Psych 361, Week 8
Psych 361, Week 8 Psych 361
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Part III: Psychosocial Development of Infant 2.29.16 • Outcomes o Secure § More sociable and positive § Less clinging and dependent § Less aggressive and disruptive § More empathetic § More socially skilled § Higher self-‐esteem § More emotionally mature § Higher grades § Form secure attachment with own children o Insecure § Less supportive relationships § Earlier and riskier sex § Increases probability of a mental illness later in life § Increases probability of social and emotional difficulties later in life § More difficult for people to attach later in life (romantic relationships, friendships, relationship with own child) **Attachment patterns can be stable, but life altering events can change attachment patterns. **Young children can show different attachment patterns to people (e.g. secure attachment to father, ambivalent attachment to mother) • Predictors of Attachment o Secure § Parent is sensitive and responsive to infant’s needs § High in synchrony § Easy temperament § Low parental stress § Parent’s who were securely attached to their own parents o Insecure § Maltreatment or neglect § Inconsistent & unreliable § Mental illness § High parental stress § Intrusive and controlling parents § Alcoholics § Difficult and slow to warm up infant temperament ClickerQ: Mothers who are paranoid are more likely to have children who form a ___________ attachment pattern, while those who are depressed are more likely to have children who form a _____________ attachment pattern. Answer: Disorganized; ambivalent ClickerQ: Children with a ‘difficult’ temperament are more likely to form a ___________ attachment pattern, while children with a ‘slow to warm up’ temperament are more likely to form a _____________ attachment pattern. Answer: Ambivalent; avoidant • Erikson o Trust vs. Mistrust (birth to 1 year) § Trust: infants who know their caretaker will care for basic needs; mistrust: believe world is inconsistent and unreliable § Parents need to give children freedom to explore the world to help them trust and develop secure attachment; give choices and let them pick one o Autonomy vs. Shame and Doubt (1 to 3 years) § Autonomy: toddlers become self-‐sufficient (toilet training, feeding themselves, etc.); shame and doubt: toddlers doubt their abilities • Behaviorism o Emotions and personality are molded as parents reinforce or punish a child § E.g. If child is reinforced for rough and tumble play, the child will continue to engage in that type of play o Social Learning (Bandura) – children learn by observing people around them § Shy child may pick this up from a shy/quiet parent § Not uncommon for baby to pick up dad’s beer bottle and try to drink it or use swear words § Kids also model good behavior! § This theory holds that gender roles are learned ClickerQ: What famous study did Bandura conduct to demonstrate social learning? The Bobo Doll Study • Cognitive Theory o Working Model – set of assumptions that the individual uses to organize perceptions and experiences § A more elaborate form of schemas that are more difficult to change § Person’s attributions and appraisals of experiences are more important than the experiences themselves (the interpretation of the experience is most important if parents aren’t clear about the reason for the behavior) • I’m unlovable… or I’m free! (in regards to a divorce; negative or 2 positive appraisal) • Humanism o Parents who have reached the highest level of self-‐actualization will be better able to attend to their children’s needs § Parents not past the level of love and belonging or success/esteem may have a hard time meeting their children’s need • E.g. mother must fight urge to pee to feed child. This selfless and tough act can be hard for someone who has not experienced that love • Evolutionary Theory o Infant emotions, oxytocin, bonding, synchrony and attachment serve an evolutionary function o Infants are a lot of work! And they are expensive! § These factors, along with our base desire to reproduce and pass on our genes, help us to care for our children until adulthood • High Quality Care o Adequate attention – a low infant to caregiver ratio (ideal) o Encouragement of language and sensorimotor development– caregiver should stimulate children with songs, stories, conversation, age -‐appropriate toys o Attention to health and safety – cleanliness and accident prevention § E.g. attach bookcases to the wall, do not leave cleaning supplies laying around, do not leave child unattended on changing table o Professional caregivers – degree in early childhood education, high enthusiasm and positivity o Warm & responsive caregivers – love and engage children in active play, responsive to child’s needs 3 Early Childhood Physical Development 3.2.16 • Body Size o Children add 2-‐3 in in height and 5-‐6 lbs. in weight each year o Baby fat drops off and proportions become more similar to an adult o By the age of 6, most children weigh between 40-‐50 lbs. and are at least 3.5 ft. tall • Nutrition o Appetite slows during the preschool years o Pushing/bribing children to eat is destructive § Results in overweight children who become overweight adults § Eat until you’re satisfied, not full! o Most children consume enough calories but don’t get enough nutrients (vitamins and minerals) § Kids get most of their calories in between meals § Most children in North America don’t get enough zinc, calcium, etc. • Gross Motor Skill Milestones o 2-‐3 years: runs easily w/o tripping, climb on furniture, walks upstairs, kick a ball o 3-‐4 years: ride a tricycle, jump, climb a ladder, throw a ball, run around obstacles o 4-‐5 years: Do somersaults, skip, climb trees, throw a ball o 5-‐6 years: walk a balance beam, jump rope, ride a bike, do a cartwheel ** There is a lot of variation in these Gross and Fine Motor Skill Milestones. Experiences makes the difference. e.g. Growing up in a house with stairs, a child will be faster at climbing than a child