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Week 2

by: Notetaker

Week 2 HIST 3640- 10

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History of Southeast Asia
Shawn F. McHale

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Reading and discussion notes for chapter 2.
History of Southeast Asia
Shawn F. McHale
Class Notes
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Notetaker on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3640- 10 at George Washington University taught by Shawn F. McHale in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see History of Southeast Asia in History at George Washington University.


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Date Created: 09/12/15
Week 2 European States Parastates and Companies in SE Asia 0 Intro 0 European colonial state found a major impact on SE Asia 0 States in the past were quite diverse in how they function One of the most important actions since renovation East India company were companies which took on territorial roles They were like a hybrid in SE Asia Rise of the European State 15001800 Understand the rise of states in the European content Nobody that powerful as 100 years later Before 1500 the average state in Europe was the size of Washington DC in European landscape 0 O 0 Had very restricted course of power Networks of individual Average European state in this period was relatively broad it didn t have a budget annual nor finance ministry did not have standing armies The European state in the earlier period began changing over time you had a wide range of the states There were city states leaves in city states Rational capacity of land over time you have a tendency to see these state reforms this all actually transforms in 1500 Rise of bureaucratization institutionalization war making and state making were hand in hand Expansion in the European state there is a lot of truth to it From 1500 war making in Europe became less common but when it happened was more costly and lethal Preparation for war took a lot from European state Before 1500 no state had a national budget Financial instruments increased over time Increasing states become more interesting in increasing territory French taxes increased Spain revenue shot up spending also increasing and it went bankrupt same in the UK Great example of imperial overexpansion in Philippines Did not have the financial capacity and they lost to the USA Gilly argues that European state were like repeaters European states unlike today where states are expected to have a welfare constant A lot of economic expansion went to war making Spain had 20000 men army Many soldiers were rented brought in the military when you wanted to go to war As states got larger and larger they started to state out mercenaries There is a market and establish links and people go for the highest bidder Loyalty is the issue when you have a core of people who are men of violence under a leader this could be problematic You have groups of mercenaries who turn against group of higher class When these European states decide to expand outside of Europe Sources in Europe were finite Great expansion and great rise of Portuguese and Spanish empire Also the Dutch 0 Portuguese Portuguese Seaborne Empire 1415 seized a piece of territory near Morocco from that they expanded down the Africa course and to Brasil The Portuguese were aided by the Pope gave them authority to attack conquer and subdue savages Portugal did this with only 10000 mostly men individual controlled a global empire They were initially setting up forts 9 they wanted to control particular points and become economically advantageous Empire is relatively weak but were able to uphold and control these territories SE Asia they took Malaka straight of Malaka major choke point very important for navigation They were searching for spices but the Portuguese had a problem controlling all of these Portuguese who were abroad They wanted to keep much of the revenues for themselves They intermarried the people from the region Imperialism and the European State 0 General 0 Spain Had a more developed state and it was more land oriented land based Maximizing agricultural productivity they went abroad and good sailors They developed a land based empire were we know mostly from Latin America Spanish legacy in the Philippines The Philippines fell under the Spanish catholic rule in 1555 the Philippines became overwhelmingly catholic Ruled the Philippines until 1858 until Americans took over The interesting thing about the Philippines is the way in which the Catholic Church and the Spanish state worked together Spain imposed a bureaucratic hierarchy in the Philippines Audiencia consults for the government Head of the system was a Philippine and translated the interest of Spanish colonizers to the people for the community In the system there is a second state you have the Catholic Church they come into the Philippines and are given areas were they can acquire state functions Registered all earths and all deaths Philippines is an enormous source of statistical control over their population Spanish gave extensive haciendas farms labors worked for the lord Over time these land grants of village orders become just a source of revenue no care for their workers well beings Rizal Pilipino was very catholic was executed because he was opposed to Spanish rule Spanish rule was more enduring and could hold on to territory for longer periods of time It tended to fragment authority With the rise of nationalism it started to fall apart 0 Netherlands and the Dutch East India Company I The importance of companies in the European enterprise Dutch play a very important economic role in history They have economic interests have generated interests abroad They had very good sea fare They had better funding army ships