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Week 5; Day Day 13-15 - Chapter 7: Concepts Of Microbial Disease

by: Becca LeBoeuf

Week 5; Day Day 13-15 - Chapter 7: Concepts Of Microbial Disease Biology 233

Marketplace > University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh > Biology > Biology 233 > Week 5 Day Day 13 15 Chapter 7 Concepts Of Microbial Disease
Becca LeBoeuf

GPA 3.0

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Here are week 5 notes, they cover material on chapter 7 in our textbook.
Microbiology survey
Teri Shors
Class Notes
#Biology #Bio233 #MicrobialSurvey #Chapter7 #ConceptsOfMicrobialDisease
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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Becca LeBoeuf on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biology 233 at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh taught by Teri Shors in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 48 views. For similar materials see Microbiology survey in Biology at University of Wisconsin - Oshkosh.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Week 5    Day 13:    Microbes In The News ­ Use of GMOs to Combat Zika Outbreak:  ● No, GMO mosquitoes did not start the Zika virus outbreak!  ● British biotech company Oxitec.  ● GMO carries a gene that causes mosquitoes to self destruct.  ● All GMOs released are sterile males.  ● Mate with female mosquitoes carrying Zika virus.  ● Females die due to lethal gene from GMO.  ● Mosquitoes with lethal gene can be tracked via bioluminescence.    Chapter 7 ­ Concepts of Microbial Disease:    Biological Associations:  ● Symbiosis​ or “living together,” is an association between two or more species.  ○ Mutualism​, is a condition in which both species benefit (lichens).  ○ Commensalism​ , one species benefits but the other neither benefits nor is  harmed (normal flora).  ○ Parasitism​, is an association in which the parasite lives at the expense of the  other species, the host (all microbial pathogens).  ○ Parasites: are the cause of infectious disease.    The human​ normal flora/microbiot is composed mainly of commensal bacteria.  LOOK AT FIGURE 07.04.  Coccus is a shape!REMEMBER​ !! Circular shape.  Nose:​ Staphylococcus, Haemophilus.  Mouth​: Streptococcus, Lactobacillus.  Skin: Staphylococcus, Propionibacterium, Acinetobacter, Micrococcus.  Stomach:  Helicobacter pylori.  Small Intestin: Escherichia colLactobacillus (good organism).  Large Intestin: Bacteroides, Lactobacillus, Escherichia coli.  Urethra: Staphylococcus.  The normal flora can be opportunistic pathogens.  LOOK AT FIGURE 07.06.    Microbes As Agents Of Disease:  ● Historically, microbial pathogens have caused infection and untold human suffering.  ○ Bubonic plague​ : a bacterial disease, killed millions in the fourteenth century.  ○ Smallpox​: virus was a scourge for centuries, until eradicated in 1980.  ○ Late 1800s:  ■ Louis Pasteur proved that microbes were responsible for fowl cholera  and anthrax in sheep.  ■ Robert Koch established that tuberculosis was caused by a bacterium,  later name Mycobacterium tuberculosis.    Koch’s Postulates:  1. Association: the causative agent must be present in every case of a specific disease.  2. Isolatio: the causative agent must be isolated in every case of the disease and grown  in pure culture.  3. Causation​: the causative agent in the pure culture must cause the disease when  inoculated into a healthy and susceptible laboratory animal.  4. Reisolation: the causative agent must be reisolated from the laboratory animals and be  identical to the original causative agent.    Pathogenicity And Virulence:  ● Infective Dose (I: minimal number of microbes necessary for infection.  ○ More virulent organisms have smaller IDs than less virulent organisms.  ■ Vibrio cholerae (causes cholera) ID = one million.  ■ Mycobacterium tuberculosis (causes TB) ID = 10.  ● Pathogenicity: is the ability to cause disease.  ● Virulence: is a measure of pathogenicity, it encompasses two types of virulence factor:  ○ Defensive strategie that allow microbes to escape destruction by the host  immune system (adhesins, capsules, antigenic variation, etc).  ○ Offensive strategi that result in damage to the host (exoenzymes, exotoxins,  endotoxins, etc).  ● Endotoxins​: produces shock­like symptoms, chills, fever, weakness.  ● Capsules​: interfere with uptake of bacteria (phagocytosis).  ○ Removal of the capsule from encapsulated bacteria makes them more  susceptible to phagocytosis.  ● Defensive Strategies Continued ​elicobacter pyl the bacterium that causes peptic  ulcers, secretes the enzyme urease, which enables it to survive in the highly acidic  environment of the stomach. LOOK AT FIGURE 07.12.  ● Offensive Strategies: Toxins.  ○ Endotoxin​is part of the LPS in the outer membr​nram­negativecells; it  causes shock, chills, fever, weakness, small blood clots, and possibly death.  ○ Exotoxins are proteins synthesized by the microbe and secreted into the host’s  tissues.  ■ Cytotoxins​ kill or damage cells.  ■ Neurotoxins​ block nerve impulse transmission.  ■ Enterotoxins, affect cells lining gastrointestinal tract.  ○ Taxoid, detoxified toxin, retains its antigenicity.          Stages Of Microbial Disease:  ● Incubation​: period between initial infection and appearance of symptoms, considerable  variation among diseases.  ● Prodromal​ : period in which early symptoms appear; usually short and not always well  characterized.  ● Illness: period during which the disease is most acute and is accompanied by  characteristic symptoms.  ● Decline: period during which the symptoms gradually subside.  ● Convalescence​ : period during which symptoms disappear and recovery ensues.    Opportunistic Pathogens​ : an infection caused by bacterial, viral, fungal or protozoan  pathogens that take advantage of a host with a weakened immune system or an altered  microbiota (such as a disrupted gut flora). Many of these pathogens do not cause disease in a  healthy host that has a normal immune system.  Toxins​: an antigenic poison or venom of plant or animal origin, especially one produced by or  derived from microorganisms and causing disease when present at low concentration in the  body.  Pathogenesis​ : the manner of development of a disease.  Virulence​: the degree of pathogenicity within a group or species of parasites as indicated by  case fatality races and/or the ability of the organism to invade the tissues of the host. The  pathogenicity of an organism ­ its ability to cause disease ­ is determined by its virulence  factors.    Microbes In The News ­ CDC Investigating WI Outbreak:  ● 44 bloodstream infections.  ● Majority over age 65.  ● Immune compromised.  ● Elizabethkingia anophelis.  ● First 6 cases: December 29­Jan 4th.  ● Contracted through healthcare setting.  ● Cases occurred between November 1, 2015 and March 2, 2016.  ● Residents of Columbia Dane, Dodge, Fond Du Lac, Jefferson, Milwaukee, Ozaukee,  Racine, Sauk, Washington, and Waukesha counties.    Elizabethkingia meningoseptica:  ● Gram negative rod, aerobic.  ● Cluster of cases in West London teaching Hospital, England, 2014.  ● Ventilator patients.  ● Contaminated water.  ● Hand sanitizer:  ○ 2004­2011 recalls of sanitizer.  ● 18 people dead, dozens sick.      Meningococcal meningitis:  ● Can be life threatening.  ● Caused by Neisseria meningitidis (G­diplococci).  ● Signs And Symptoms:  ○ Stiff, arched neck.  ○ Pounding headache.  ○ Diagnosis: gram stain of cerebrospinal fluid via spinal tap (look for gram  negative diplococci bacteria also has a capsule).  ○ Rash (bright red patches, progresses to blue­black spots).  ○ If left untreated, 50% mortality rate.  ● Problems During The Disease And Treatment:  ○ Patients are given a large dose of antibiotic, usually penicillin.  ○ Penicillin flowing through the bloodstream rapidly kills the bacteria.  ○ As the bacteria are killed, they release even more toxin.  ○ It takes up to two days for the poison to be cleared from the body and the siege  to end.  ○ Dangerous clots form, blocking blood vessels = tissues start to die.  ● The Meningitis Belt In Africa:  ○ The MenAfriVac vaccine will be rolled out to 12.5 million people in Burkina Faso,  4 million people in Mali and 4 million people in Niger. 


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