thailand Tourism Tourism doesn't necessarily benefit the local economy o It does benefit the people who live in tourist areas Only ten percent of what a tourist spends is beneficial to those areas though Most money flows out of the country o Wages for working tourism are often low, and the income is season with few benefits Tourists use a lot of scarce economies and resources They require large scale infrastructure Government tax revenue often goes to be reinvested in tourism infrastructures instead of local development needs Commodification of Culture The conversion of an object, a concept, or a procedure once not available for purchase to be made available for purchase. This is not always a good thing and can often lead to cultural appropriation (the adoption/"borrowing" or use of elements of one culture by members of a different culture, usually a minority group that has been oppressed or exploited, without taking the time to earn permission or learn of its origins/history/meaning to that culture it is being borrowed from). o Authenticity: idea that one place or experience is the true, actual one Cultural brokers sell an "authentic" image of local culture Stereotypes or perception of a local culture are then made to create a desired cultural experience for tourists. Sex Tourism Traveling to engage in sexual activity, particularly with prostitutes. This is extremely harmful and negatively impacts the entire region. This custom has its beginning in Thailand during the Vietnam war with U.S troops were sent for rest and relaxation. Since then, Laos, Cambodia and other countries. This is associated with child trafficking Both boys AND girls are kidnapped and forced to work as sex workers in different parts of the region Children are trafficked for illegal adoptions, criminal acts, and domestic servitude Why Child Trafficking? Understanding the scale of how detrimental child-trafficking is allows us to grasp the forces that come together that make Southeast Asia a prime place for trafficking It happens on a regional scale, in every region from the tigers to the underdeveloped countries Girls in Cambodia and Laos Specifically: o Cambodia: 15-33% of prostitutes are children aged 9-16 o Many are trafficked from China and Vietnamese On a national scale: o The law enforcement is weak and there is a lack of concern for gender empowerment o There is also the low social status and like of brides due to China's one-child policy (which is no-longer in place as of 2016) Family scale: o A little less than 98% of persons trafficked for sex trade are females o The other percentage that is trafficked consists of: The oldest female, those who are in poverty or those from dysfunctional families Migration in Southeast Asia Migration consists of a lot of push and pull factors that bounce off of each other. o Often the relocation diffusion will affect a migrant's culture It creates transnational identities, as the migrant will see themselves as belonging to both regions they migrated from and the one they come to settle in o On a national scale: the migration is from rural areas to more urban ones o On a regional scale: lots of overseas Chinese o On a global scale: there are lots of guest workers migrating to different countries in the region for work purposes/promotions Kampung- another way to say slums o Rural to urban: The largest kampung exists in the Philippines, Malaysia and Indonesia Each has a primate city, drawing internal migrants to move out of these slums Primate cities: Manila, Philippines Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia Jakarta, Indonesia More on the Overseas Chinese China has a history of acts such as the dynasties, colonialism and more recent acts of the 20th century (such as the Chinese civil war, the establishing of communism, etc.) that have prompted many migrants to move out of the country. o 30 million out of 35 million live in Southeast Asia o Other historical factors that have an effect on Chinese migrants: Japanese control of eastern China and Manchuria 1882 U.S Immigration Law o Migrants are generally (but not always!) poor But they resettle in trade centers with established businesses o The resettlement results in: Ethnic neighborhoods Perpetual Chinese identification The practice of maintaining cultural economy This probably resulted from keeping in contact with China, enclaves and chain migration Possible Resentment?? The Chinese were well positioned to develop into entrepreneurs and benefit financially. One example of this would be Chinatown. However, those who move out of an area like Chinatown are more focused on assimilation In the 1950's, most Southeast governments had closed off to any time of immigration coming from China During this time in China, the Maoist government had banned communication with Chinese who lived overseas This created a gap between those who lived overseas and those who lived in mainland China In an effort to protect ethnic groups: Malaysian government used a racial quota system, reserved universal spots which was greater than their access to business loans and property Yet in Indonesia the migrants had access to land ownership and business loans Migration Across Scales In 1948, military junta (the military group ruling the country after it has been taken over) had gained control after independence from Great Britain o Karen was a major ethnic group that wasn't recognized by the newly independent government of Burma This caused the world's longest civil war to break out Shwe became leader The junta then changed the name of the country to Myanmar in 1989 Capital was also moved to Nay Pyi Taw (Royal City) 1990: the opposition party won but was still not recognized by the Junta Many Karen thus fled to Thailand as refugees, the nongovernmental organizations in that area helped them to resettle San Suu Kyi is the chief government of the opposition and has been in and out of house arrest by the junta since 1989 During an election in 2010, Sein won and there was a ceasefire with the Karen But in 2014 there have been rebel groups in the nation who are still not happy They’ve been committing war crimes and causing human rights abuse Suu Kyi's Party Last November (2015), they won an election victory, but they still have to work with the military (they still hold much of the governmental machinery in the palms of their hands)
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