Transformation of the Jews Notes
Transformation of the Jews Notes HIST 3203-001
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This 19 page Class Notes was uploaded by Robert Espinal on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 3203-001 at University of Oklahoma taught by Dr. Carsten Schapkow in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 22 views. For similar materials see Transformation of the Jews in History at University of Oklahoma.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
August 27 The Hebrew term jehudi describes a member of the tribe of Judah or the people of the kingdom of Judah The Latin Iudaeus simply means Judean quotfrom the land of Judaeaquot Jews were surrounded by nonJewish societies In Palestine Kingdom of the Israelites The Temple Center of the state and also its spiritual center Destruction of the Temple in the year 70 CE by the Romans After the destruction of the Temple Jews began to concentrate more on biblical writings since they did not have a physical building in which to worship quotSpiritual nation in Exilequot Greek diaspora quotdispersedquot Hebrew galuth The Jewish elite had to ask themselves quotHow can Judaism survive in Galuthquot Jewish writings O Tenach Hebrew Bible aka quotThe Old Testamentquot O Talmud O Midrash O Mishna 0 Jews had previously relied upon oral law but since the Temple was destroyed they turned to biblical texts like the ones listed above 0 Juda ha Nasi Started compiling oral law into a written compilation which became the Mishna 0 In the first centuries CE Christianity grew rapidly and was institutionalized as the official religion of the Roman Empire 0 The Edict of Toleration of 313 CE guaranteed universal religious freedom but Judaism became a minority religion 0 Early Christian theologiansin particular Augustine 354430developed a particular understanding of Jews as quotwitness peoplequot 0 Meaning Jews were seen as demonstrating the truth of Christianity through their suffering and dispersal 0 Features of J ewishChristian relations during the High Middle Ages 10001300 0 Jews living in the Germanspeaking world were called in rabbinic writings Ashkenazim and the Germanspeaking world Ashkenaz 0 Jews were seen as an important constituent of European society because of their role as merchants especially international merchants 0 The local rulers granted them privileges and charters which essentially provided the legal basis for the existence of Jewish communities in European cities How did Jews live within surrounding nonJewish major societies 0 Jews typically lived in selfgoveming communities the kehillah 0 The Talmudic law dina demalkhuta dina that is quotThe law of the host country is bindingquot implies recognition of the ruler39s legislation and has been accepted by Jews right up to modern times Distinct infrastructure in the kehilot 0 Jewish jurisdiction was limited to internal Jewish affairs 0 Internally autonomous entity 0 Governed by their own laws and officials 0 Own schools and social institutions including welfare 0 Synagogue House of prayer resembles a school had at least one rabbi a teacher well Versed in Jewish writings 0 mirkwe A ritual bathhouse 0 shoehet A slaughterer who could perform animal slaughtering following the Halachch ie Jewish Law A brutal challenge the Crusades 0 During the crusades Jews were murdered and they fulfilled Kiddush hashem 0 Sanctification of the DiVine name in order not to become baptized Following the Fourth Lateran Council of 1215 many Jews were required to wear special clothes including a badge on the chest and a cornered hat called quotthe Jew hatquot Despite the rampant discrimination Jews were often seen as somewhat important specifically in regards to how useful they were in regards to business September 1 Despite their often being seen as being inferior the Jewish people were integral to the economy in medieval Germany They were protected by the ruling class they paid for said protection However there was no concept of quotcitizenshipquot at the time Although they were outside of society the Jews did still enjoy protection it was a very pragmatic relationship Jews began to be blamed for kidnapping and murdering Christian children and then using their blood for religious purposes during Jewish holidays which was false these were called blood libels Christians saw the sacrament as the true embodiment of Christ that is why desecration of the host was a sin Christians believed that Jews would stab the host which led to it bleeding because they felt that they were actually killing Christ himself Berthold of Regensburg preached to the Jews during the 15th century Jews were forced to listen to his sermons in an effort to convert them Lady Ecclesia Represents Christianity wearing a crown head up staff held high Lady Synagoga Represents Judaism wearing a blindfold has a broken staff holding a tablet upside down at her side 0 It was a silent way of saying that Jews were blind to the truth 1490s 122 