growing up in a single story home. • Fine Motor Skills o 2-‐3 years – string together 4 large beads, feed self with spoon, draw spirals o 3-‐4 years: build tower with 9 small blocks, copy simple shapes (circle), manipulate clay into balls o 4-‐5 years: Cut on straight line with scissors, print some letters o 5-‐6 years: copy difficult shapes and letters, adult grasp of pencil • Accidents and Environmental Hazards o Accidents – leading cause of death in pre-‐school and school aged children § Drowning is the leading cause of accidental death in 1-‐4 year olds § Motor vehicle accidents are the most frequent causes of accidental death in children 5 years and older o Secondhand smoke – increases risk of cancer, suppressed immune system and tooth decay o Lead – related to intellectual disability, hyperactivity, death o BPA and NON-‐BPA plastic – related to cancer, problems with development of genitals, low sperm count, infertility asthma, obesity, ADHD § All plastics contain harmful chemicals What is myelination? Refers to the developmental sheaths around axons that insulate them and speed conductivity • Brain Development o By age 2, the brain is 75% of the adult weight and by 6, it is 90% of the adult weight o Prefrontal cortex (important for planning, controlling impulses, and making decisions) show rapid development in early childhood § That is why temper tantrums are common in children and sporadic behavior is common up to the 20s. § Prefrontal cortex develops until the early 20s § Perseveration: continue to do something that you know doesn’t work (continuously pressing the power button on the remote but the TV doesn’t respond) o Myelination – (speeds signals between neurons) continues which speeds information processing § Most rapid in the first 2 years after birth, continues slowly after that into adolescence § Not complete until mid-‐20s § Reticular formation controls attention and it is not complete until mid-‐ 20s. That is why young people can’t focus! J o Corpus callosum (connects the two hemispheres) develops most rapidly during early childhood o Lateralization – functional specialization of the left (logic, reasoning, etc.) and right hemispheres (emotions, creativity, etc.) of the cerebral cortex • Emotions and the Brain o Limbic system – major brain region implicated in emotional expression and regulation § Amygdala – implicated in fear (grows large in childhood which is the reason for their irrational fears, reduction in adolescence and adulthood) • When you remove amygdala from animals, they act fearlessly • Psychopaths have decreased limbic activity in the amygdala, which explains their lack of fear and emotion § Hippocampus – implicated in memory consolidation § Hypothalamus – responds to signals from the amygdala and hippocampus and sends signals to the adrenals to secrete cortisol 2 • Use parents' responses to guide their own responses: SOCIAL REFERENCES o E.g. parent is skeptical towards dogs, child will be skeptical of dogs 3 The Mind (Cognitive Development) 3.4.16 ClickerQ: Which stage of cognitive development did Piaget suggest 2-‐6 year olds are in? Preoperational • Piaget’s Preoperational Stage (2-‐6 years) o Children in this stage can use symbols but cannot think logically § Might pretend to drive car around dinner table o Animism – belief that inanimate natural objects are alive § Ex) mountains, sun, stars are alive o Centration – tendency to focus on one aspect of a situation and neglect others § Ex) thinking anything that moves is an animal because animals move § Their logic is faulty at best § Ex) Child may not understand that grandma is the mother of mommy, she is just grandma o Egocentrism – tendency to think about the world entirely from their own personal perspective § Ex) Child gets mad that parents eat even though he is not hungry § Ex) Wants to play with trains at 5am and expects mom to also want to play o Focus on Appearance – When looking at something, young children tend to focus only on what is apparent, ignoring other relevant attributes § Ex) a girl with a short haircut is a boy § Ex) taller child must be older ClickerQ: Which concept that we just discussed is most related to children’s focus on appearance? Centration o Static Reasoning – belief that the world is unchanging, always in the state in which they currently encounter it § Hard time understanding that their parents were once young § May think that they will suddenly wake up and be tall instead of a gradual change ClickerQ: Which concept that we just discussed is most related to children’s static reasoning? Egocentrism o Irreversibility – belied that things cannot be undone (or restored to the way it was before a change occurred) o Conservation – understand that the amount of a substance remains the same even when its appearance changes § Related to focus on appearance, static reasoning, centration and irreversibility ClickerQ: What is the zone of proximal development? It is the difference between what children can do on their own and what they can do with assistance • Vygotsky: Sociocultural Theory o Recall: scaffolding involves providing temporary support and assistance in order to help child reach next level of difficulty o Over-‐imitation: tendency to copy an action that is not a relevant part of the behavior to be learned because they saw an adult perform the action § E.g. scratching head before opening a box o Private speech: self-‐directed speech § E.g. talking to oneself § Improves concentration and task performance • Theory-‐Theory o Children attempt to explain everything they see and hear by constructing theories o They ask a lot of questions about human behavior and natural things § “Why do you kiss mom?” “Why does it rain” “Where does rain come from?” ClickerQ: Sally has a basket and Anne has a box. Sally puts a marble in her basket then leave the room. Anne removes the marble from Sally’s basket and puts it in her box. When Sally returns to the room where will she look for her marble? Her basket 2
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