Brain and Behavior Chapter 3
Brain and Behavior Chapter 3 Nsci3300
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Caoimhe Notetaker on Saturday September 12, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to Nsci3300 at Tulane University taught by Paul Colombo in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 69 views. For similar materials see Brian and behavior in Psychlogy at Tulane University.
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Date Created: 09/12/15
Brain and Behavior 09122015 Chapter3 Nervous system is divided into 0 Central Inside skull and spinal cord 0 Peripheral Outside skull and spinal cord 0 Somatic interacts with external environment Afferent nerves carry sensory signals from the skin to the CNS central nervous system Efferent nerves carry sensory signals from the CNS to the skeletal muscles n Efferent nerves are divided into two categories 0 Sympathetic control ght or ight re exes Parasympathetic controls rest and digest re exes o Autonomic regulates bodies internal environment Composed of afferent and efferent nerves The brain is protected by 3 meninges o The Dura mater tough mother 0 Arachnoid weblike o Subarachnoid space made of cerebral spinal uid Pia mater pious mother adheres to the surface of the CNS Cerebrospinal uid protects the CNS produced by the choroid plexus Bloodbrain barrier impedes the passage of many toxic substances into the brain 0 Many CNS disorders are associated with impairments to bloodbrain barrier Terms of neuron Cell membrane the semipermeable membrane that encloses the neuron Cell body the metabolic center of the neuron soma Dendrites the short processes emanating from the ell body which receive most of the synaptic contacts from other neurons Axon hillock the cone shaped region at the junction between the axon and the cell body Axon the long narrow process that projects from the cell body Myelin the fatty insulation around many axons Nodes of Ranvier the gaps between sections of myelin Buttons the buttonlike endings of the axon branches which release chemicals into synapses Synapses the gaps between adjacent neurons across which chemical signals are transmitted Olfactory and optic nerves are the only pure sensory cranial nerves Most neurons are multipolar over uni or bi polar lnterneurons integrate neural activity with in a single brain structure Clusters of cell bodies nuclei if in the central nervous system Ganglia peripheral nervous system Bundles of axons tracts central nervous system nerves peripheral Glia EQUAL to number of neurons Oligodenrocytes glia with extensions that wrap around the axons of some neurons of he CNS 0 Extensions are rich in myelin a fatty insulating substance 0 Myelin sheath increases the speedefficiency of axonal conducUon Schwann cells guide axonal regeneration Micro glia smaller respond to injury disease Astrocytes largest glia passage from blood to CNS neurons Directions and terms used to explain location 0 l dorsal superior medial toward the midline o l ventral inferior lateral away from the midline I anterior l posterior Humans complicated process by quotstanding upquot 0 Imagine humans on all 45 and directions will be easier 0 Horizontal section cut with the horizon Sagittal section imagine slicing off ear Frontal imagine slicing off face Spinal Cord 0 Gray matter cell bodies unmyelinated interneurons White matter myelinated axons Dorsal Horns The two dorsal arms of spindle gray matter Ventral horns Two ventral arms 5 major structures in the brain Myelencephalon medulla 0 Most posterior division of the brain 0 Controls reticular formation Metencephalon o Pons o Cerebellum Sensory motor control Mesencephalon o Tectum dorsal surface of midbrain o Tegmentum dorsal pons located within the brainstem o Diencephalon o Thalamus and hypothalamus Pituitary gland Telencephalon o Largest division of the human brain Cerebral cortex Hippocampus Basal Ganglia and limbic system Amygdala o Limbic system a circuit of midline structure that circle the thalamus Regulation of motivated behavior 0 Basal ganglia Role in performance of voluntary motor responses
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