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Psych 361, Week 8

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Psych 361, Week 8 Psych 361

GPA 3.12

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Chapter 3 & 4: The First Two Years Part III - Psychosocial Development Chapter 5 & 6: Early Childhood Part I - The Body (Physical Development) Part II - The Mind (Cognitive Development)
Developmental Psychology
Dr. Carrie Cuttler
Class Notes
Psych 361, Psychosocial, physical development, cognitive development, Cuttler
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by BoseAmosun on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Psych 361 at Washington State University taught by Dr. Carrie Cuttler in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 11 views. For similar materials see Developmental Psychology in Psychlogy at Washington State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Part  III:  Psychosocial  Development  of  Infant                      2.29.16   •   Outcomes   o   Secure   §   More  sociable  and  positive     §    Less  clinging  and  dependent   §   Less  aggressive  and  disruptive   §   More  empathetic   §   More  socially  skilled     §   Higher  self-­‐esteem     §   More  emotionally  mature     §   Higher  grades     §   Form  secure  attachment  with  own  children     o   Insecure   §   Less  supportive  relationships     §   Earlier  and  riskier  sex     §   Increases  probability  of  a  mental  illness  later  in  life     §   Increases  probability  of  social  and  emotional  difficulties  later  in  life     §   More  difficult  for  people  to  attach  later  in  life  (romantic  relationships,   friendships,  relationship  with  own  child)     **Attachment  patterns  can  be  stable,  but  life  altering  events  can  change  attachment  patterns.   **Young  children  can  show  different  attachment  patterns  to  people  (e.g.  secure  attachment  to   father,  ambivalent  attachment  to  mother)   •   Predictors  of  Attachment   o   Secure   §   Parent  is  sensitive  and  responsive  to  infant’s  needs   §   High  in  synchrony   §   Easy  temperament   §   Low  parental  stress   §   Parent’s  who  were  securely  attached  to  their  own  parents   o   Insecure   §   Maltreatment  or  neglect     §    Inconsistent  &  unreliable     §   Mental  illness     §    High  parental  stress     §   Intrusive  and  controlling  parents     §   Alcoholics     §   Difficult  and  slow  to  warm  up  infant  temperament     ClickerQ:  Mothers  who  are  paranoid  are  more  likely  to  have  children  who  form  a  ___________   attachment  pattern,  while  those  who  are  depressed  are  more  likely  to  have  children  who  form   a  _____________  attachment  pattern.     Answer:  Disorganized;  ambivalent   ClickerQ:  Children  with  a  ‘difficult’  temperament  are  more  likely  to  form  a  ___________   attachment  pattern,  while  children  with  a  ‘slow  to  warm  up’  temperament  are  more  likely  to   form  a  _____________  attachment  pattern.     Answer:  Ambivalent;  avoidant   •   Erikson   o   Trust  vs.  Mistrust  (birth  to  1  year)   §   Trust:  infants  who  know  their  caretaker  will  care  for  basic  needs;   mistrust:  believe  world  is  inconsistent  and  unreliable   §   Parents  need  to  give  children  freedom  to  explore  the  world  to  help  them   trust  and  develop  secure  attachment;  give  choices  and  let  them  pick  one   o   Autonomy  vs.  Shame  and  Doubt  (1  to  3  years)   §   Autonomy:  toddlers  become  self-­‐sufficient  (toilet  training,  feeding   themselves,  etc.);  shame  and  doubt:  toddlers  doubt  their  abilities     •   Behaviorism   o   Emotions  and  personality  are  molded  as  parents  reinforce  or  punish  a  child     §   E.g.  