Week 7 - Behavioral Neuroscience
Week 7 - Behavioral Neuroscience PSYC 4183-001
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This 7 page Class Notes was uploaded by Celine Notetaker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 4183-001 at University of Arkansas taught by Nathan Parks in Spring 2015. Since its upload, it has received 36 views. For similar materials see Behavioral Neuroscience in Psychlogy at University of Arkansas.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Behavioral Neuroscience – Week 7 EXAMPLE QUESTION: Bilateral damage to the hippocampus in a human patient would lead to: Answer: An inability to form new long-term memories EXAMPLE QUESTION: The primary auditory cortex A1 is the first area of the cerevral cortex to receive information related to the sense of hearing. From what structure does A1 receive its inputs? Answer: Thalamus EXAMPLE QUESTION: What issues would you anticipate in a patient with bilateral damage to the superior colliculi? Answer: you would feel a jumping sensation or problems generating eye movement, anything visual would be affected EXAMPLE QUESTION: What might you expect to happen if you electrically stimulated a patients superior colliculus? Answer: You would cause eye movements Amygdala -Fear programming Found in interior of rostral temporal lobe (amygdala and hippocampus are located here Forebrain Each hemisphere of the cerebral cortex is divided into four lobes: Occipital, Parietal, Temporal, Frontal Insular cortex: Portion of the cerebral cortex within the depths of the lateral fissure plays a role in taste, pain perception, and emotion Cingulate gyrus: The gyrus surrounding the corpus callosum Cingulate Cortex: a part of the limbic cortexincludes the entire cingulate gyrus. supports emotion, pain perception, motor control, and executive functions Corpus Callosum: A massive tract of axons connecting the left and right cerebral hemisspheres CORPUS CALLOSUM **Old practice to treat seizures was to cut the corpus callosum Separate the two hemispheres - The two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex are not exactly symmetrical in function. - In 95% of right handed individuals, language is almost always left hemisphere lateralized. PRODUCTION of language Split brain patients - By splitting the corpus callosum, the two hemispheres will no longer be able to communicate - Visual information from the left side of space goes to the right hemisphere and STAYS there - Visual information from the right side of space goes to the left hemisphere and STAYS there Since speech is on the left side of the brain of this patient they can only SPEAK the words that they read with their RIGHT eye. Since they control their left hand on the right side of the brain this patient can PICK OUT the word that they read with their LEFT eye. LEFT HEMISPHERE (commonly the speaking side) also has the desire to EXPLAIN, find cause and effect, and ask questions. RIGHT HEMISPHERE Good at Facial Recognition Gray Matter in the Cerebral Cortex Gray matter in the cerebral cortex is organized into 6 layers (top to bottom) Pia surface 1. Molecular layer 2. External Granule Cell Layer 3. External Pyramidal Cell layer 4. Internal Granule cell Layer: where inputs are received 5. Internal Pyramidal Cell layer 6. Multiform layer: Where output leaves White matter No matter which part of the cortex you look at, the gray matter will always have 6 layers Occipital area is associated with vision ONLY because the thalamus sends the inputs to that area. If we rewired the thalamus to send visual input to the temporal area instead than the temporal area would be able to function as a sort of Visual cortex. o This is possible because all gray matter in the cerebral cortex is more or less the same There is a large IV for the Primary visual cortex because it receives a lot of input (visual) There is a large VI in the primary motor cortex because it gives a lot of output (movement) Brodmann Areas: divide the cortex into functionally different regions based on cytoarchitectural differences Mapped based on different arrangement of Gray matter in each region The functions are not the same in every brain but he outlined the boundaries that any particular function would be found in and where it differs from areas around it. Some of the areas are very accurate and some are fuzzy Four diffuse modulatory neurotransmitter systems Nucleus in the brain that receives a neurotransmitter and then projects it diffusely to different parts of the brain **KNOW: The neurotransmitters, Name of Nuclei, And APPROXIMATe location - Know dopamine especially and how it could relate to parkinsons Acetylcholine There are three major cholinergic nuclei in the brain: 1. Medial septal nuclei (forebrain) = projects broadly throughout the cereb. cortex 2. Nucleus Basalis (forebrain) = projects broadly throughout the cereb. cortex 3. Pedunculopontine nucleus (pons): major producer of acetylcholine -Modulates Glutamate and GABA built circuits Dopamine The tegmentum contains the two major dopaminergic nuclei of the brain: 1. Ventral Tegmental Area : outputs to prefrontal cortex, results in reward 2. Substantia Nigra: mainly outputs to basal ganglia, death of these cells decreases dopamine release to basal ganglia ** Degeneration of dopaminergic neurons causes parkinsons - Degeneration of these nuclei = decrease in dopamine that is sent out - Norepinephrine The locus coeruleus is the primary noradrengic nucleus of the brain located in the dorsal pons - Releases broadly throughout the brain - If you don’t have this or it is damaged you will be in a permanent, irreversible coma Serotonin The Raphe nuclei make up the brain’s serotonergic system and are distributed within the pons and medulla - Projects just about everywhere in the brain AND the spinal cord
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