History of Human Rights
History of Human Rights POL2089
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by gricksecker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to POL2089 at University of Cincinnati taught by Dr. Rebecca Sanders in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 15 views. For similar materials see International Human Rights in Political Science at University of Cincinnati.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
1/26/16 Int’l Human Rights Day 3 HISTORY Socialist and labor movements o Restrictions on child labor o Minimum wage o 8-hour workday and the weekend o Anti-discrimination laws o Universal suffrage Global Civil society o Voluntary association of individuals o Value driven, but vary in values o Alter globalization o NGOs, advocacy networks, experts, activists Campaign to improve social and economic rights, for the criminal courts o Sometimes conflict (LGBTQ rights vs. “pro family” advocacy Structural Shifts o Industrial revolution Destruction of traditional agrarian society New demands for worker’s rights and rise of the middle class o Rise of American hegemony, challenges colonial order o Cold War Heightens tensions between political and economic rights War o Thirty Years’ War – Peace of Westphalia (1648) Beginning of religious toleration, pluralism o American Civil War Emancipation of African American Slaves o WWI Women granted the right to vote, minorities in Europe gain independence, socialist movements rise o WWII International human rights law institutionalized, self- determination and civil rights movements come forward o Wars of decolonization End of colonial rule Atrocities th th o Colonialism (15 – 20 c.) Critique of western hypocrisy o The Holocaust, Balkans are other examples International System o Anarchy: absence of supranational authority No international monopoly on force No international Leviathan Realists: cynical world views that bring forth issues about society o States must pursue “self-help” o Discussing morality usually isn’t an international issue/discussion, instead national interests take the front seat Liberals: Promote a more progressive and peaceful yet sometimes ideal world o Cooperation is in the long-term interest of states o Foreign policy should reflect plurality of domestic interests and values o Expand zones of freedom and improve human rights conditions around the world Constructivism: Are important in world politics, state’s concepts of what should be done o State interests are malleable o International organizations/law can influence state identity and conceptions of legitimacy and thus behavior One state creates a norm, topping point and adoption cascade, internalization and institutionalization League of Nations o Woodrow Wilson: a racist segregationist, but contradicted that with being a critical advocate of liberal internationalism Created the Fourteen Points, which promoted political independence League of Nations o Created by the Treaty of Versailles Members would not resort to force until peaceful diplomacy had been exhausted o Established collective security Smaller states would be protected by the larger members Break up of European empires o Established the Permanent Court of International Justice United Nations (1945) o Currently has 193 member states, governed by UN Charter Maintains international peace and security Develops friendly relations among nations Promote cooperation between member states o Security council has five members who have veto powers over UN peacekeeping forces
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