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Soci 241, Week 7 Notes

by: Ny Pham

Soci 241, Week 7 Notes SOCI 241

Ny Pham
University of Louisiana at Lafayette

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About this Document

These notes cover workplace segregation, and the different types of economy throughout US history.
Social Problems
Dr. Candace May
Class Notes
sociology, Social problems, SOCI 241
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This 6 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ny Pham on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to SOCI 241 at University of Louisiana at Lafayette taught by Dr. Candace May in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 23 views. For similar materials see Social Problems in Sociology at University of Louisiana at Lafayette.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
o Reactions to school violence by schools and communities  Zero-tolerance policies  Dress codes  Conflict resolution programs  Structural –functional analysis—the functions of schooling o The focus is on the role of education in society  Education leads to transmitting knowledge and skills  Education leads to occupational roles  Education integrates someone into the larger society o Latent functions child care, exposure to greater diversity, understanding how to work in a bureaucracy, social norms, colleges keep young people out of the economy when there might not be many jobs out there, creating jobs within the education system,  Symbolic-interaction analysis—labels in the schools o The focus is on how individuals experience education  Educational labels shape the student’s future  Labels and the self-fulfilling prophecy  People who are define in one way eventually think and act as if the definition were true thereby recreating the circumstances that were define for them  Student actually change their behavior to match the behavior of their label  Social-conflict analysis—schooling and inequality o How education results in the reproduction of inequality:  Class  Gender  Race o Education and the hidden curriculum and the teaching of conformity  Obedience rather than critical thinking  Patriotism rather than past mistakes  Memorization rather than creativity and innovation Work and the workplace  Symbolic-interaction analysis—meaning of work o Stresses the social construction of work o Meanings that people attach to work and work relationships  Occupation as a portion of self perception and identity  The importance of work o SOURCE OF INCOME o SOURCE OF PRIDE AND Accomplishment o Source of identity and self esteem o Provides meanings to life and is a major part of our adult identity  Structural-functional analysis—finding a new equilibrium o Stresses the interrelatedness of social institutions o Impact of technology on established social patterns o How information technology is shaping the nature of work and other social institutions  Structural changes in the US economy o Industrial revolution  Most were employed in the primary sector producing raw materials—farming, fishing, forestry, mining  The industrial revolution shifted jobs from the primary sector of the economy to the secondary sector— automobiles, sewing machines, furniture o Information revolution  The 1950s and the emergence of the tertiary sector  From factory to service work—not all workers benefitted from this shift  Invention of the computer and spread of computer technology  White collar jobs  Ex. doctors (healthcare professional), lawyers, CEOs, accountants, secretaries, teachers, food industry workers, entertainers  We learn from not only our experiences, but from others. But if we don’t know other experiences, we may not have a certain view about positions—in regards to the importance of sanitation workers and where people think they stand in society o Deindustrialization  Decline of industrial production (after 1950)  Decline in factory jobs  Job displacement  Plant closings  Decline in pay and benefits  People were increasingly moving out to the suburbs at the same time we had a decline in industrial production  Results in job displacements, etc.  The older population have a harder time adjusting to changes in economy—they cant go back to training for a new job  Also includes new graduates that weren’t expecting these changes  Primary sector jobs have boom and bust periodssupply increases and demand remains the same, so prices plummet o The idea is that it will always come back  Inevitably people will eventually have to allow the new generation to come in and you’ll have to step aside o Globalization  Globalization of the economy—expansion of economic activity around the world with little regards for national borders  Multi-national/trans-national corporations o Ex. K-pop and the transmission of music o Ex. womens rights and changing the ideas of gender on a culturally global scale o Ex. immigration and movement of people  Shifting jobs to low wage countries o Ex. the role of women in these countries to get them into Nike factories in Asia o Economic sectors  Primary  Secondary  