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Phil 105, Thursday, Week 6 Notes

by: Katrina Japson

Phil 105, Thursday, Week 6 Notes PHIL 105 - 01

Katrina Japson
Cal State Fullerton

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About this Document

These notes cover the last material that will be put on the midterm.
Critical Thinking
Richard Vulich
Class Notes
25 ?




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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Katrina Japson on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to PHIL 105 - 01 at California State University - Fullerton taught by Richard Vulich in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 17 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking in PHIL-Philosophy at California State University - Fullerton.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
PHIL 105, 3/3 Research Resources  Dictionary or Encyclopedia  Library catalog  Scholarly journals  Government documents  Internet  Expert Interview  C.R.A.A.P. – used to evaluate quality of evidence o Currency – The more current evidence, the more believable/reliable  Ex. Scientific theories always being updated o Relevance – Is the evidence relevant to the research? Does it have any connections? o Authority – Does the evidence come from kind of government or is it anecdotal? o Accuracy – If not accurate, defeats the purpose of providing information. Evidence needs to be solid o Purpose – Reason as to why information is provided. Is there a hidden agenda? Or is the information simply being given in a neutral way?  Cognitive & Perceptual Errors o War of the Worlds radio broadcast  Oct. 30, 1938 o Perception of world is easily distorted by what we think is happening o Misperception of Random Data – Human brain likes order and hates disorder so when we see something random, we will impose some type or order or pattern o Memorable Events Error – We remember events that are unusual and attach more significance to them as oppose to typical, ordinary events o Probability Errors – When you give the wrong estimate (under or overestimate) the probability of an event by margin  Self-serving Bias – the tendency to exaggerate our strengths and to minimize our weaknesses  Self-fulfilling Prophecy – When our expectation of an even causes the expected event to happen  Social Errors & Biases – o One of Us, One of Them – When we divide people into “us” and “them” and believe that “us” is better in certain ways than “them” o Group Pressure –  Ash Experiment – lines of different length  One subject w/ no knowledge of experiment, five subjects w/ knowledge but act as knowledge o Diffusion of Responsibility – In a group setting, no individual feels personally responsible to take an action, Kitty J


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