History 1200: 8/26-9/9
History 1200: 8/26-9/9 HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865)
Popular in Survey of American History Since 1865
HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865)
verified elite notetaker
Popular in History
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
verified elite notetaker
HIST 1100 - 01
verified elite notetaker
This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Elizabeth Ronecker on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1200 (History, Steven Watts, Survey of American History Since 1865) at University of Missouri - Columbia taught by Steven Watts in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 85 views. For similar materials see Survey of American History Since 1865 in History at University of Missouri - Columbia.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
History 1200 Dr Watts Notes for August 26 September 9 2015 Nineteenth Century America Society and Culture Background 1 Market economy and society Economic a Market revolution 17901830 transformed American life shaped social and economic system b Marketsocial and economic system i Arrangement of life where people try to get self interest ii Goods services etc all put a monetary value in life iii People confront and interact as free and competitive individuals c Household economy premarket people barter and exchanged goods rural and a subsidence economy The whole goal was getting along daytoday life i The idea behind this was community d Taskorientated work labor orientated to the task that needed to be done usually brought by the seasons like farming so demand to harvest during fall agriculturally e Using labor to make commodities so craftsmen were considered the competing individuals f Time orientated work work time payment was determined by the tie spent on the work new idea for market revolution Social a Paternalism society was based on the family family and social arrangements were the same idea b Colonial family was about hierarchy Paternal father head of family followed by mother than rest of family c Paternal was absolute and protection owed down and Deference submission or loyalty owed up d Community was considered a collection of families e Individualism was starting to rise so the idea of less family and community was present f There was an in uence of contracts law abiding not hierarchy agreements g Growing importance of opportunity Consequ nces of market revolution a Creates social classes in the modern sense b People are weary of Market revolution they don t like change and try to resist which was a minority of people 11 Victorian Culture a They try to create a value system of successful people with the market businessman b Values and advocates i ii iii iv Individualism self made man a man that invests his talents becomes an Victorian businessman ideal Selfcontrol idea of controlling your own destiny or emotions important to stay focused on business big focus on controlling sexual efforts 1 Sylvester Graham inventor of graham cracker wrote pamphlets for young men on how to get ahead in life said sexual abstinence was necessary for success for unmarried man and that marital sex was a distraction so should only be partaken in once a month Domesticity importance of family safe haven from the public working world Home stability kindness love etc Home was all about mortality 1 Public was the world of the men but the house was the women s rule force benevolent 2 Catherine Beecher writer Treatise of domestic economy bible on how woman were to run their household argues that home is moral central of the world and women s job of custodian morality Ideals for Victorians 1 Christian gentlemanin the public was a mogul and at home deferred gentlemanly to women in morality 2 True women sweet asexual high morals 111 Working class culture a Resistors of market b Defended older version of life like labor orientated work or craftsmen c Reject ethos and defend community d St Monday reference of working class drinking and partying on the weekend and not going to work on Monday for supposed religious reasons revealed controversies of owner vs worker e Temperance crusade to cut down on liquor revolved round classes working class resisted Trauma of the Civil war I Sectional Divisions a US deeply divided north vs south b Northern states i ii iii Predominately Victorian Attachment to individualism selfcontrol and domesticity Republican party founded 1850s exclusively northern Victorian party platform of Victorian ideals party of Christian gentleman William Seward was a big supporter iv Political ideology free labor northern idea that individuals control their own labor climb up ladder of work free labor was the basis of everything and key to how northerners looked at slavery c Southern states i More complicated than north ii Society politics dominated by planter elite planation owners dominate in cotton kingdomquot iii Cotton was key commodity iv Planer elite meant that the market was tangled up in the market revolution and the European market because of the industrial revolution in Europe Europe needed the cotton that the south was supplying v Profit was important to the elite vi Ostend manifesto 1850 plan created by people interested in economy and politics idea to expand cotton kingdom into central America demand expansion to provide for market caused controversy with north 1 Couldn t indorse market individuality because of slavery since slavery is the opposite of the individuality work force vii Paternalism old fashion society based on family weak deferred to those higher on the social ladder everyone knew their place viii Planation novel popular literature in north and south paint a picture of the paternal south