weeks pt2 HIS 203
Popular in Hist of U.S. Since 1865
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Popular in History
This 3 page Class Notes was uploaded by Darlene Franklin on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIS 203 at State University of New York at Oswego taught by William B Murphy (P) in Fall 2015. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Hist of U.S. Since 1865 in History at State University of New York at Oswego.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Imperialism under Wilson 1914: Invasion of Ver Cruz, Mexico (revolution... series of change… Wilson launches a various assault take over ultimately fails negation) 1915: Invasion of Haiti (occupy because of military dictatorship tried to change to democratic nation... fail Chaos and disorder still to this day) 1916: U.s occupation of Dominican Republic (failure but showed more aggressiveness by America) The Revolt of farmers (Agrarian Revolt): Farming in Decline In 1800 over 90% of Americans were farmers In 1900, fewer than 50% were (rapid decline during gilded age) Between 1870 and 1900 11 million people moved from the countryside to the cities (hard to make income as a farmer also technology advances) Problems of Farmers High Railroad rates (Discount to only big business wanted contracts from wellestablished business to make up the money from discount raised prices to regular people or little businesses) High tariffs (Tax on imports… on foreign manufactured goods discourage Americans from buying outside U.S… Knocking out competition to only raise the prices of the U.S goods Overproduction and declining prices (foreign countries did the same on tariffs of outside goods increasing price reducing the demand) (Prices went down sell food you had not making enough make more... but so is everyone else) Debt (costing more to grow then making... borrowing money piles up from the bank... Can’t make enough to pay back bank will foreclose) Farmers seeking reform Farmers pushed for political reforms to help them Formed organizations to educate farmers and lobby government The Grange: Begins in midwest... social club... help vs. Railroad (focus on railroads prices) lobby local state government… Granger laws establishing public commissions on rail road rate (Railroad had their own influence on the government most laws were weak commission couldn’t really set rates only could show which were cheaper than others rarely strong to have the power to regulate) Farmers alliance: tried to organize farmers into collectives that shared costs and resources (first started separately in North and south then conjoined to one… Try to educate farmers about issues) Lobbied federal government to regulate railroads (1887 interstate commerce act national version of the Granger laws modeled on weak version) frustrated with the results Populist party 18901892: Farmers alliance becomes frustrated with democrats and republicans. Believed both parties served the wealthy and corporations but not people. (Corruption has spread all over government Plutocracy: government by the rich) The Turbulent 1980s 1890s was a decade of political and economic turmoil (depression… J.P Morgan had to donate money to the government) Panic of 1893 led to severe depression which lasted until 1897 Farmers and industrial workers were hit the hardest Populist platform Called number of radical reforms A graduated income tax (progressive income more money earned=more money you pay didn’t achieve but helped make a public issue) Government ownership of railroads (farmers hated railroad companies’ argument entire society relies on railroad makes no since on why the rate is so high make it reasonable so the majority of people can take the train) The “subtreasury” farm credit plan Direct election of U.S senators Currency reform The populist and the dollar Currency reform became a key issue U.S dollar had been on a bi metallic standard in mid 19 century Both gold and silver the value of the dollar (didn’t like to carry around because of heaviness so created paper money but it was an iou) 1873: Silver dollars taken out of circulation (Value fluctuated the supply was never stable) U.S goes on gold standard (stable) This is deflationary (when prices go down when the value of money goes up making less money when selling goods) Populist believed this was responsible for depressions in 1870s and 1890s There simply wasn’t enough money to meet economy needs There was a simple fix: Restore silver to the money supply Populists believed this would cause inflation and end the depression The currency issue Many people suffering through depression were attracted to the easy solution But some opposed dishonest meddling with money supply Goldbugs (only wanted gold) vs. Silverites (Wanted silver restored)