Imperialism II Notes
Imperialism II Notes Hist1020
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This 2 page Class Notes was uploaded by Luke Dean on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Hist1020 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Bohanan in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 28 views. For similar materials see World History 2 in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Unit 2 Donna Bohanan 2/17/16 IMPERIALISM II- India and Africa I. India The East India Company was a joint stock company owned by the British as a Royal Colony. India was thought of as the crown jewel of the British Empire. Britain was very interested in coffee, tea, and cotton textiles so they established trading forts in India for trading these goods. A foreign empire, the Mughal Empire, controlled India at the time the British were coming in. The Mughal Empire had come in to trade. Eventually they allowed the British more power and control until there was even a military presence in India. The Sepoy Revolt (1857) was made up of Indian soldiers and British Sepoy generals. They brought new tactics to the British where they would use the fat from cows (sacred for Hindu) and pigs (regarded filthy by Muslims) to grease rifle cartridges, raise tax rates, and put culturally similar Indians in the army. 1,000s of British lives were lost and 100,000s of Indians died. The significance of this revolt is the clash of cultures and allowed British to clamp down on India and gain full control over them. In 1877, Queen Victoria was crowned queen of India. The British set up a full-fledged government in India call the Raj made up of British as the top dogs and Indians filled the lower positions. The majority who staffed the Raj were Indian but they had less sway. A big allure for the colonies were that British families who may not have had a luxurious life in Britain gain access to a very luxurious life owning a plantation with servants. Opium was huge in India. Not only did they take it back to Europe from India but it was shipped to China. It got so bad that Chinese government tried to stop it but couldn’t, thus starting the Opium Wars. Opium imports from India to China… 1729: 200 chests 1767: 1000 chests 1800: 4500 chests 1825: 10000 chests 1838: 40000 chests There were several positive impacts of British rule in India. It brought about western education, which allowed the elites to gain western knowledge that would help them, succeed internationally. Railroads were built and made good transportation more efficient. The Banking System was modernized and mining exploded in India. The negative impacts of British rule were extensive. The landholdings weren’t good because British were allowed to buy up as much land as they wanted which displayed so many rural Indians who were forced to migrate to the city where poverty became a big issue as the infrastructure couldn’t keep up with the massive influx of people. The average life span in India was 26 years. The textile industry in India suffered because the British found a way to make knock offs of Unit 2 Donna Bohanan 2/17/16 the traditional Indian textiles; and people bought what was cheaper. The Caste system in India before the British was a fairly smooth economic process where they had four main castes (social group of people of similar economic position) and thousands of sub-castes. The British only focused on the four main castes, which caused rigidity in the economy. II. Africa The scramble was the huge rush to try and colonize Africa in the late 19 century. The Berlin Conference (1885) was a conference where European powers met to decide how to carve up Africa. They decided to do it through treaties where they would go in to villages and tribes and talked out these protection treaties where they put fine print in them that gave the European powers the political power. Military advantages also played a huge role as some colonies hag to be taken by force and these military technologies gave the Europeans a huge leg up. South Africa was complex. The first Europeans to live there was the Dutch (Boers) as farmers. In 1790, the British arrive in South Africa with the intentions of making it a refueling port. This causes conflict. So the Dutch embark on the Great Trek for a push inland away from the British. They establish two “states”: Orange Free State and Transvaal. Also, the derivative of the Dutch language in Africa is called Afrikaans. Cecil Rhodes began to exploit the diamonds in Southern Africa. Out of all this came the Boer Wars (1889-1902) where the British sort of gained control and they put the Dutch in leadership positions to ultimately create the Union of South Africa where they began to create a white supremacy way of doing things. The Belgian Congo was the most brutal colony in Africa. It was owned as a private colony to Leopold II King of Belgium through Henry Stanley and sketchy deals. He set up the most horrible regime where he enslaved much of the Congonese and had them acquire rubber and ivory. He also built up an army, the Force Publique (FP), which was made up largely of native Congans. Leopold built up this army based on fierce grudges between these tribal leaders and had them march in and make people join the mining slaves. If you refused they executed, raped them and used their family as blackmail. Rubber came from goo in vines in which they poured it on the backs of the slaves to dry and then rip it off for transport. The FP would cut their hands off if they didn’t work hard enough. Finally these conditions got bad and Europe started to hear about this stuff. Edmund Morel was the first European to start uncovering this stuff when he saw ships coming back with rubber and going back with guns and ammo. Then Parliament got involved and started holding hearings. Joseph Conrad- Heart of Darkness
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