and that the south was happy slave owners seen as father figures romanticized 11 Coming to the war a Clash of the social and cultural systems b Victorian north vs paternal south c Issue of slavery is focal point d North is looking at slavery as a violation of Victorian ideas i Bound slave labor was the opposite of free labor ii Violation of Victorian self control physically abusing the slaves and sexual relations with slaves iii Violation of domesticity slave families being ripped apart and white families being broken over slave owner and slave sexual relations iv Uncle Tom s Cabin Harriet Beecher Stowe wrote a book about the south swept through north key to popularity was showing the south as violating Victorian ideas Stowe had never been to the south e Southerners returned the criticism of the north said north was society of materialism selfishness two steps from anarchy called south stable compared to north f Cannibal s All George Fitzhugh mover in political circles scathing social critique of North painted picture of selfishness and step to anarchy Called North cannibals because they will eat each other to getahead i Focused on wage slavery market revolution created paying people with little as possible and taking their labor said southern slavery took care of slaves with housing etc because waged slavery got rid of workers if old market dropped g War brought on by western expansion i The questions of how to handle slavery in new states territories ii Slavery territories was toxic by 1850 1 North appalled and south is devoted iii The issue really explodes in Kansas 1 Bleeding Kansas big issue on whether Kansas was to be free or slave state north and south zealots pour in money and guns to get their side of the issue guerilla war and was never settled iv With Lincoln s election in 1850s 1 South urges to pull out of union 2 Believes slavery will disappear 3 Confederates states are created 4 North states believe its treason and will not stand for succession v Civil war 18611865 111 Impact of the civil war a North wins b Process of reentering the union begins c Estimated 360000 northerners killed and 200000 confederate millions wounded d North believed that the civil war was triumph of Victorian vales e Gave boost economically to north i Mass production created for war demand to supply the war ii Singer manufacturing company becomes vibrant with sewing uniforms and their sewing machines f South after war i Society in shambles ii Total destruction of the south iii Southerners were bitter and resentful iv Destroyed paternalism v Slaves were liberated and joy among them they faced difficult situation of no money or education they faced hostility from whites The ordeal of reconstruction Race reconstruction and the market I From moderate to radical reconstruction Background a b c April 9 1865 General Lee surrenders Sense of relief and hopes of peace and reconciliation April 14 1865 Lincoln was assassinated and threw the north and reconstruction in an uproar Problems with at the end of the war i How to put country back together politically ii Race relations iii Industrialization Lincoln put together a rough outline of how to reconstruct was endorsed by Andrew Johnson Moderate reconstruction is put in motion i Moderates want to put the country together with forgiveness and reconciliation ii Thought war was punishment from God iii Amnesty given to any southerner that swore an oath of allegiance to the union iv Only 10 of the population needed to swear and then a state government could be created v State governments had to agree to end slavery and promise not to succeed again vi Lenient plan for the south to rejoin vii Lincoln wanted to create a national market north was industrious while south produced Many Republicans didn t like this plan Radical Republicans i Thaddeus Stevens believed south had violates the work of the founding fathers believed that it shouldn t be easy to let the south back into the union ii Radical Reconstruction harsher reconstruction want to impeach Andrew Johnson and later pushes general Grant to run Andrew Iohnson was not a strong politician heavy drinker many radical republicans had a good impression off him escaped impeachment by one vote Radical reconstruction is what was used to unite the country instead of moderate reconstruction i Radical agenda pushed for the 13th 14th and 15th amendments ii Freedman s bureau government agency that was private aid to ex slaves in the transition to freedom medical care find work establish schools iii Political agenda system of rules and regulation to be readmitted into the union south had to call conventions where they had to ratify 13th 14th and 15th amendments advocate black suffrage and once these things happened then they could send people to congress to show proof of these events and be admitted back to the union iv Set up military governments where a union general had control of one area instead of state governments marshal law 11 Motivation and Results a Why radical republicans took this action 1 ii iii iv v vi They wanted revenge for violating Victorian ideals Blame south for the civil war slavery death and destruction Thought south needed to be punished Race wanted to bring ex slaves to a participatory mode All for racial equality but wanted slaves to stay in the south Wanted market place individualism and to destroy remnants of paternalism b Results of radical reconstruction 1 ii iii iv Slave participation went up and election of slaves into office local positions and a few senators Ex slaves were taking office with no experience Attitude of white southerners they did everything to not participate in politics as a way to spite Tension and chaos c Radical republicans dominated the nation i