comm415 notes 3/1 3/3
comm415 notes 3/1 3/3 COMM 415
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Danielle Cracchiolo on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to COMM 415 at University of Arizona taught by Chris Segrin in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Nonverbal Communication in Communication Studies at University of Arizona.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
3/1 Facial Expression The human face • Major function: convey emotion • + attitudes towards other people and objects • some facial expressions are emblematic Facial “sign Vehicles” • Static: remain constant (qualities of face that never change: face shape, nose, etc.) • Slow: reliability change with age (wrinkles, fat, beard, etc.) • Rapid: change in matter of seconds (facial expressions**) • Artificial: cosmetics or facial treatments used to enhance beauty or combat age Slow Sign Hehicles Predict Mortality- Study • Pictures taken of 292 people 82-84 years old • Students guessed age of pictures • Guesses ranges 63-85 years old • 108 of 292 participants dies in following 6 years • takeaway: the older you look, greater risk of mortality Organization of Face Muscles • Eyes/brows • Nose/cheeks • Mouth 6 Primary Facial Expressions of Emotion- eyes, nose, mouth • 1. happiness/joy- distinguished by eye muscles (fake v. real) • 2. sadness • 3. anger • 4. surprise • 5. disgust • 6. fear • 7 thContempt?? Universal Pride Expression • Happy face, head tilted back, chest out, hands on hips, children at age 4 can identify, isolated African tribal culture can identify, might function to mark/maintain status Facial Feedback Hypothesis • James (peripheralist) muscle activity -> emotion • Cannon (centralist) cognitive appraisal -> emotion • Facial feedback hypothesis – peripheralist • Facial muscle activity -> emotion • Laird- people were happier when they were in a smile expression and angrier when they were in a frown expression Further Evidence of Facial Feedback • Lower eyebrows= mood becomes more negative • Raised eyebrows= more surprised facts • Wrinkled nose= rate odors as more unpleasant Studies continued • Sun-induced frowning= same facial muscle activation as in the expression of anger • Surveyed people walking into sun with or without sunglasses • People without sunglasses (who were squinting) scored higher on measure of anger and aggression Studies Continued • Simulate smiles by holding chopsticks in mouth • Stress: hand in ice cold water for 1 min • People induced to assume a Duchenne smile had lowest heart rate during the stressful task Animal Species Homologous Facial Displays in Nonhuman Primates • Grimace= fear (lips pulled back, looks like smile) • Tense- mouth display= anger • Play face= happiness/joy Primate Facial Encoding and Decoding Executive Monkey- Study * • Monkey I restraining chair • Light goes off, 6 seconds later-shock • Prevent shock with lever press within 6 seconds • Lever was taken away form “stimulus” monkey and given to “responder” monkey • Responder monkey also hooked up • Responder monkey could only see face of stimulus monkey on TV • Responder monkey prevented shocks at a rate of 92% by just watching face of stimulus monkey • Takeaway: Monkeys can read each other’s facial expressions Domestic Dogs Can Decode Human Facial Expressions • Sausage, garlic, or wood shavings hidden in a box • Human looked in box with happy, disgust, or neutral facial expression • Dogs used the experimenter’s happy facial expression to locate hidden food- went to box associated with happy face vs. disgust face 55% of the time 3/3 Facial Expression Infants: Encoding • Facial muscles formed at birth • Distinct expression early infancy • Social smiling 3-4 weeks old, full blown at 3 months • Imitation in 1-2 days • No genuine emotion until 18 months? • Management of emotional expression 6-10 years Infants: Decoding • Adults posed facial expressions to neonates • Neonate’s visual fixation and facial movement was measured • Neonates showed different visual fixation patters in response to different facial expressions • Observer could guess which face was being posed by just observing neonates’ reactions • Average age of neonate subjects= 36 hours • **Born with ability to read human facial expressions** Adults “Phony” Smiles • slightly asymmetrical (stronger on left) aka miserable smile • may occur at socially inappropriate times • do not involve “crinkly-eye” appearance • excessively long apex durations, short onset times, and irregular offset times Smile onset duration • Computer generated images • Smile onset duration 133 vs. 533 vs. Long duration person judged more attractive and trustworthy What will your future be like? Look at your yearbook photo • Positive emotion, personality = personal resource • 1958 college yearbook photo • coded for positive effect (Duchenne Smile) • follow up measures at age 27, 43, 52 • results: o women with ore positive facial effect were rated higher on affiliation, competence, and lower in negativity o observers expected rewarding interaction o positive emotion=more likely to be married at 27, less likely to be single into middle adulthood o positive emotion= higher marital satisfaction at age 52 o global well-being (emotional and physical health) higher at 21, 27, 43, and 52 Cross Cultural Issues • Encoding and decoding of primary facial emotions is universal • Research with remote cultures has ruled out social learning of facial emotions • Children born blind and deaf show same expressions of emotion • …but, DISPLAY RULES • In social situations, facial expressions of Japanese and American students differ- but not when they were alone • **part of DNA/Biology to use facial expressions** Decoding Different Emotions • Easiest= happiness • 2. Sadness • 3. Anger • 4. Fear • 5. Disgust • 6. Surprise • positive emotions are easier to decode than negative emotions in the face Sex differences in decoding facial expressions • Females decode better than males • Sex difference already evident in childhood • 53% of girls perform above average • 46% of boys perform above average • no increase in the sex different over time • neurobehavioral maturation model (early in life) • social scaffolding model (later in childhood) Decoding Facial Emotion and Gender • gender-neutral computer images • varying expressions of anger and happiness • subjects were quicker to label angry faces as male and happy faces as females signals for facial expression of emotion and masculinity/femininity have merged over time Alcoholism and Facial Decoding • Recovering alcoholics and control subjects viewed slides • Multiple choice test • Lower accuracy in alcoholic group • Unaware of their deficit • More interpersonal problems in alcoholic group • These were negatively associated with their performance on the facial recognition task Poor facial emotion decoding in alcoholism • Meta analysis of 19 studies with 1352 participants • Alcoholics performed more poorly then non-alcoholics on facial emotion recognition d=-0.67 Autism and Facial Decoding • Autism: expressive and receptive communication deficit • Adults with and without autism shown faces and shapes • Press button for face or circle • fMRI while performing task (brain scanner) • autism and control group performed as well at face and shape recognition • BUT different brain regions were activated • Autism: aberrant and individual-specific regions were activated (compared to amygdala in controls) Social Anxiety and Decoding Facial Expression • Social anxiety: over-aroused in social situations • Children shown photos of positive, negative, or neutral facial expressions • Press different button for positive, neutral, or negative • Anxious and non-anxious children had comparable performance • But anxious children saw emotion in neutral faces • Anxious children took longer to respond Socially Anxious Dwell on Threatening Faces • Neutral or threatening faces presented to young adults with and without social anxiety • People with social anxiety spent significantly longer time looking at the threatening faces, but not the neutral faces
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