Two Weeks of Notes, Actually
Two Weeks of Notes, Actually Bio 210
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Kaitlyn Sumner on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Bio 210 at Ball State University taught by Donald Ruch in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 111 views. For similar materials see Introduction To Botany in Biology at Ball State University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 September 1 2015 switched to another chapter and new exam material CHAPTER 14 FUNGI I Basics A Mode of nutrition 1 Heterotroph 2 Osmiotroph a Saprobes decomposers b Parasites i quoteitheror superdestructive a Potato blight in Ireland 1 Once the potatoes died the fungi would continue living then infecting everyone who continued to eat the infected potatoes ii once the host dies parasite dies a This is the least destructive type of parasite in terms of it not hurting everyone in its wake iii a Fingerlike structures increase surface area to gain more nutrients b Make sure you understand this concept because it will be mentioned again 3 Thalli of Fungi a Some are unicellular i Yeast and chytrids are examples of unicellular fungi b Most are branched filaments i quothyphaquot or hyphae are terms that describe these branched filaments a Mycelium multi hyphae together I unit b Septate crosswall c Aspetate wo crosswall 4 Cell wall a Chitin kitein sugar that makes up a cell wall b Made with B 1 9 3 linkages 5 Storage carbohydrate glycogen the same as humans a Homopolymer of glucose b 6 Classification a Osmiotrophic eukaryote b Phyla of true fungi make sure to study these i Chytridiomycota chytrids a Flagella ii Zygomycota mygomycetes BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 a Filamentous fungi iii Glomeromycota endomycorrhizae iv Ascomycota sac fungi h v Basidiomycota club fungi B Fungal ally 1 Oomycote not true fungi a Same level structural complexity b Heterokont algae brown line of evolution 2 cell contains 2 genetically different nuclei a Both are 1n dikaryotic cells are nn b Syngamy i Plasmogamy wo karyogamy C Importance of fungi 1 Saprobes 2 Plant pathogens most of the time 3 Animal pathogens a Histoplasmosis b Ringworms c Thrust yeast infections d Aspergillosis 4 Food industry a Baking amp brewing b Mushrooms c Yeast d Cheese e Etc 5 Bioremediation fixing areas ruined by toxic waste Medical importance 7 Genetic research a Cell cycle control 8 Mutualistic relationships a Lichens b Mycorrhizae 9 Mycotoxins 9 September 3 2015 notes on Fungi continued Phyla of Fungi A Chytridiomycota 1 Binding characteristics a 1 posteriorly directed whiplash flagellum b Aquatic BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 i Zoospore mobile by flagellum 2 Mode of nutrition a Saprobe b Parasite i Some cause plant pathogens a Black wart on potato b Crown wart on alfalfa 3 Thallus a Unicellular i Chytrid ii Rhizoids rootlike structures b Allomyces life cycles fig 1414 pp288 i Anisogamy ii Thickwalled sporangia unfavorable conditions iii Males are bright orange a Attracted to sirenin made by female B Phylum Zygomycota 1 Thallus a Mycelial and coenocytic aspeptate b No flagellated cells 2 Habitat a Terrestrial b Sugars food mostly saprobes c Can be animalhuman and plant pathogens i Yeastlike in growth ii Opportunistic pathogen d Grows inside the roots endomycorrhizae and ectomycorrhizae 3 Sexual reproduction a Modified conjugation gametangial copulation b Haploid life cycle c Vocab to know i Homothallic selffertile no mating ii Heterothallic selfsterile mating strains Rhizopus stolonifera i Reproduces sexually and asexually e Vocab to know i Sexual progametangia gametiangia suspensors zygospore in sygosporangia ii Asexual rhizoid sporangiophore sporangium columella peridium stolon runner a Trisporic acid gaseous pheromones Asexual stage what differentiates genera i Membrane confined structure not a phospholipid bilayer 9 Th BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 C Phylum Glomeromycota 1 Obligate endomycorrhizae a 80 land plants 2 Asexual reproduction D Ascomycota phylum 1 Sac fungi 2 Binding character ascus and ascospores 8 September 8 2015 Fungi notes continued 3 Condia a Basipetal youngest at base of chain b Not