and were more organized than Portuguese and Spanish Expelled Portuguese from Malacca I 5 major companies joined to form the Dutch East India company they were interested in the spice trade this was extremely lucrative It can make 400 of profit The Netherlands gave a monopoly and the company to trade in certain areas including SE Asia The company represented a market of 6 different cities all merchants 17 held shares and profit from the company You invest money in the company get the profit from the company Profit was determined if went to investors reinvestment m company to sell stocks They were interested in factories simply meant these forts who they can actually trade with whatever happens They were not interested in this early point in territory concerned only with profit Most companies today do not have a large security force They are taking semi sovereign roles companies controlling great factors of government This company actually invaded Burma and started the process where Burma became a British colony Expanded the buffer area need more troops Overtime their military forces grew larger and larger and it becomes ruled by the company rather than the state 0 Conclusion I Although these 3 different models were successful in different ways they had less coercive capacity in these areas but they were not as strong as the Dutch Portugal is an example of a very quick success but who was not able to carry on they need institutionalized firms to rule Spanish did a better job in establishing institutions it lasted longer but broke apart the 19th century The Dutch has the model state corporation and was very effective it started falling apart by 1800 it was resolutely focused in revenue making processes These three states did not take a lot of territory in SE Asia Vast expansion of European territory in SE Asia 0 Discussion Reading From avoidance to confrontationquot Michael Adas They wanted to know why peasants rebel It is not the norm in history for them to rebel Focus on avoidance con icts in Burma and Java How colonization transformed contest states into more centralized systems Political positions were controlled by inheritance and lineage patters lead to rivalries between elites What made rebellion possible for peasants 0 These rivalries often resorted to bloodshed 0 Poor communication with the administrators of the area 0 Weak army 0 Inability to collect taxes 0 Low people land ration Peasants usually ed than fight because they knew it would not be worth it to lose their lives over the intrigues of the elite In Burma they wanted to escape tax regulations and govern their own land in Irrawaddy Delta booming of rice exports In Java they migrated to where ever tax demands were lower Dutch lands With colonization the ight became less common because the Europeans developed a strict and tight bureaucratic central government that was more organized and efficient in the administration of these areas 0 Bandits started to form 0 Tentative to ight ended up in con ict with the authorities 0 Protests became more violent as administrators saw it as tentative to overthrow colonial rule Their lack of interest in their culture created were reasons for nationalist to evoke more people to protests o Colonizers failed to legitimatize themselves as local rulers due to their lack in the understanding in the matter led to ideological rebellions that were popular amongst people Contest state precolonial state that is not strong struggle between distribution of power They were the big people and extremely disorganized There is a kind of tension does a state like this stay together or do they fall apart Struggle for control in the center control of land Bring religion to the center in order to attract more people State wants production to be eligible to the state easily legible easily seen and is much easier to estimate You can tax it easily how much tax you can take from the peasant before they leave Second reading is a provocative argument He was a political scientist does anthropological studies The estate is the ground of our freedom and non freedom These readings have a sense of accommodation and resistance to power Readings are about a dynamic between state and these other groups Scott about the state living in the absence of state structure was the reality Exceptions Vietnam Historically state is nothing vast majority of people are not controlled by the people Every single state in Southeast Asia enslaved people they coerced people to work for the state Parts of Cambodia in the west there are Vietnam since 1700s because they took the Vietnamese and them back in that area People are scattered across the country side justification of the militarism Why do people concentrate in cultivating rice visible hard to cultivate takes more land to irrigate it locked the peasantry in You want to have these peasants invested in growing rice the actual labor you have to engage in is to create fields have to be enormous and cut down build dikes Heavy investment of labor builds community What is the argument of how hill people define themselves They are almost unified in their diversityquot the fact that they are different brings them together they have mobility can move to wherever they want to comparable agricultural practices highland people did not engage in agricultural practices exception in agriculture relationship between highlands and lowlands lowlanders are constantly pushing people out Symbiotic relationship opposition Lowlanders are going to be more hierchal highlands are going to be more egalitarian lowlands have complex civilizations highlands are illiterate by choice Everybody needs salt have similar needs Population pressure started changing Southeast Asia But the 19th century accelerated that with the colonial state


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