HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 29-March 4, 2016
HIST 1020 (Donna Bohanan) February 29-March 4, 2016 HIST 1020
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Gabrielle Ingros on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to HIST 1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Donna Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 33 views. For similar materials see World History II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
February 29March 4, 2016 HIST 1020 (Spring 2016) World History II Dr. Bohanan HITLER AND THE RISE OF FASCISM Fascism and Communism are really opposite, but some things overlap. o Similarities – both created totalitarian, oneparty states, both created states that abolished civil liberties, both also have highly regulated economies o Differences – there are a number of these Communism – evolves from an enlightenment idea of optimism, thought they could create a better, perfect, classless society, they believed in the perfectibility of human beings, clear ideas and doctrines, all about the proletariat, collectively owned businesses for a regulated economy (universalist) Fascism – very nationalistic, think in hostile, pessimistic terms, they are super racists, it’s vague, hatred is a motivator, all about the middle class, the support came from the middle class, privately owned businesses but very regulated economy, government tells you what to pay people, what to produce, etc. (nationalist) Causes of Fascism: the Great Depression played a major role in this o The Great Depression – in the Fall of 1929 people were speculating wildly on Wall Street (buying and selling stock/trying to get rich fast), consumption of goods wasn’t keeping up, people began to worry and pull their money out of the market, in October of 1929 the Great Crash occurred, everything dropped by about 40%, banks panicked and started recalling loans, then it became international because American banks had loaned money to international companies, thus the world enters the Great Depression, there is tremendous unemployment worldwide so people turned to their governments to fix it (Stalin in Russia [Five Year Plan], Roosevelt in U.S. [Public works projects], Hitler in Germany), military spending was a huge stimulant in the economy On the last days of WWI, there was an internal revolution in Germany and Wilhelm was forced to step down. o Weimar Republic – president was elected for 7 years and shared power with the parliament called the Reichstag, it had so many unsolvable problems that it faced: Occupation of the Ruhr – Germany was forced to pay France and Belgium for all the damage from WWI with Treaty of Versailles, the Ruhr Valley was an industrial zone rich in mineral deposits in Germany, Germany fell behind on the payments so France moved in to take over the Ruhr so they could get their payment February 29March 4, 2016 Inflation of 1923 – German workers refused to work for the French, and the German government supported the workers, so the Germans began printing extra money (which is a very dangerous thing), this led to hyperinflation in Germany, the Marks (money) came to hold almost no value, Germans decided they had to stop Dawes Plan – involved American loans to Germany and helped make a new reparations payment schedule to France and Belgium, people of the middle class were forced down to the level of the proletariat o Rise of Hitler – was born in Austria, wanted to go to art school in Austria, he lived in Vienna for awhile, served in German army in WWI National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazis) – Hitler hooked up with this group after WWI, picked up a lot of veterans after the war who couldn’t settle into civilian life, this group became prominent when they tried to overthrow the government: Munich Beer Hall Putsch – didn’t really work, but it put the Nazis on the map and put Hitler and others in jail Mein Kampf – Hitler’s autobiographical work that he wrote while in jail, this is where he laid out all his hatred towards the Jews, Communists, and more, he also laid out his plan, told people to keep it simple After Hitler got out of prison he became very involved in the Nazi political party again, they gained momentum by use of propaganda Propaganda – they used it to convince people of the rectitude of their policies, they used the press and used the idea of repetition to repeat simple ideas over and over, appealed to emotion, he said when you lie make it big, bold, and audacious, in 1928 they began staging rallies in Nuremberg (became home base for the Nazis), they addressed specific subsets of society and had them march (this moved people emotionally) The Nazis became the largest party in the Reichstag, president Hindenburg chose Hitler to be Chancellor, the Nazis used the idea that a bombing in the Reichstag meant things were out of control and they needed to do something: Enabling Act – 1933, Hitler was given unlimited dictatorial power for four years so Germany could straighten itself out, the Fascist state had begun, Hitler expunged all other political parties February 29March 4, 2016 The Nazi State – no freedom of press, no freedom of speech, state use of terrorism: o S.A. – the “brown shirts,” an army that has been around and was created by the Nazis, a lot of them, started out as a private army, a lot of unemployed people got jobs and uniforms, used them as thugs to intimidate German citizens, used violence against the citizens to gain support for the Nazis o S.S. – specially recruited because they were blondehaired and blueeyed, will be responsible for running the camps, etc. Germany had been demilitarized after WWI by the Treaty of Versailles, so Hitler began building up the German machine, this put people back to work in hopes of an economic recovery, they built new facilities, highways, cheap car (Volkswagen), and more o AntiSemitism – of all the people Hitler hated, he hated the Jews the most, Hitler was not very well educated, but he believed there was a hierarchy of society (Germans/Aryans at the top and Jews at the bottom), this resulted in the Nuremburg Laws Nuremburg Laws – restricted the Jews, said there would be no mixing of the races, they gradually pressed in on the Jews, many Jews left Germany to try and escape this WORLD WAR II BEGINNINGS League of Nations: Woodrow Wilson’s idea, concept of collective security, which said they would work to mediate disputes (use arbitration) and if someone would act as an aggressor to start a war, the league of nations would work together against them [this failed miserably, not everyone was included and people didn’t have the will to uphold it] Manchuria – just north of Korea, belonged to China, in 1931 Japan invaded it as a part of imperialism, and the League did nothing (this showed people like Hitler that the League wasn’t a threat) Nazi expansion – Hitler