Tertiary  a dual labor market  Labor markets o Primary labor market—occupations that provide good pay and extensive benefits to workers o Secondary labor market—provides low pay and few benefits to workers o Blue collar workplumbers, construction workers (but depends on the level, in the US census sticks it with forestry, mining, etc. which is in the primary sector not tertiary; but a case could be made for landscapers, roofing, etc.), police, firefighters, electricians  Has to do with service  So what market do they fall in? It depends on the work o Unemployment  Reasons for unemployment  About 4 to 5% unemployment may be normal/natural because people are always looking to move to a new job or change their situations  More than 9% in mid-2009  To be counted as unemployed, must be registered with unemployment service and actively looking for a job  The problem with unemployment labeling is that it doesn’t take into account the people that failed to find a job in the allotted time and became discourage so they no longer look for a job  Social-Conflict analysis—work and inequality o Focus on how inequality impacts work in society o Work reflects the interest of the upper-class  Impacts of changes in work are experienced differently by class, race, and gender  Who is at rick of unemployment? o Racial and ethnic minorities o Less educated  Rate for high school drop outs is 3x higher than for college graduates o Women have a lower unemployment rates  Women are more likely to be complacent with their job than moving between jobs  Women staying at home  Women are more likely to be teachers and there’s a high demand for teachers  Also may be due to the sectors hit by the recession  Men were hit hard because construction, and the financial industry which are predominantly men  Women tend to stay in feminized jobs  Workplace segregation o Workplace  Occupations within the economy  Segregated by race and gender  Minorities concentrated in the least desirable jobs  Tied to high school graduation rates and so forth o Workplace alienation  Alienation—Marxist views  Experience of isolation and misery from powerlessness in the workplace o creative potential o Process of labor o Product of labor o Other workers  Work as a natural act  Alienation stems from the social nature of work under capitalism  Capitalism distorts the social nature of work through privatization and commodification  Alienation—Weber’s view  Alienation—depersonalization of the workplace and of society in general due to modern society’s rational focus on efficiency o Decreases money spent on workers, so we can do other things o But we lose our connection to each other  Rationalization o Individuals have become detached from the social and creative aspect of work o Work has become highly impersonal  A scientific way (rational) of viewing the world have been slowly replacing the personal and magical view of the world  Ex. Banking through a computer instead of in person with a teller  McDonaldization and the Rise of “McJobs” o George Ritzer and McDonaldization  McDonalidazation—defining work in four principles  Efficiency  Predictability  Uniformity  Automation  Ex. Fast food, superstores, hospitals, schools, etc.  Characteristics  Work that involves simple tasks  Work that provides little satisfaction  Work that is predictable and repetitive  High turnover  New Information Technology—the brave new workplace o Telecommuting—function of the information revolution o Telecommuting blurs the distinction between home and work o Telecommuting & gender discrimination and work o Ex. Women working from home  Pros: you can work from home and be a mom  Cons: the second shift rolled into your first shift (ends up being a double shift), balancing being mom and worker can result in one area giving, promotion may be lower because there is no face-to-face interaction, o Computer isolation  Computer technology reduces the need for face to face interaction  Workers are connected by information networks  Social and physical separation and isolation of workers and clients from one another  Increased depersonalization o Controlling employees  Computer technology and controlling the behavior of workers  “Deskelling” Work  Technology and the loss of skills necessary to perform one’s job o Machines replace human skill o Ex. Cursive is still important, but less and less people know how to do it—still important because historical documents were written in cursive  Surveillance and control go hand in hand  The “Temping” of the Workplace o Deindustrialization and the growth in the part-time workers  Low-pay  No benefits  Little control over their work  Union decline o Labor unions are a recent development o US governments and the labor movement of the 1930s  Railway Labor Act  Norris-La Guardia Act  National Labor Relations Act o Union membership grew from 1930 and peaked in the 1970s o Right to work Laws—the union cannot force you to pay dues or become a member; this takes the idea of the union out of the picture, so the union doesn’t survive


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