percent of the population in Europe was Jewish 600000 out of 54 million Jews were expelled from England in 1290 Jews also had a good reputation as being medical doctors Jewish history is always a history of migration What kept Jews Jewish during those years 0 Focusing on Jewish texts and culture rm 0 During the 13th century the ChristianJewish debates became aggravated 0 Postbiblical Judaism namely the Talmud 0 In the Middle Ages there were no printed versions of the Talmud since the printing press had not yet been invented 0 Paris in 1240 Burning of the Talmud 0 The Disputation of Barcelona July 2024 1263 0 Disputation A theological debate between Christians and Jews Protagonists in the Disnutm 0 Christians 0 Brother Pablo Christiani I Changed his name to fit his faith he had converted from Judaism to Christianity 0 Dominican General Raymond de Penyafort o Rabbi Moses Nachmanides 0 King James I of Aragon 0 Teresa Gil de Vidaure King J ames39 Wife 0 The subjects of the discussion were 1 Whether the Messiah had appeared 2 Whether the Messiah announced by the Prophets was to be considered as a God or as a man born of human parents 3 Whether the Jews or the Christians were in possession of the true faith 0 Unlike Paris where Jews could not use scripture to argue their case King James allowed the Jews to use scripture to reinforce their argument the Jews were given free speech during the disputations Consequences of the Disputations 0 Rabbi Moses Nachmanides was seen as the winner of the disputations 0 King James distrusted the Dominican court 0 The Church was victorious even though Nachmanides on the competition 0 Nachmanides was exiled by the Dominicans 0 Passages from the Talmud perceived as critical of Christendom removed from his Nachmanides39 book 0 Freedom of speech did not exist any longer quotA People Apartquot 0 What makes the Jews quota people apartquot Less rights Isolated Community within a community Religious law made them a people apart Dietary restrictions were quite different from gentiles Autonomyjurisdiction led to more rights Jewish perception of exile galuth Separation by their own choice OOOOOOOOO More economic freedom ability to rise above the peasants 0 What were the interactions between Jews and Christians during that time period 0 Despite the fact that they were not supposed to imbibe the other39s wine they often did 0 There were certain in uences that Christianity had on Judaism and vice versa 0 Mercantile interactions September 8 Time frame 15501750 The reformers of Christianity had a different understanding of the Hebrew Bible this was especially true of Martin Luther Born in 1483 died in 1546 Published the 95 Theses As a young man he joined an order and condemned the persecution of the Jews He wanted to reach out to the Jews he condemned forced conversion of the Jews Against the confiscation of Jewish writings especially the Talmud against the mindset that Jewish writing had to be destroyed He also thought that Jews and Christians should interact more he thought that they should have more chances to assimilate He argued that Jews had every right to turn down Papist Christianity thought that the papists had misused Christian teachings Luther also believed that only Jews had true access to Christianity given their knowledge of Hebrew He thought that it was key to understand quottrue Christendomquot Luther believed that when they heard his proposed about Christian Brotherhood they would willingly convert to Christianity he became more ambivalent towards the Jews when they turned down his proposal He later published 0n the Jews and their Lies in 1543 his tone became more hostile he characterized them as being stubborn Luther was very powerful when utilizing language often used it to attack his enemies Even the Nazis used some of his arguments it is not believed that Luther was anti Semitic per se it was not about hating a race he was specifically frustrated by what he perceived as religious stubbornness He became a political adviser to the Grand Duke of Saxony convinced him to oust the Jews from Saxony J osel of Rosheim Advocate who protected the interests ofpled the cause of the Jewish people Judaizers A sect of early Christians who believed Gentiles had to convert to Judaism in order to embrace Jesus as the Messiah Erasmus feared that when Christians studied Hebrew it would lead to a Jewish revival it could only prevent him from further concentrating on Christ39s teachings In order to learn Hebrew Christians had to expose themselves to things that were outside of their Christian community they were worried that Jewish beliefs could in uence Christians Luther did not like the Talmud but he found the Hebrew Bible to be quite useful Mercantilism signifies the deliberate persuit of the economic interest of the Absolute State irrespective of the claims of existing laws privilege a predominance of some Jews in the mercantilism aspect of society Court Jews or Holjuden Jews who had access to the Court the duke the