Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
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This 9 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 34 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
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Date Created: 09/13/15
Cognition Development During the First 3 Years Ch5 Studying Cognitive Development 6 Approaches Behaviorist Approach Concerned with basic mechanics of learning Psychometric Approach Seeks to measure intelligence quantitatively Piagetian Approach Describes qualitative stages in cognitive functioning lnformationProcessing Approach Anayzes processes involved in perceiving and handling information Cognitive Neuroscience Approach Links brain processes with cognitive ones Social Contextual Approach Focuses on environmental in uences particularly parents and other caregivers Each is helpful in understanding how cognition develop The Piagetian Approach The Sensorimotor Stages Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage Development of Knowledge about Objects and Symbols Sensorimotor Stage birth to approx age 2 Piaget s rst stage in cognitive development lnfants learn through senses and motor activity Substages of the Sensorimotor Stage Six substages Flow from one to the next as a baby s schemes become more elaborate Schemes Organized patterns of thought and behavior used in particular situations First 5 substages involve learning to coordinate input from senses and organize activities in relation to environment 6 substage involves progressing to using symbols and concepts to solve simple problems CircularReactions Processes by which an infant learns to reproduce desired occurrences originally discovered by chance First Substage birth to 1 month Neonates begin to exercise some control over their inborn re exes engaging in a behavior even when its normal stimulus is not present Ex Sucking Second Substage 14 months Babies learn to repeat purposely a pleasant bodily sensation rst achieved by chance Ex Sucking their thumb Begin to turn toward sounds showing the ability to coordinate different kinds of sensory information Third Substage 48 months New interest in manipulating objects and learning about their properties lntentionaly repeat actions to get results beyond their own body Ex Shaking a rattle Fourth Substage 812 months Learned to generalize from past experiences to solve new problems modifying and coordinating previous schemes to nd one that works Marks the development of complex goaldirected behavior Fifth Substage 1218 months Babies begin to experiment with new behavior to see what will happen Now engage in tertiary circular reactions varying an action to get a similar result rather than merely repeating pleasing behavior they have accidentally discovered Sixth Substage 18 months to 2 years Transition to the preoperational stage Representational Ability Capacity to store mental images or symbols of objects and events They can think about actions before taking them Development of Knowledge about Objects and Symbols Object Concept ldea that objects have their own independent existence characteristics and locations in space Basis for children s awareness that they themselves exist apart from objects and other people When Does Object Permanence Develop Object Permanence The understanding that a person or object still exists when out of sight Develops gradually during the sensorimotor stage At rst infants do not exhibit object permanence Around 48 months they will look for something they have dropped but if it is out of sight they will not search for it By about 812 months they exhibit the A not B error At 1218 months they no longer make this error but will not search for a toy where they did not see it hidden By 1824 months toddlers will search for an object even if they did not see it hidden Other research suggests babies cannot yet carry out twostep or twohanded sequences of actions When given repeated opportunities to explore manipulate and learn about such a task infants at 612 months can succeed When an item is hidden only by darkness infants between 4 to 8 months perform well Using looking behavior suggests infants as young as 3 or 4 months have a sense of object permanence Hab ua on Habituation Type of learning in which familiarity with a stimulus reduces slows or stops a response Researchers repeatedly present a stimulus and then monitor responses like heart rate sucking eye movements and brain activity Dishabituation lncrease in responsiveness after presentation of a new stimulus Liking to look at new things and habituating to them quickly correlates with later signs of cognitive development Visual and Auditory Perceptual and Processing Abilities Visua Preference Tendency of infants to spend more time looking at one sight than another lnfants prefer Curved lines to straight lines Complex patterns over simple patterns 3D objects to 2D objects Pictures of faces or face like con gurations to pictures of other things New sights to familiar sights novelty preference Visua Recognition Memory Ability to distinguish a familiar visual stimulus from an unfamiliar one when shown both at the same time lndicated by a longer gaze at the novel stimulus Depends on the ability to form and refer to mental representations Such studies suggest a rudimentary representational ability exists at birth or very soon after Auditory discrimination studies also used