came to power in 1933 (Enabling Act), expansion starts in Europe in 1939, Hitler outlined his ideas for expansion: o Race and Space – outlined in Mein Kamp, said Germans were the master race, so they should be able to take what they want, the German population was growing so he wanted space (wanted to expand east), he had nothing but content for the Slavic people, he believed that all the German people should be in one nation (they are stuck in the Sudetenland, Alsace and Lorraine, and Austria) Lebensraum – “living space” February 29March 4, 2016 o Rearmament – Hitler secretly begins to rearm Germany in 1933, he started building planes, tanks, all sorts of war material, etc. (this boosted the German economy and put people back to work), it starts with building stuff secretly in 1933 but in 1935 he creates a military draft (conscription), which violated the Treaty of Versailles, he remilitarized the Rhineland 1936 – Hitler went to Mussolini to form an alliance with Italy Prime Minister of England was Chamberlain and the Prime Minister of France was Daladier (both were very concerned about what Hitler was doing) o Appeasement – Chamberlain’s idea, France wasn’t in a position to oppose it because it needed Britain as an ally, Britain said maybe there was a reason for Hitler’s actions, so appeasement was to let Hitler do what he wanted (the British people were so tired of war (pacifism) and kind of felt bad for what Germany had been going through, they also saw Germany as a buffer against Communism in Russia) o Anschluss – in 1938 Hitler rolled in and took Austria, annexed the entire country (brought Germans together with their fellow Germans), this scared the British and French, by taking Austria Hitler left things wide open to take over (i.e. Czechoslovakia/Sudetenland) Munich – Chamberlain and Daladier meet with Hitler to discuss what is going on, they decided Hitler could take the Sudetenland if he stopped after, but of course Hitler took Sudetenland and then the rest of Czechoslovakia o Pact of Steel – Hitler tightened his alliance with Mussolini in Italy o NaziSoviet Pact (nonaggression act) – 1939, if in the event of a war, Russia would not attack Germany and Germany would not attack Russia, if there were to be a war in Europe they would divide the land, Germany wants the western half of Poland and Russia wants the eastern half of Poland France and Britain had tried to get Stalin/Russia on their side, but they weren’t as aggressive in convincing Russia as Germany was WWII start on September 1, 1939 with Hitler’s invasion of Poland o Blitzkrieg – the style of fighting that the Germans had prepared for, “lighting war,” a war of rapid movement, Hitler did not want another trench war Luftwaffe – German air force (allowed them to attack very fast) In Poland, the Polish people fought back valiantly, but they were bombed so heavily, the people of Warsaw turned out to dig trenches around the city, but it was hopeless, the Soviets moved in from the East to take over their part of the land, Hitler continued to conquer lands all over Europe (Denmark, Norway, and down to France), by July 1940 it was over for France, the Nazis occupied France February 29March 4, 2016 but divided it into two parts (Vichy (southern France) was a city in which the Germans set up another French government, very authoritarian/collaborationist, which meant “one who works with the Germans,” they had to do what Hitler told them to do), the French were just trying to get through it, Petain was the man in charge of this collaborationist regime, there is an underground that tried to liberate France though Battle of Britain – Hitler’s goal was to invade and take Britain, but it was difficult because England is an island and has a good navy, by this point Britain has a good air force (RAF – Royal Air Force), but they are outnumbered by the German Luftwaffe although the British pilots are superbly trained, this battle began on st August 1 , was going to be Operation Sea Lion, but Germany decided to shift their focus from military bases to industrial towns and cities (including London), night after night the Germans rain raids on the British (they dropped bombs on the cities), the British people moved to subway stations and underground homes night after night o Winston Churchill – Prime Minister of Britain during WWII, opposed Chamberlain and appeasement, he was proud of his British background, he was able to pull together a government of the left and right sides, he was an orator, the RAF were able to pull it together and defeat Germany in the air (they had the advantage of radar), the Germans were forced to postpone Operation Sea Lion, the British had won THE HOLOCAUST Hitler’s Racial Theories: The New Order o German peoples – (Aryan race: tall, light skin, blue eyes, blonde hair) were superior to everyone else; they were the “master race.” Hitler had a limited understanding of humanity and Darwinism. o Nordic Peoples – Scandinavians, Dutch, etc. were treated a little differently because they were so closely related to the Aryan race (treated pretty well) o Latin Peoples – included the French in this, Hitler had no respect for these people (he didn’t rate them as low as other people) o Slavic Peoples – he despised these people, much of his plan was to expand to the east and enslave the Slavic peoples of eastern Europe and Russia and work them to death o Jews – antiSemitism: is prejudice against, hatred of, or discrimination against Jews as an ethnic, religious, or racial group; he viewed the Jews in the most horrible terms humanly possible, he worked to rid Europe of Jewish peoples Nuremberg Laws: did everything in their power to restrict the lives of the Jews, restricted marriage between Jew and non February 29March 4, 2016 Jew, they were deprived of university, the regulations became so specific in nature that there was even a law that said they couldn’t have dogs as pets Many Jews fled to other parts of Europe, Canada, and the United States, but a lot were not accepted into other nations Hitler began rounding up and deporting people that didn’t fit the “perfect race” to these labor camps that soon became death camps (concentration camps) o “The Final Solution” – headed up by Heinrich Himmler (he was in charge of the S.S.), they were the people that ran the death camps, in 1941 they moved to complete execution of the Jews (other people went to/were killed at the death camps: Communists, gypsies, Mennonites and other religious groups, homosexuals, mentally ill peoples) Auschwitz – located in Poland, the largest of the concentration camps, executed 12,000 people a day, there were calls for the allies to bomb Auschwitz but they were conflicted because they didn’t want to kill the Jews there, the allies concluded not to bomb it o Around 6 million people died during the Holocaust
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