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Introduction to International Relations Week 5 Notes

by: Ellie Gluhosky

Introduction to International Relations Week 5 Notes 32124

Marketplace > University of Montana > Public Relations > 32124 > Introduction to International Relations Week 5 Notes
Ellie Gluhosky
GPA 4.0

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Hey here are week 5 of the notes
PSCI 230X-01
Karen Adams
Class Notes
Introduction to International Relations, PSCI-230X, political science
25 ?




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This 4 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ellie Gluhosky on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to 32124 at University of Montana taught by Karen Adams in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 45 views. For similar materials see PSCI 230X-01 in Public Relations at University of Montana.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
Sunday, March 6, 2016 Week 5 (Intro to International Relations) Foreign Policy - Can be what states say they want, say what they want to do, or what they do without saying. • States can lie, break promises, or say one thing and do another (at least historically). - How foreign policy interacts and how it causes conflict. - Synonym is a state’s strategy that has goals, actions, tactics, and executions. - Process • Different than international relations. - Cannot just study intentions, as it often differs from what actually happens. - Perfect Foreign Policy • Liberalist view - What would be the optimal way to avoid conflict, through cohesive foreign policy? - Realists are skeptical, idealists believe it is possible. • Political liberals believe that all leaders must adhere to public opinion, etc. - A liberal argument is that people can get better and better, altering our way of perception, towards rationality and clarification of goals and intentions in the international arena. - Consideration of all options. - Evaluate Pros and Cons - Choose best - Implement best Foreign Policy in the Real World - Sources of Imperfection 1 Sunday, March 6, 2016 • Global level- technologies, challenges (environmental, health etc.), physical forces beyond a states control, as well as world public opinion. - During the Cold War, western public did not know what the public opinion of Russia was. - Incredibly hard to find out the opinion of the world public. • China is very resistant to allowing the public to give a global opinion. • Even when polling fields have access to public, it is very difficult to determine if poll answers are representative of all, or if they are true (perhaps because of safety issues). - Better technology has made it easier to see what is happening around the world. Governments and citizens have a better idea of what is happening around the world. • Because there is so much information, it is difficult to weigh pros and cons, assess and balance relative powers, etc. Sometimes states choose wrong issue to address. - Consensus on climate change has taken so long that we (the U.S) are behind in the global scheme. - Hard to predict disease (ebola, Zika, etc.) International level- structural realists: security dilemma, balancing power, • neoliberalism: international institutions and interdependence • Individual level- personal motives - All people are irrational an cannot make foreign policy decisions: classical realist view. - Some people are better than others, we can improve and human nature can improve as well: idealist view. - Decision Makers’ Values and Beliefs • Affect- refers to emotions, affective bias allowing your emotions to determine your decisions- not rational - A bias example could be nationalism, individual makes decisions based on rational self interest. 2 Sunday, March 6, 2016 - Can also be more personal, George W. Bush and Putin got along well, whereas Putin and Obama are very different. Conflict comes from emotional antipathy. - Decision Makers’ Personalities • For example, George W. Bush had a known “can-do” personality that could have possibly affected the major decisions that he made, such as the invasion of Iraq. - Decision Makers’ Personal History • Someone who grew up during WWII will have a different view from someone who was young during the Cold War, or the 9/11 incident. - Cognitive bias- our brains are not wired for us to make ultra rational decisions, because we take so many mental shortcuts. Our brains deal with things in a subconscious way. We subconsciously do things to reduce stress, but also tend to blur our rational ability. • Protection- cognitive tendency to assume that “my motivations are the same as your motivations”. - It would be rational to step back from our first guess and assumption and acquire more information. - U.S assuming that China has similar ideals to us. • Saticficing- tendency to not do what we talk about doing. We tend to have many goals, but we wend up “muddling through” and improvising rather than actually achieving original goals. • Wishful thinking- tendency to be overly optimistic about our goals. Even when there is information saying otherwise, we still tend to think that it’s going to be ok. - Bolstering • Solution to biases is to develop better thinking methods: Liberals: solution is at the state level, we can get better within the system • State level - Organizational processes- set of standard operating procedures. 3 Sunday, March 6, 2016 • Rules for filtering information- when 9/11 happened, the FBI and CIA had a method of filtering information to the general public, and to states. Also FBI had filtering to the CIA. • Group structure and rules- agenda- setting and voting • Group dynamics- groupthink- tendency for people to go along with the thinking of the leader. • Organizational capabilities- what a state should do vs. what it can do. The U.S tends to think every world problem can be solved with the military, whereas weaker states tend to think diplomatically and come up with alternative solutions. We tend to look at situations through the lens of our capabilities. - Bureaucratic politics- competitive nature between different departments attempting to achieve a common international goal. • For example, within the defense department there is competition between the army, navy and air force. • Keep adding agencies to keep the competition going- Founding father’s ideals • Social factors- culture, public opinion (constructivism ideals). - Interest groups • Radical religious groups for example • Israel-Palestine • Kosovans-Serbians 4


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