produced in peridium c Formed one at a time a Mycelium greatly reduced or absent b Ends up being unicellular but they live together 5 No acicarp naked a Formed directly from zygote Asexual reproduction A Budding yeast B Fission splits BUDDING FISSION Prokaryotlc chromosome Plasma membrane u e quotquot quot 39 quotT Duplication M 39II39III pun t h n 1 n o c romosome 339 I 3 Continued growth 214quot e quot quota olthecell II II n G39 rquot y i f yi x 7 Le quot 39 Division into 1 39 two cells Fungi Part 2 IV Basidiomycota club fungi A Binding character BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 1 1n basidial spores a 4 spores produced b Formed by karyogamy and meiosis B Rusts and smuts don t have basidiocarp 1 Pathogens C Red line of evolution 1 Mutualism doesn t penetrate root too much D Thallus 1 Mycelial and regularly septate 2 Septum dolipore 3 Parenthesomes a Rust and smut no dolipore septum 4 Subphyla a Rusts i Blister rust of blackberry b Smuts i Corn smut 5 Mushrooms a Life cycle i 1n life cycle b Binding characteristics i Somotagamy modified conjugation a Monokaryoticmonomycelium primary b Lives in dikaryotic mycelium phase 1n 1n c Clamp connection hypha BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 ii Formed by meiosis always haploid c Divided based on whether they are forcibly discharged i Hymenomycetes a Coral fungi acidic soil b Grilled fungi c Pored fungi d Toothed fungi e Jelly fungi ii Gastromycetes a Hymenium not persistent b Not forcible discharged c Puffball September 10 2015 V Lichens A Mutualism fungus and alga are benefitting B Fungus mycobiont 1 Determines structure fungus type C Alga 1 Phycobiont D Types of thallis 1 Crustose thallus adheres slightly to substrate 2 Fruticose tubular structures 3 Foliose leaflike E Structure 1 95 ascolichens a Stratified into distinct layers 3 or 4 b Add diagram BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 A 395 13 31 Iv g7 Soredia 39 u x F Ecology 1 Bare rock succession a Lichen acid b Chemical weathering 2 Sensitive to pollution a Particularly sulfur dioxide 3 Food and nesting material for animals Fungal Allies Protista A Polyphyletic B Basal eukaryotic 1 Unicellular or simple multicellular 2 Thallus a Undifferentiated body stem etc b Filament c Colonies d Unicellular e Simple multicellular 3 categories Protozoa i Ingestion b Molds i Unicellular ii Absorb food c Algae i Simple photosynthetic ii May have evolved from alga that lost chloroplast 4 Basic terms to know a Plankton i Phytoplankton ii Zooplankton heterotrophic organisms b Pyrenoid differentiated structure of chloroplast C Characteristics 3 1 Mode of nutrition a Photosynthesis b Hootrophs C osmiotrophs 2 Pigments 3 Carbohydrate storage 4 Flagellation pattern D Phyla to know a b c d Oomycote water molds Bacillariophyta diatoms Chrystophyta chrystophytes Phaeophyta brown algae 2 Oomyctoa pp358 360 a b c anhrosz No chlorophyll Asmiotrophs ThaHus i Mycelial Cell wall cellulose They store glycogen DAP lysine synthesis Habitat i Aquatic or terrestrial ii Produce flagellated zoospores iii Aquatic organisms a Water molds b Saprobes c Parasites 1 Cotton mouth disease 2 Facultative d Terrestrial 1 Parasites of vascular plants e Transition from water to land 1 Increase in complexity of asexual reproduction f Terrestrial 1 Sexual reproduction a Oogamy modified b Fertilization tube c Zygote oospore 3 Myxomycota a General i Hootroph ii Store glycogen BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 BIO 210 Botany Lecture Notes Fall 2015 iii 2 anterior whiplash flagellum iv Bacteria grazers Habitat i Terrestrial cool shady moist History text fig 1556 p362 i sogamy Sexual life cycle i Haploid spore germinates a High moisture b Low moisture 1 Interconvertible moisture 2 Holotrophic 3 Function as gametes ii Zygote repeated and synchronous mitotic divisions a Plasmodium multinucie 2n 2n one large cell b Vegetative ingestive disease c Colorless or some bright colors 1 Unknown significance d Fanshaped thickthin veins cytoplasmic streaming e Slime trail digestive waste iii Unfavorable conditions bring out a Protective wall waxlike 1 Remains viable for several years iv Fruiting bodies
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