If  child  is  reinforced  for  rough  and  tumble  play,  the  child  will  continue   to  engage  in  that  type  of  play   o   Social  Learning  (Bandura)  –  children  learn  by  observing  people  around  them     §   Shy  child  may  pick  this  up  from  a  shy/quiet  parent   §   Not  uncommon  for  baby  to  pick  up  dad’s  beer  bottle  and  try  to  drink  it  or   use  swear  words   §   Kids  also  model  good  behavior!     §   This  theory  holds  that  gender  roles  are  learned     ClickerQ:  What  famous  study  did  Bandura  conduct  to  demonstrate  social  learning?   The  Bobo   Doll  Study     •   Cognitive  Theory   o   Working  Model  –  set  of  assumptions  that  the  individual  uses  to  organize   perceptions  and  experiences   §   A  more  elaborate  form  of  schemas  that  are  more  difficult  to  change   §   Person’s  attributions  and  appraisals  of  experiences  are  more  important   than  the  experiences  themselves  (the  interpretation  of  the  experience  is   most  important  if  parents  aren’t  clear  about  the  reason  for  the  behavior)   •   I’m  unlovable…  or  I’m  free!  (in  regards  to  a  divorce;  negative  or   2   positive  appraisal)   •   Humanism     o   Parents  who  have  reached  the  highest  level  of  self-­‐actualization  will  be  better   able  to  attend  to  their  children’s  needs   §   Parents  not  past  the  level  of  love  and  belonging  or  success/esteem  may   have  a  hard  time  meeting  their  children’s  need   •   E.g.  mother  must  fight  urge  to  pee  to  feed  child.  This  selfless  and   tough  act  can  be  hard  for  someone  who  has  not  experienced  that   love   •   Evolutionary  Theory   o   Infant  emotions,  oxytocin,  bonding,  synchrony  and  attachment  serve  an   evolutionary  function   o   Infants  are  a  lot  of  work!  And  they  are  expensive!     §   These  factors,  along  with  our  base  desire  to  reproduce  and  pass  on  our   genes,  help  us  to  care  for  our  children  until  adulthood   •   High  Quality  Care   o   Adequate  attention  –  a  low  infant  to  caregiver  ratio  (ideal)   o   Encouragement  of  language  and  sensorimotor  development–    caregiver  should   stimulate  children  with  songs,  stories,  conversation,  age -­‐appropriate  toys     o   Attention  to  health  and  safety  –  cleanliness  and  accident  prevention   §   E.g.  attach  bookcases  to  the  wall,  do  not  leave  cleaning  supplies  laying   around,  do  not  leave  child  unattended  on  changing  table   o   Professional  caregivers  –  degree  in  early  childhood  education,  high  enthusiasm   and  positivity       o   Warm  &  responsive  caregivers  –  love  and  engage  children  in  active  play,   responsive  to  child’s  needs           3   Early  Childhood  Physical  Development                                            3.2.16   •   Body  Size   o   Children  add  2-­‐3  in  in  height  and  5-­‐6  lbs.  in  weight  each  year   o   Baby  fat  drops  off  and  proportions  become  more  similar  to  an  adult   o   By  the  age  of  6,  most  children  weigh  between  40-­‐50  lbs.  and  are  at  least  3.5  ft.   tall     •   Nutrition   o   Appetite  slows  during  the  preschool  years   o   Pushing/bribing  children  to  eat  is  destructive   §   Results  in  overweight  children  who  become  overweight  adults   §   Eat  until  you’re  satisfied,  not  full!     o   Most  children  consume  enough  calories  but  don’t  get  enough  nutrients  (vitamins   and  minerals)   §   Kids  get  most  of  their  calories  in  between  meals     §   Most  children  in  North  America  don’t  get  enough  zinc,  calcium,  etc.     •   Gross  Motor  Skill  Milestones   o   2-­‐3  years:  runs  easily  w/o  tripping,  climb  on  furniture,  walks  upstairs,  kick  a  ball   o   3-­‐4  years:  ride  a  tricycle,  jump,  climb  a  ladder,  throw  a  ball,  run  around  obstacles   o   4-­‐5  years:  Do  somersaults,  skip,  climb  trees,  throw  a  ball     o   5-­‐6  years:  walk  a  balance  beam,  jump  rope,  ride  a  bike,  do  a  cartwheel     **  There  is  a  lot  of  variation  in  these  Gross  and  Fine  Motor  Skill  Milestones.  Experiences  makes   the  difference.       e.g.  Growing  up  in  a  house  with  stairs,  a  child  will  be  faster  at  climbing  than  a  child   growing  up  in  a  single  story  home.     •   Fine  Motor  Skills   o   2-­‐3  years  –  string  together  4  large  beads,  feed  self  with  spoon,  draw  spirals   o   3-­‐4  years:  build  tower  with  9  small  blocks,  copy  simple  shapes  (circle),   manipulate  clay  into  balls   o   4-­‐5  years:  Cut  on  straight  line  with  scissors,  print  some  letters   o   5-­‐6  years:  copy  difficult  shapes  and  letters,  adult  grasp  of  pencil   •   Accidents  and  Environmental  Hazards   o   Accidents  –  leading  cause  of  death  in  pre-­‐school  and  school  aged  children   §   Drowning  is  the  leading  cause  of  accidental  death  in  1-­‐4  year  olds   §   Motor  vehicle  accidents  are  the  most  frequent  causes  of  accidental  death   in  children  5  years  and  older   o   Secondhand  smoke  –  increases  risk  of  cancer,  suppressed  immune  system  and   tooth  decay   o   Lead  –  related  to  intellectual  disability,  hyperactivity,  death   o   BPA  and  NON-­‐BPA  plastic  –  related  to  cancer,  problems  with  development  of   genitals,  low  sperm  count,  infertility  asthma,  obesity,  ADHD     §   All  plastics  contain  harmful  chemicals   What  is  myelination?  Refers  to  the  developmental  sheaths  around  axons  that  insulate  them   and  speed  conductivity   •   Brain  Development   o   By  age  2,  the  brain  is  75%  of  the  adult  weight  and  by  6,  it  is  90%  of  the  adult   weight   o   Prefrontal  cortex  (important  for  planning,  controlling  impulses,  and  making   decisions)  show  rapid  development  in  early  childhood   §   That  is  why  temper  tantrums  are  common  in  children  and  sporadic   behavior  is  common  up  to  the  20s.     §   Prefrontal  cortex  develops  until  the  early  20s   §   Perseveration:  continue  to  do  something  that  you  know  doesn’t  work   (continuously  pressing  the  power  button  on  the  remote  but  the  TV   doesn’t  respond)     o   Myelination  –  (speeds  signals  between  neurons)  continues  which  speeds   information  processing   §   Most  rapid  in  the  first  2  years  after  birth,  continues  slowly  after  that  into   adolescence   §   Not  complete  until  mid-­‐20s     §   Reticular  formation  controls  attention  and  it  is  not  complete  until  mid-­‐ 20s.  That  is  why  young  people  can’t  focus!  J     o   Corpus  callosum  (connects  the  two  hemispheres)  develops  most  rapidly  during   early  childhood   o   Lateralization  –  functional  specialization  of  the  left  (logic,  reasoning,  etc.)  and   right  hemispheres  (emotions,  creativity,  etc.)  of  the  cerebral  cortex   •   Emotions  and  the  Brain   o   Limbic  system  –  major  brain  region  implicated  in  emotional  expression  and   regulation   §   Amygdala  –  implicated  in  fear  (grows  large  in  childhood  which  is  the   reason  for  their  irrational  fears,  reduction  in  adolescence  and  adulthood)   •   When  you  remove  amygdala  from  animals,  they  act  fearlessly   •   Psychopaths  have  decreased  limbic  activity  in  the  amygdala,   which  explains  their  lack  of  fear  and  emotion   §   Hippocampus  –  implicated  in  memory  consolidation     §   Hypothalamus  –  responds  to  signals  from  the  amygdala  and  hippocampus   and  sends  signals  to  the  adrenals  to  secrete  cortisol       2   •   Use  parents'  responses  to  guide  their  own  responses:  SOCIAL   REFERENCES   o   E.g.  parent  is  skeptical  towards  dogs,  child  will  be  skeptical   of  dogs     3   The  Mind  (Cognitive  Development)                                                          3.4.16   ClickerQ:  Which  stage  of  cognitive  development  did  Piaget  suggest  2-­‐6  year  olds  are  in?   