Unit 7 notes
Unit 7 notes ANTH 1000
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Camila Correia on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANTH 1000 at East Carolina University taught by Joanne Phipps in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Anthropology in anthropology, evolution, sphr at East Carolina University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Unit 7 Notes Human Characteristics -Bipedalism Short and wide pelvis S-shaped spine Legs slope inward from hip to knee Shorter arms, longer legs (locking knee cap) Balancing big toe Platform (arched) structure of foot -Vision Stereoscopic and trichromatic Lots of smell acuteness -Hands Long, fully opposable thumb Independent control of fingers Power Grip Precision Grip -Brain enlarged cerebral cortex Increased number of neurons Language and speech Culture Ardipithecus Ramidus -"Ardi" (4.4 mya) Bipedal, but flat footed Walked on palms of hands, not knuckles "Transitional biped" Foramen Magnum under skull Why Bipedalism? -Fully bipedal hominins emerge 4-5 mya in East Africa -Theories Predator avoidance by sight Ability to carry food and tools More efficient long-distance travel Regulate body temperature Australopithecines -First definite hominins -Fully bipedal -Hominin dental characteristics 2 types: Gracile, Robust Gracile Australopiths -"Lucy" -Sexually dimorphic -Relatively large brain -Partially aboreal -Differences to us: Shorter Longer Arms Curved fingers Shorter lower legs Greater prognathism (jutting face) Sloped forehead Smaller cranial capacity (brain size equal to a chimp) -Similarities: Bipedalism Robust Australopiths -Found in east Africa -Diet of coarse seeds, nuts, roots -Not considered an ancestor to Homo genus -Sometimes classified into its own genus of Paranthropus How did Homo evolve? -High levels of variation in Au. Species -Debate over which Ausrtalopithecine species was direct ancestor or Homo Lumpers vs.Splitters -Lumpers see high variation within one species -Splitters see variation of some traits as new species Early Hominin Behavior -Stone Tools -Oldowan tool production Choppers and flakes Choppers good for breaking open bones Flakes good for cutting hide and muscle No apparent design in mind when making tools Found at sites where late Australopiths and early Homo overlap in East Africa Global cooling and dying trend -Selective Pressures Seasonal food variation -Culture Cooperative food processing and sharing Likely family-based groups, less male-male competition, more complex social lives
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