king etc some have said that they were the first Jews to begin to assimilate They were also forced to find methods of generating income Transporting food and money during this time period was incredibly difficult had to have a network of people whom they trusted Court Jews were powerful but were also very insecure if the ruler died it was possible that their protection would be over Some of the eminent Court Jews were criticized within the Jewish community for having already assimilated Samuel Oppenheimer of Heidelberg Samson Wertheimer and Lehmann of Halberstadt were the preeminent German Jewish court financiers Joseph Suss Oppenheimer was made the chief of finances dressed like a Gentile not a Jew 0 He was eventually executed in a very public manner it was intended to send a message wanted to make an example out of him 0 Some of the more privileged Jews were able to live outside of the crowded Jewish neighborhoods Se tember 10 0 Holy Roman Empire of the German Nation Would eventually become Germany ruled by the Hapsburg Dynasty 0 It was divided into numerous territories each one had its own ruler and currency 0 The Jews were treated well in Poland because Poland needed immigrants looking for people who were useful in business and other professional areas 0 In France Jews were forced out 0 Emperor Leopold 1 Holy Roman Emperor Liscussion auestjons Wertheimer of Prussia 0 For how long was the privilege granted to Samson O 20 years 0 What did he do in order to attain his title as an quotImperial Court Factorquot 0 He advanced the Empire several loans at a low interest 0 He generated income from the Siebenbuergen salt mines 0 How is he acting towards his Jewish citizens 0 He speaks on behalf of the Empire 0 Saw potential with the Jews although he was not a proponent of them Frederick 11 0 How was the Jewish population organised 0 How were the Jews perceived 0 In what sense can we interpret this legislation as modern Se tember 17 The Age of Enlightenment refers to the 18th century in European philosophy as the Age of Reason This Intellectual movement also provided a framework for the American 17751783 and the French Revolutions Enlightened thinkers believed in a new historical period which would replace the Dark Ages This movement advocated rationality as a means to establish an authoritative system of ethics aesthetics and knowledge The members of the movement were skeptical towards religion both Christianity and Judaism because it contradicted reason some enlightened thinkers such as Voltaire were extremely hostile to Judaism The intellectual leaders of this movement regarded themselves as courageous and elite and considered their purpose as leading the world toward progress and out of a long period of doubtful tradition full of irrationality superstition and tyranny The Enlightenment was a European phenomenon and also had an impact on North America Prominent figures 0 John Toland England Emmanuel Kant Germany and Voltaire France Jews could not go to regular schools 0 Jews would send their children to a Jewish school look up specific name 0 Christians did not want Jews in their schools Mendelssohn was a Jew who learned to speak read and write in German learned at night after he had finished working 0 Lived 17291786 He was a strict adherent to Jewish practices His son Joseph converted after Mendelssohn died What was remarkable about Mendelssohn was that he was an exception to the rule the rule being that Jews were unable to learn anything complicated The Haskalah grew with its center in Berlin and spread from there to Bohemia and Galicia and in the 19th century to Russia It became a universal phenomenon Goals of the Haskalah O 0 Not only a response to the Enlightenment Hebrew language should become part of the European culture in order to integrate the Jews into the European culture Secular modernization took place and very important Religion is no more the most important aspect among the Jews The Haskalah should change the understand of the Jewish culture and the self awareness of the Jews liVing in that culture Se tember 22 Mendelsohn died in 1786 Voltaire was not a supporter of the Jews Many had to pay a Jew Tax There were also Jews who issued replies to Voltaire In England one could not tell the difference between Jews and Christians 0 They were dressed the same The French Revolution 1789 changed much about the Jewish lifestyle The French National Assembly The decree recognized the Sephardim as citizens 0 January 28 1790 As a result they enjoyed the rights of active citizenship if they met the other qualifications 1808 Decre Enfame 1815 Napoleon s defeat Although Jews were still a people connected they began to establish individual identities Some Jewish people became offended by the term Jew they could not attribute anything positive to it They would say that they were members of the Mosaic faith sometimes they would simply identify themselves as Israelites Be a Jew at home be a Frenchman on the street became a popular saying 