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Absolute Dating

by: Vani Singh

Absolute Dating GEOL 1210

Vani Singh
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

This topic will be covered on the next exam
Earth History
Class Notes
Earth History, Radioactive Dating, particles, Carbon-14
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Vani Singh on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to GEOL 1210 at University of North Carolina - Charlotte taught by in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 41 views. For similar materials see Earth History in Earth Sciences at University of North Carolina - Charlotte.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
Absolute Dating Numerical Age:  Names of the periods of geological time were set without numerical value and based on the fossil occurrences  Tool to place numerical value: Radioactive Decay (isotopes)  Isotopes to reach a stable state from instability ­ Emit  Alpha Particles: 2 protons & 2 neutrons results in the change of element because atomic number changes higher Ex. Potassium  Argon ­ Emit Beta Particles: Neutron releases an electron             Result: proton formation from break down (change of element because atomic number changes higher)  ­ Electron Capture: electron collides with nucleus and attaches to a proton  formation of electron           Result: element changes, but lower on periodic table, NOT higher 1  Half­Life: time for 2  of a nuclei to decay & as the parent decreases, the daughter increases Half­Life Parent Daughter 1 50% 50% 2 25% 75% 3 12.5% 87.5% **Each isotope has its own unique half­life Carbon­14: 5740 year half­life (shortest half­life) Radiometric Dating: ­ Crystals: Parent & Daughter not the same size, once formation is complete   becomes a closed system Blocking Temperature: Closed System Higher than the Blocking Temperature: system opens up & allows Daughter crystals to leave, while Parent crystals remain, therefore the structure of the crystal remains Higher > Blocking Temperature  resets the time to determine age of crystal Dating Material: grade of metamorphism        **Understand the thermal history of rocks because of the resetting of the time Dating Techniques: Sedimentary Rocks: not datable (for the most part)          Why so? Sedimentary rocks are composed of parts of sediments & minerals stuck together ­ Several intervals of history joined together Carbon­14 Dating: not for dating minerals, but parts of organisms: teeth, bones, wood N­14 (stable)                       C­14 (unstable) Solar Radiation Starts converting Three Carbon Isotopes to N­14 C­12 C­13 C­14


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