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Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 7 (3/1 - 3/3)

by: Sadie Threlkel

Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 7 (3/1 - 3/3) PSY 100-006

Marketplace > Colorado State University > Psychlogy > PSY 100-006 > Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 7 3 1 3 3
Sadie Threlkel
GPA 3.36

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About this Document

The last bit of notes before the second exam.
Introductory Psychology
Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell
Class Notes
PSY100, Psychology
25 ?




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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Threlkel on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-006 at Colorado State University taught by Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psychology Notes 3/1 – 3/3 3/1 Sensation and Perception Sensation – stimuli impinging on/reacting with our sensory receptors  Perception – interpreting and organizing our sensory input as something meaningful ­Bottom­up Processing – build from smaller parts to a larger whole (ex. Features of a  letter) ­Top­down Processing – drawing on prior knowledge and expectations (ex. Shapes in  cloud formations) ­Transduction – the process of converting energy from one form to another (stimulus  energy to sensory receptors, to neural impulses to the brain) ­Psychophysics – the study of the relationship between stimuli and the sensations and  perceptions they evoke Signal Detection  ­Can have one of 4 outcomes (ex. hearing a beep) ­Hit – heard beep and beep happened ­False Alarm – no beep, but person ‘heard’ it ­Miss – beep presented and person didn’t hear it ­Correct Rejection – no beep and person didn’t hear anything Sensory Adaption  ­When we are exposed to a repeated stimulus, the nerve cells fire less frequently ­Prevents a sensory overload Vision ­Wavelength – the distance between two peaks determines hue/color (shorter or longer) ­Amplitude – height of wave, determines intensity/brightness (taller or shorter) ­Eye Structures: o Cornea – helps protect eye and begins to bend light o Pupil – light passes through o Iris – colored, expands and contracts, adjusts pupil o Lens – behind pupil, bends light more to focus it on the back of the eye Receptor Cells in the Retina – Rods: detects presence of and absence of light, peripheral vision –  Cones: color vision and seeing clearly/in focus ­A tomato is perceived as red because it reflects red wavelengths of light, color is a  mental construction  Color Vision Theories: ­Young­Helmholtz Theory – trichromatic theory, retina has three types of color receptors, does not account for the color yellow ­Opponent Process Theory – three sets of opponent retinal processes: red­green, yellow­ blue, white­black  ­Color Processing  o Retina’s cones respond in various degrees to color stimuli o Responses are processed by opponent­processing cells  Perceptual Organization – Gestalt psychologists emphasize the idea that we like to group info  into something that makes more sense ­Proximity – we group nearby figures together ­Continuity – we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones ­Closure – we will fill in gaps to create a complex, whole object ­Depth Perception – enables us to estimate an object’s distance from us  ­Binocular Cues – depth cues that utilize both eyes ­Monocular Cues – depth cues that only require one eye  o Relative height – objects higher in our vision appear farther away o Relative Size – smaller objects perceived as farther away o Interposition (overlap) – if one object is partially blocked by another, we perceive  it as closer o Linear perspective – parallel lines appear to meet in the distance  o Lighting and shadow – shading produces a sense of depth, in that we assume light comes from above ­Perceptual Consistency – perceiving objects as unchanged even as illumination and  retinal images change  ­Shape Consistency ­ we perceive familiar objects as having a consistent shape 3/3 The Psychology of Sex  ­Teen pregnancy: environmental factors include minimal communication about birth  control, guilt related to sexual activity, alcohol use and media norms about ‘the heat of  the moment’ unprotected sex Sexual Orientation  ­An enduring sexual attraction toward members of: o one’s own sex/gender (homosexuality) o the other sex/gender (heterosexuality) o or both sexes/genders (bisexuality) Environmental/Social Factors (Nurture) linked to Homosexuality – NONE! Biological Factors (Nature) linked to Homosexuality ­Found in other species ­Gay­straight brain differences ­Prenatal influence ­Genetics  o appears to run in families o identical twins more likely than fraternal twins to share homosexual orientation o altered genes in female fruit flies seem to produce homosexuality  Sensation and Perception Cont. Absolute Threshold – smallest amount of stimulation necessary to just detect a sensation  Difference Threshold – the minimum difference in stimulus strength needed to detect a  difference between two stimuli (the just noticeable difference JND) Hearing  Sound Mechanical Phenomenon  ­Waves of pressure ­High pressure waves (compression)  ­Low pressure waves (rarefaction) Amplitude “Loudness”  ­Distance between normal pressure and maximum height of the peak (sound makes  squiggly lines when charted)  ­Hertz – number of full wave cycles in a wave per second o Low frequency – lower pitch sound o High frequency – higher pitch sound Properties of Sound  ­Some medium required in order for sound to travel (Ex. air on earth) ­Density of medium determines speed (denser = faster) ­Sound waves grow weaker with distance (thunder) The Ear  ­Three main parts o outer ear o middle ear (3 tiny bones) o inner ear (cochlea – where transduction takes place) Touch ­Cutaneous senses – pain, touch, temperatures ­Proprioception – awareness of our limbs in space ­Kinesthesis – awareness of the movement of our limbs in space Skin  ­Composed of three layers – epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat  ­Temperature Perception – registered by thermoreceptors in skin  Smell Odorant – molecule floating in the air, a piece of whatever you’re smelling  ­Detected when a molecule enters a pathway to a receptor site, and binds to a certain  receptor  ­Where transduction happens Pathways  ­Nostrils (orthonasal) ­Retronasal (scent pathways through mouth) Pheromones  ­Chemical signals ­Tiny glands that release molecules that cause a behavior/reaction in another organism  (usually same species)  ­Humans born with a gland to detect pheromones, but disappears shortly after birth 


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