Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 7 (3/1 - 3/3)
Introduction to Psychology Notes Week 7 (3/1 - 3/3) PSY 100-006
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Sadie Threlkel on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PSY 100-006 at Colorado State University taught by Maeve Bronwyn O'Donnell in Fall 2016. Since its upload, it has received 20 views. For similar materials see Introductory Psychology in Psychlogy at Colorado State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Psychology Notes 3/1 – 3/3 3/1 Sensation and Perception Sensation – stimuli impinging on/reacting with our sensory receptors Perception – interpreting and organizing our sensory input as something meaningful Bottomup Processing – build from smaller parts to a larger whole (ex. Features of a letter) Topdown Processing – drawing on prior knowledge and expectations (ex. Shapes in cloud formations) Transduction – the process of converting energy from one form to another (stimulus energy to sensory receptors, to neural impulses to the brain) Psychophysics – the study of the relationship between stimuli and the sensations and perceptions they evoke Signal Detection Can have one of 4 outcomes (ex. hearing a beep) Hit – heard beep and beep happened False Alarm – no beep, but person ‘heard’ it Miss – beep presented and person didn’t hear it Correct Rejection – no beep and person didn’t hear anything Sensory Adaption When we are exposed to a repeated stimulus, the nerve cells fire less frequently Prevents a sensory overload Vision Wavelength – the distance between two peaks determines hue/color (shorter or longer) Amplitude – height of wave, determines intensity/brightness (taller or shorter) Eye Structures: o Cornea – helps protect eye and begins to bend light o Pupil – light passes through o Iris – colored, expands and contracts, adjusts pupil o Lens – behind pupil, bends light more to focus it on the back of the eye Receptor Cells in the Retina – Rods: detects presence of and absence of light, peripheral vision – Cones: color vision and seeing clearly/in focus A tomato is perceived as red because it reflects red wavelengths of light, color is a mental construction Color Vision Theories: YoungHelmholtz Theory – trichromatic theory, retina has three types of color receptors, does not account for the color yellow Opponent Process Theory – three sets of opponent retinal processes: redgreen, yellow blue, whiteblack Color Processing o Retina’s cones respond in various degrees to color stimuli o Responses are processed by opponentprocessing cells Perceptual Organization – Gestalt psychologists emphasize the idea that we like to group info into something that makes more sense Proximity – we group nearby figures together Continuity – we perceive smooth, continuous patterns rather than discontinuous ones Closure – we will fill in gaps to create a complex, whole object Depth Perception – enables us to estimate an object’s distance from us Binocular Cues – depth cues that utilize both eyes Monocular Cues – depth cues that only require one eye o Relative height – objects higher in our vision appear farther away o Relative Size – smaller objects perceived as farther away o Interposition (overlap) – if one object is partially blocked by another, we perceive it as closer o Linear perspective – parallel lines appear to meet in the distance o Lighting and shadow – shading produces a sense of depth, in that we assume light comes from above Perceptual Consistency – perceiving objects as unchanged even as illumination and retinal images change Shape Consistency we perceive familiar objects as having a consistent shape 3/3 The Psychology of Sex Teen pregnancy: environmental factors include minimal communication about birth control, guilt related to sexual activity, alcohol use and media norms about ‘the heat of the moment’ unprotected sex Sexual Orientation An enduring sexual attraction toward members of: o one’s own sex/gender (homosexuality) o the other sex/gender (heterosexuality) o or both sexes/genders (bisexuality) Environmental/Social Factors (Nurture) linked to Homosexuality – NONE! Biological Factors (Nature) linked to Homosexuality Found in other species Gaystraight brain differences Prenatal influence Genetics o appears to run in families o identical twins more likely than fraternal twins to share homosexual orientation o altered genes in female fruit flies seem to produce homosexuality Sensation and Perception Cont. Absolute Threshold – smallest amount of stimulation necessary to just detect a sensation Difference Threshold – the minimum difference in stimulus strength needed to detect a difference between two stimuli (the just noticeable difference JND) Hearing Sound Mechanical Phenomenon Waves of pressure High pressure waves (compression) Low pressure waves (rarefaction) Amplitude “Loudness” Distance between normal pressure and maximum height of the peak (sound makes squiggly lines when charted) Hertz – number of full wave cycles in a wave per second o Low frequency – lower pitch sound o High frequency – higher pitch sound Properties of Sound Some medium required in order for sound to travel (Ex. air on earth) Density of medium determines speed (denser = faster) Sound waves grow weaker with distance (thunder) The Ear Three main parts o outer ear o middle ear (3 tiny bones) o inner ear (cochlea – where transduction takes place) Touch Cutaneous senses – pain, touch, temperatures Proprioception – awareness of our limbs in space Kinesthesis – awareness of the movement of our limbs in space Skin Composed of three layers – epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat Temperature Perception – registered by thermoreceptors in skin Smell Odorant – molecule floating in the air, a piece of whatever you’re smelling Detected when a molecule enters a pathway to a receptor site, and binds to a certain receptor Where transduction happens Pathways Nostrils (orthonasal) Retronasal (scent pathways through mouth) Pheromones Chemical signals Tiny glands that release molecules that cause a behavior/reaction in another organism (usually same species) Humans born with a gland to detect pheromones, but disappears shortly after birth
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