0 Doing their best to blend in and assimilate but still stay true to their faith However the word Jew was not completely removed from French vocabulary September 24 Massacres of 1648 Bohdan Khmelnytsky Talmud study 0 Often when something terrible like the massacres of 1648 happens to a people they turn more to religion Yeshiva Religious schools Someone who is a learned rabbinical scholar is considered important to a Jewish family Some Jews are considered bright enough that they dedicate their life to study only when they get married there is even a stipulation in their marriage contract that states that they will do no manual labour and their wife39s family will support them Many Jews adapted German as their language 0 Specifically those who were scholars 0 Germany was seen as the most enlightened country at the end of the 18th century Some scholars studied the legal interpretations in the Talmud Vilna Gaon 17201797 0 Emphasized Talmudic study based on the Yeshiva 0000 OO 0 He maintained a strong focus on the Mishna Believed that studying the Torah was of paramount importance Authored books on grammar and mathematics It is said that he worked in seclusion for 40 years before taking anyone on as students Made corrective notes on the Talmud Recognised as the leading Torah expert of his time Many people were not able to understand what he was attempting to convey due to its high level of complexity Criticism was that his writings were not able to resonate with more Jews could not reach out to the people 0 Besht Israel ben Eliezer 16981760 0 O O O Lived on his own in the woods for many years Left behind no books His movement the Chassidim or quotthe Chassidic movementquot Many people appreciated him because he was easy to understand 0 How did Maimon perceive his early marriage pp 7488 0 0 He was only 11 when he was married had his first son at 14 It was an arranged marriage Had a negative attitude going into the marriage Lots of con ict with the motherinlaw they all lived in the same household Acted quite awkward with his wife He felt powerless unable to be a man Prejudiced societies Polish and Jewish Mystical traditions major part of their society 0 What did the study of the Kabbalah mean for him pp 94110 0 To him the Kabbalah meant tradition It meant deducing new laws from the laws that are given in the Holy Scriptures as also some fundamental laws which are said to have been delivered orally to Moses on Mount Sinai The study of this led to a higher sense of selfconfidence High regard for other religions The principal work for the study of the Kabbalah is the Zohar which is written in a very lofty style in the Syrian language 0 There are two main systems of the Kabbalah the system of Rabbi Moses Kordovero and that of Rabbi Isaac 0 Did Maimon perceive the Hasidic movement within his autobiography differently and if so what makes the difference pp 132137 0 He was somewhat disenchanted with the rabbis sought something else 0 When he began to follow Chasidim or the Pious he soon realized that these people were delusional O Maimon was okay withunderstood fasting but was not a fan of the beating 0 How did Maimon perceive the Haskalah in general and how did he understand Moses Mendelssohn39s role in it pp 187209 pp 210225 0 Book of Zohar translated as quotBook of Eternal Splendourquot 0 Deducing new laws from the laws that are given in the Holy Scriptures as also some fundamental laws which are said to have been delivered orally to Moses on Mount Sinai 0 Sephirot The 10 attributesemanations in Kabbalah through which The Infinite reveals himself and continuously creates both the physical realm and the chain of higher metaphysical realms 0 Rebbe A Yiddish word derived from the Hebrew word rabbi which means quotmaster teacher or mentorquot like the title quotrabbiquot it refers to teachers of Torah or leaders of Jewry 0 Moremewuchim 12th 0 Moses Maimonides I 11341204 39 Came from Spain I Died in Cairo Egypt 39 Writer philosopher Maimon went to Germany but initially had a difficult time as he could readwrite German but did not speak it well 0 He was selftaught 0 However after reading one of Mendelssohn39s writings and then translating it into Hebrew he was accepted more In Berlin Maimon met Moses Mendelssohn he had written a dissertation about Mendelssohn39s writings and sent it to Mendelssohn Although he was initially nervous upon meeting Mendelssohn and his friends he was warmly received by all of them Did Maimon perceive the Hasidic movement within his autobiography differently and if so what makes the difference pp 132137 0 He was somewhat disenchanted with the rabbis sought something else 0 When he began to follow Chasidim or the Pious he soon realized that these people were delusional O Maimon was okay withunderstood fasting but was not a fan of the beating How did Maimon perceive the Haskalah in general and how did he understand Moses Mendelssohn39s role in it pp 187209 pp 210225
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