BIO 1004 Chapter 10 Notes
BIO 1004 Chapter 10 Notes BIO 1004
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Falyn Ruby on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 1004 at Mississippi State University taught by Jeffery Echols in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see Anatomy & Physiology in Biology at Mississippi State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Anatomy and Physiology Chapter 10 The Endocrine System The function of the endocrine system is communication through hormones that are produced by endocrine glands and travel through the bloodstream. The effects last longer. o 2-for1 – most endocrine glands are composed of two separate glands that are fused together. Endocrine vs. Exocrine o Endocrine glands produce hormones, release hormones into the bloodstream, and hormones affect distant target organs. o Exocrine glands produce substances other than hormones (sweat, stomach acid,) and release substances onto the body’s surface or into hollow internal organs. Hormone Action o Occurs in two classes: Peptide hormones are made up of proteins, released into the bloodstream, and they attach to cell surfaces of target organs – generally they activate enzymes within the cells. Steroid hormones are lipid based, travel in the bloodstream, enter the cells of the target organ, and stimulate the production of proteins (including enzymes.) Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland o Found on or near the diencephalon and are directly connected to one another. o Hypothalamus Produces 2 hormones: Hypothalamic releasing hormone – target organ is the pituitary gland – stimulates the release of hormones from the pituitary Hypothalamic release inhibiting hormone – target organ is the pituitary gland – inhibits the release of hormones from the pituitary Hypothalamic release hormones control the release of hormones in the pituitary. o Posterior pituitary Stores hormones that are produces by the hypothalamus and produces a few hormones: Antidiuretic hormone – targets the kidneys by way of the bloodstream o Stimulates the kidneys to absorb more water back into the bloodstream – delays hydration o Released during times of high physical activity and when water intake is low Oxytocin – targets the uterus and causes uterine contractions o Released in large amounts during childbirth and after intercourse (forces sperm higher into the reproductive tract and increases rate of pregnancy.) o May impact brain cells to stimulate feelings of attraction. o Causes the release of milk in breast tissue o Anterior pituitary Growth hormone (somatotropin – GH) – targets most of the cells of the body o Travels through the bloodstream and causes increased cell division – leading to growth Prolactin – stimulates the production of milk during child birth (PRL) Thyroid Stimulating Hormone (TSH) – targets the thyroid and causes the release of hormones form the thyroid Adrenocorticotropin (ACTH) – stimulates the adrenal glands to release hormones Gonadotropins – targets the gonads, testes, and ovaries, and stimulates the release of hormones from organs Testes – testosterone Ovaries – estrogen and progesterone Growth Hormones Not uncommon for there to be an increase or decrease of a Growth Hormone Surge of GH around puberty and peaks in late teens/early twenties and then slowly decreases – somewhere in the 40’s, production completely stops in women – in men it continues to decrease throughout life Abnormalities o Giantism – overproduction of growth hormone starting at birth Leads to enlarged features Growth plates in bones are still fresh and growing o Dwarfism – underproduction of GH which leads to smaller features Varies depending on amount of GH o Acromegaly – continued high production of growth hormone past 40’s Most limbs and torso have reached maturity and will not keep growing, but extremities will continue to grow EX: hands and feet get larger, ears and nose, facial bones may continue to grow Thyroid and Parathyroid glands o Thyroid gland is located on the upper portion of the trachea Produces hormones: Thyroxine – regulates metabolism in the cells and includes bones, muscle tissue, and many other cells Calcitonin – regulates the amount of calcium in the blood o Parathyroid Gland Regulates blood calcium levels Parathyroid hormone (PTH) Opposite action of calcitonin Goiter – a lack of iodine in the diet that stimulates an increase of thyroxine (non-functional) and eventually the thyroid gland begins to enlarge in order to keep up w/ production Hyperthyroidism – an overproduction of thyroxine o Symptoms include a thin stature, increased energy levels, eyes tend to bulge out – treatment is difficult Lethargy – under production of thyroxine which leads to no energy and weight gain – treatment is injections of thyroxine Parathyroid glands are imbedded in the thyroid gland Adrenal Glands o 2 parts: Adrenal medulla – central portion Epinephrine – targets skeletal muscle, heart muscle, and other glands, only released during times of stress Norepinephrine Adrenal Cortex – outer portion Glucocorticoids – influences metabolic rate Mineralocorticoids – regulates minerals in the body o Ex: aldosterone Produces small amounts of estrogen and testosterone Pancreas o 2 types of tissue: Endocrine tissue – produces hormones (islets of pancreas) and produce insulin and glucagen Exocrine tissues – produces digestive enzymes and an alkali solution (digestive juice which empties into small intestine) o Diabetes Mellitus Type 1 – body cannot produce insulin Type 2 – body has insulin deficiency and resistance Testes and Ovaries o Testosterone – stimulates male secondary conditions (characteristics) o Estrogen and progesterone (ovaries) – control uterine cycle and promotes female characteristics Pineal gland – located in the brain, hormones produced control cycles within body (sleep cycles/waking cycles/weight gain cycles) Thymus Gland – located at base of trachea near heart, produces thymosine which targets white blood cells and influences maturation of white blood cells o Is as large as its going to be at birth o May disappear completely in the elderly
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