ii iii Push policies of industrialization High tariffs to promote domestic goods Public school system created as a way to train people on their ideals III Redeeming the South a There was a business panic of 1873 recession i Northern business man cast a dark eye on reconstruction and began to think that the policies were harming the economy b Presidential election of 1876 1 ii iii iv vi vii Controversy over who won the election between Samuel Tilden and Rutherford B Hayes Tilden was a democrat from NY expected to lose but won the popular vote Hayes was a northern general won the electoral Confusion on to how the results were so different thought that three states in the deep south committed voting fraud Results went to congress and a commission of 8 republicans and 7 democrats determined that Hayes won with 8 votes Caused an uproar democrats and republicans meet together to accept Hayes as president but republicans had to end military government put some democrats in cabinet return some government offices back to democrats compromise of 1877 radical reconstruction ends Redeemers people who wanted to bring back the south promote industrialization and cotton mills promote white supremacy viii Klu klux klan white supremacist group that intimated ex slaves and wanted to push them back to their placequot ix Lynching 180 blacks killed each year x Crop lien system sharecropping blacks bound to the land xi Iim crows land legal system of segregation in the south considered blacks 2rld hand citizens The incorporation of America 1 capital and labor in the Gilded age I From the frontier to factory a Three big areas of change i The closing of the American West people had pushed all the ay to pacific and the west had been colonized and settled 1 Final defeat of the native Americans pushed into reserves 2 Transcontinental Railroad built from east to west and east to west the two meet in promontory Utah 3 Oklahoma land rush native Americans pushed into OK and then government decided that OK needed to be open and be a state declared that it would be first some first serve for the land so people gathered on the borders to rush in and claim land OK was claimed within days and signified the closing of the west ii Growth of cities expansive urban growth 1 1900 there was roughly 6 main cities Chicago was main large city of the west and in 20 years the population tripled 2 NYC population was 2 million and by 1900 it was 4 Iiiilliri 3 Immigration large reason for growth 18501880 number of immigrants coming in was 25 million but after 1880 it was 5 million immigrants per decade 4 Immigration changes old immigrants which were northern Europeans who were predominately protestants and went to new immigrants who were from south and east Europe and majority were catholic and Jewish 5 Changed American culture iii Factory system and industrialization 1 Before the civil war US was behind Europe 2 1890 US was biggest producer and industrialist output was larger than England Germany and France combined 3 Factories of all sizes started popping up mostly in north and eastern parts of US Maximized production for profit Drive for efficiency and decline of craftsman S 6 Growth of larger than life businessman titans like the Vanderbilt Rockefeller Carnegie all given the name Robber barons wealthy powerful and ruthless iv Consequence of these things were the creation of different cultures and social classes 11 Dominant culture a 1865 John Sherman brother to general Sherman talked that businessmen were confident and that was key Selfmade man became the gospel and mythology of the time c Horatio Alger wrote a lot of books with the same plot line of a poor boy who goes to the city goes to church works hard and makes it thus succeeding texts of Victorian classics work ethic d Andrew Carnegieposter boy for self made man son of poor Scottish immigrants drifted into the railroad industry and becomes executive and shifts his resource and talents to iron and steel company by 1890s Carnegie steel company was biggest in US and abroad begins to talk and write about his success i Gospel of wealth argues that successful businessman should give back to the community that helped them succeed e Under the selfmade man is the consequence of the confidence man i Coined by Mark Twain ii Fear of conman that will stab people in the back to get ahead iii Jay Gould successful man of wall street selfmade but goes off the rails and tarnishes his image creates the NY gold Scheme that him and his friends quietly start to buy up the gold supply which causes the price to go up and then rashly sold it back to the market they made off with a lot of money but almost crashed the market 111 The working class World a Working class tries to respond to industrial capitalism b Gets rid of craftsman i Creates people to work with machines c Occupational disease no regulations to a safe work place d Economic problem pay starts to go down since so many workers and thus wages are compatible with standard of living e Working class called it industrial slavery low wages long hours dangerous and unfulfilling f Alienation workers went to work in one area and then came home to another one culture hubs like the Hill in St Louis which was predominately an Italian neighborhood g Tramp culturequot work not fulfilling enough or can t provide so people jumped on the rails hobos thousands of people h Workers start union movements i Kosher food riot prices of food rose and workers couldn t afford them so women broke into the stores and burned the food ii Pullman strike 1894 first big organized strike and almost shut down the rails spread through the country only ended when the president called in troops
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