attentional preferences Newborns can tell sounds they have already heard and those they have not Piaget believed that senses are unconnected at birth and become gradually integrated through experience Research suggests this integration would have to begin almost immediately CrossModal Transfer Ability to use information gained by one sense to guide another Ex Negotiating a dark room by feeling for familiar objects 1montholds looked longer at an object they had justsucked From birth to about 2 months the amount of times infants gaze at a new sight increases From 29 months looking time shortens as infants learn to scan more ef ciently and shift attention Later in the 1St and into the 2rml year looking time plateaus or increases Joint attention develops between 10 and 12 months Associated with later spoken vocabulary and vocabulary growth lnfo Processing amp the Develop of Piagetian Abilities Object Permanence Violationof Expectations Research method in which dishabituation to a stimulus that con icts with experience is taken as evidence that an infant recognizes the new stimulus as surprising Famiiarization phase infant sees an event or series of events happen normally habituates Experiment phase infant sees an event that con icts with normal expectations Baillargeon Found evidence of object permanence in infants as young as 3 12 months SocialContextual Approach Learning from Interactions with Caregivers Guided Participation Adult s participation in a child s activity Heps to structure the activity and bring the child s understanding of it closer to the adult s Often occurs in shared play and in ordinary everyday activities in which children informally learn the skills knowledge and values important in their culture Cultural context in uences the way caregivers contribute to cognitive development Sequence of Early Language Development Language Communication system based on words and grammar Prelinguistic Speech Forefunner of linguistic speech Utterance of sounds that are not words lncudes crying cooing babbling and accidental and deliberate imitation or sounds without understanding their meaning The rst word occurs around 1 year Sentences appear 8 months to a year later Sequences of Early Language Development Early Vocalizations Crying rst means of communication Cooing squealing gurgling and making vowel sounds Appears between 6 weeks and 3 months Around 3 to 6 months babies begin to play with speech sounds Babbling repeating consonantvowel strings Occurs around 610 months Often mistaken for rst word lmitation First occurs accidentally Occurs deliberately at about 910 months Sequences of Early Language Development Gestures Pointing Shows something they want Communicates interesting sights Early sign of social cognition Conventional Social Gestures Waving byebye Nodding for yes Shaking head for no Representational Gestures Hoding arms up to be picked up Symbolic Gestures Blowing to mean quothotquot Sniffing to mean ower Gestures usually appear before a child s vocabulary reaches 25 words Chidren stop using gestures when they learn the word for the idea they were gesturing Early gestures predict later vocabulary size Todders often combine gestures with words indicates they are about to begin using multiword sentences Sequences of Early Language Development First Words First word usually occurs between 10 and 14 months Linguistic Speech Verba expression designed to convey meaning Hoophrase Single word that conveys a complete thought Ex quotDaquot quotWhere is Daddyquot lnfants 8 months or younger start learning the forms of words also notice pronunciation stress placed on syllables and changes in pitch Babies understand words before they can use them At 6 months infants look longer at a video of their motherfather when they hear the word quotmommyquotquotdaddyquot By 13 months most children understand a word stands for a speci c thing or event Between 10 months and 2 years the process by which babies learn words changes 10 months associate name with interesting object 12 months pay attention to cues but still only learn names for interesting objects 18 24 months learn names regardless of interest in object 24 months recognize names of familiar object without visual cues By 18 months 75 of children can understand 150 words and say 50 of them Some can recognize spoken words from just the rst part of the word Early language is related to later cognitive development Speed of recognition of spoken words and vocabulary size at 25 months predicts linguistic and cognitive skills at 8 years Marchman amp Fernald 2008 Addition of new words to the expressive vocabulary is slow at rst Between 16 and 24 months a quotnaming explosionquot may occur Within a few months toddlers go from 50 words to several hundred Re ects increases in speed and accuracy of word recognition Nouns appear to be the easiest words to learn Chidren say their rst sentence two words put together around 1824 months Age varies greatly Teegraphic Speech Early form of sentence use consisting of only a few essential words Syntax Rules for forming sentences in a particular language Evidenced with increasing competence in children between 2030 months By 3 speech is uent longer and more complex Characteristics of Early Speech Simplify Understand grammatical relationship they cant express Underextend word meanings Overextend word meanings Overreguarize rules
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