Bio 311D Week Notes (2/29-3/4)
Bio 311D Week Notes (2/29-3/4) BIO 311D
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This 0 page Class Notes was uploaded by Liam Murphy on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to BIO 311D at University of Texas at Austin taught by Dr. Mark Bierner in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see Introductory Biology II in Biology at University of Texas at Austin.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Being a PlantPlant Structure Growth and Responses 02292016 Being a Plant 0 Meristems tissue in plants containing undifferentiated cells found in zones of the plant where growth can take place 0 Cork cambium A lateral ring of meristematic tissue found in woody seed plants producing cork on the outside of the ring and phelloderm on the inside of the ring aka bark Vascular cambium A lateral meristem in vascular plants that produces secondary xylem to the inside and secondary phloem to the outside Plant structure growth and responses Vocab Development all of the changes that occur as tissues organs and organisms come into existence Environmental placisity when a single genotype can produce different phenotypes in different environments Growth Morphogenesis the shape of and the types of cells with in the tissues organs and organisms and how that all happens Cell Differentiation change in what the cells are like from one another Transverse division division across the cell growth in length Longitudinal division division up and down the cell growth in width Svmmetrv of cell division two cells that are identical to one another is produced from this Asymmetrical cell division general give a signal that you are about to see some form of differentiation and it establishes polarity Cellulose micro brils the fundamental structural unit of the cell wall It is made of an inner core of about fty parallel chains of cellulose and other polymers in a paracrystalline array Pattern formation the way in which complex patterns are formed Main Points 0 Growth morphogenesis and cell differentiation produce the plant body 0 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception and response 0 Plant hormones help coordinate growth development and responses to stimuli A single genotype can produce different phenotypes in different environments o The three overlapping processes involved in the development of a multicellular organism are growth morphogenesis and differentiation 0 The plane of cell division refers to development of the new cell wall that bisects a plant cell during cytokinesis Although the plane of cell division does not determine the shape of plant organs the symmetry of cell division is important in determining cell fate asymmetrical division also plays a role in establishment of polarity Growing plant cells expand mainly through eater uptake and packaging of water in the large central vacuole of the cells 0 During morphogenesis cells acquire different identities in an ordered spatial arrangement 0 Position has a lot do with what something is going to become during differentiation 0 Experimental work has shown that a plant cell s fate is established late in development and largely depends on signaling from neighboring cells Questions 1 2 mm What factors affect development agenes environment and nutrients What is the rst cell division of a plant zygote like a Asymmetrical What does the establishment of polarity lead to in plants What happens if the rst cell division of plant zygote is symmetrical instead What is the usual orientation of cell growth and how is that determined Given that the cells of a developing organism share a common genome what controls differentiation a Different genes are active and inactive in differentiated cells gene expression How about the nal position of a cell in a developing organism 8 What does cetoce communication have to do with this Look at the next slide and tell me what s going on Vocab Organ identity genes Key Points 0 Flower function involves a phase change from vegetative growth to reproductive growth 0 This phase change involves the conversion of indeterminate vegetative meristems to determinant oral meristems and is associated with the switching on of oral meristem identity genes 0 By studying mutants with abnormal owers researchers have identi ed three classes of oral identity genes 0 A l sepals A B l petals B C l stamens C l carpels Loss of A no sepals or petals Loss of B no petals or stamens Loss of C no stamens or carpels If A is missing C takes its place 0 If C is missing A takes its place 0 Animals being mobile respond to stimuli mainly by moving toward positive stimuli and away from negative stimuli Plants being stationary generally respond to environmental cues by adjusting their individual patterns of growth and development 0 Signal transduction pathways link signal reception to response 0 Reception transduction l Response 0 hormone to receptor l relay proteins 2nCI messengers l activation of cellular responses 0 In the deetiolation of potatoes the light signal is detected by the phytochrome receptor and after the stimulus has been detected transduction is initiated by second messengers OOOOOOO Questions N 39 Tell me about oral organs and their arrangement What are organ identity genes what do they control and how do they control it 3 Explain lightinduced deetiolation greening of darkgrown potatoes in the next slide Vocab Hormone a chemical substance produced by your body that in uences its growth development and condition Tropism response or orientation of a plant or certain lower animals to a stimulus that acts with greater intensity from one direction than another Phototropism the growth response of plant parts to the stimulus of light producing a bending towards the light source Key Points Plant hormones help coordinate growth development and responses to stimuli Because of some signi cant differences between animals and plants some people prefer the term plant growth regulator However the term hormone is of such long standing that we will use that term here In 1880 Charles and Francis Darwin removed and covered parts of grass coleoptiles to determine what part senses light Coleoptile is the covering of the young shoot of the embryo of a grass seed Peter BoyceJensen separated coleoptiles with different materials to determine how the signal for phototropism is transmitted As you can see from Table 391 there a quite a few plant hormones and they have a very large number of functions Let s not bother to memorize all of that Instead we will simple agree that plant growth development and responses to stimuli are highly coordinated and under control of multiple chemical agents known as hormones or plant growth regulators Questions 1 DarwinDarwin Experiment a Light is being received by the tip end 2 BoysenJensen Experiment a Wanted to see if there was a chemical or substance that controlled this b Proves there is a diffusible substance moving down the shut from the tip end 3 Fritz experiment a Asking the unanswered question of why its bending towards the light Resource Acquisition and Transport in Vascular Plants Vocab Key Points Adaptations for acquiring resources were key steps in the evolution of vascular plants Transpiration drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem Sugars are transported from sources to sinks via the phloem Transpiration drives the transport of water and minerals from roots to shoots via the xylem Absorption of Water and Minerals by Root Cells Transport of Water and Minerals into the Xylem Questions 1 How do water and minerals get into the root cells in the rst place a
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