Preoperational   •   Piaget’s  Preoperational  Stage  (2-­‐6  years)   o   Children  in  this  stage  can  use  symbols  but  cannot  think  logically   §   Might  pretend  to  drive  car  around  dinner  table     o   Animism  –  belief  that  inanimate  natural  objects  are  alive   §   Ex)  mountains,  sun,  stars  are  alive     o   Centration  –  tendency  to  focus  on  one  aspect  of  a  situation  and  neglect  others   §   Ex)  thinking  anything  that  moves  is  an  animal  because  animals  move   §   Their  logic  is  faulty  at  best   §   Ex)  Child  may  not  understand  that  grandma  is  the  mother  of  mommy,  she   is  just  grandma   o   Egocentrism  –  tendency  to  think  about  the  world  entirely  from  their  own   personal  perspective     §   Ex)  Child  gets  mad  that  parents  eat  even  though  he  is  not  hungry   §   Ex)  Wants  to  play  with  trains  at  5am  and  expects  mom  to  also  want  to   play   o   Focus  on  Appearance  –  When  looking  at  something,  young  children  tend  to  focus   only  on  what  is  apparent,  ignoring  other  relevant  attributes   §   Ex)  a  girl  with  a  short  haircut  is  a  boy   §   Ex)  taller  child  must  be  older     ClickerQ:  Which  concept  that  we  just  discussed  is  most  related  to  children’s  focus  on   appearance?  Centration       o   Static  Reasoning  –  belief  that  the  world  is  unchanging,  always  in  the  state  in   which  they  currently  encounter  it   §   Hard  time  understanding  that  their  parents  were  once  young   §   May  think  that  they  will  suddenly  wake  up  and  be  tall  instead  of  a   gradual  change     ClickerQ:  Which  concept  that  we  just  discussed  is  most  related  to  children’s  static  reasoning?   Egocentrism     o   Irreversibility  –  belied  that  things  cannot  be  undone  (or  restored  to  the  way  it   was  before  a  change  occurred)     o   Conservation  –  understand  that  the  amount  of  a  substance  remains  the  same   even  when  its  appearance  changes     §   Related  to  focus  on  appearance,  static  reasoning,  centration  and   irreversibility     ClickerQ:  What  is  the  zone  of  proximal  development?    It  is  the  difference  between  what   children  can  do  on  their  own  and  what  they  can  do  with  assistance     •   Vygotsky:  Sociocultural  Theory   o   Recall:  scaffolding  involves  providing  temporary  support  and  assistance  in  order   to  help  child  reach  next  level  of  difficulty   o   Over-­‐imitation:  tendency  to  copy  an  action  that  is  not  a  relevant  part  of  the   behavior  to  be  learned  because  they  saw  an  adult  perform  the  action   §   E.g.  scratching  head  before  opening  a  box   o   Private  speech:  self-­‐directed  speech   §   E.g.  talking  to  oneself     §   Improves  concentration  and  task  performance   •   Theory-­‐Theory   o   Children  attempt  to  explain  everything  they  see  and  hear  by  constructing   theories   o   They  ask  a  lot  of  questions  about  human  behavior  and  natural  things   §   “Why  do  you  kiss  mom?”  “Why  does  it  rain”  “Where  does  rain  come   from?”   ClickerQ:  Sally  has  a  basket  and  Anne  has  a  box.  Sally  puts  a  marble  in  her  basket  then  leave  the   room.  Anne  removes  the  marble  from  Sally’s  basket  and  puts  it  in  her  box.  When  Sally  returns   to  the  room  where  will  she  look  for  her  marble?  Her  basket       2  


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