History exam 1 notes
History exam 1 notes hist 1020
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This 22 page Class Notes was uploaded by Viraj Notetaker on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to hist 1020 at Auburn University taught by TIffany A. Sippial in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 16 views. For similar materials see World HIstory II in History at Auburn University.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
th th Towards a new world – View: 15 -18 centuries - Columbus – Portuguese exploration on western coast of Africa. FUNDING: - 1. Goes to Italy – home country. Says thanks but no thanks. NO 2. Portuguese – Crazy idea, again thanks but no thanks. NO 3. Spain – Ferdinand Izabella, pushing of Muslims out of Spain, so they 4. agreed to fund voyage but the conditions were, first they wanted land to grow crops, second they wanted markets, and third has to do with faith, they wanted to expand Christianity. 5. All people on ship spoke Arabic. 6. October 1492 he arrives in Caribbean, the Bahamas, instead of Asia, but he thought he arrived to Asia looking at the people. 7. Discovery and Contact are two words historians debate about. (to use or not to use). 8. The printing press invented by Guttenberg helped the news of Columbus travel spread quickly. 9. The Columbian Exchange – The global distribution of plants, animals and pathogens as a result of contact between two distinct and separated worlds. 10. Corn and Potatoes – New world to the old world – Products of Columbian exchange – can grow in variety of climate and soil. Europeans also learned that they have a high calorie content. 11. Quinine – It was used to treat Malaria. Result of Columbian exchange. 12. Most animals were brought to the Americas; they were not native. Help in transportation. 13. Xocoatl (Chocolate) – Origin in Americas; Found in his Diary. It had a Value, they cared it very much. Its an old world and new world mix product that comes together. Cocoa old world and sugar new world. 14. Consequences of the Columbian exchange was not only positive but it also had negative effects. 15. The Microbial exchange – disease exchange. 16. Syphilis (Americas to Europe) – disease - ???, Still not sure were it came from. 17. The most number of Slaves arrived to Brazil from Africa. Europeans did not control the prices, the Africans did. The female slaves costs more. Lecture 2: - Challenges to Absolutism: The French revolution - Implication of Contact/Connection o Impact of Exchange (positive or negative) o Exchange of diseases (90% diseases were brought from the old world to the new world). o Due to too much death, importing of labor came to power. Slaves came from Africa to America. - HAITIAN REVOLUTION: - o What are our rights? - Cantino World Map (Lisbon, 1502) o While making Map he imagined Brazil to be there, while he wasn’t sure. So he depicted Brazil in his map but not the entire American content. o First Map in the world history to depict or mark the Americas. 2 - WORLD MAP (1532) - World Map (1560s) - THE SCIENTIFIC REVOLUTION o What is Knowledge? o How do we know anything with Certainty? o This was the period of questioning. - The Call for Empiricism o Galileo, Bacon, Newton etc. o Use Empiricism if you want to know about the physical world. It has two components experimentation and direct observation. o Catholic church feels cut out of the knowledge group. o Galileo first to discover heaven, mountains and craters on moon. Don’t blindly accept the truth appealed by the sources, try it yourself. o Deductive and Inductive reasoning: - Deductive is general to specific, not always true, don’t use it. Inductive is specific to general. Said by Bacon o Newton introduced the concept of gravity to the world. You don’t need Church to tell this information, you can do it yourself. - Implications of Scientific revolution: - 3 o Working of universe can be explained by natural causes o Humans gain tremendous power to determine their world o Church no longer has monopoly on knowledge o Reason and nationality used to discover natural order of universe can be applied to the society = ‘enlightenment’ - Foundational Ideas of the Enlightenment – John Locke o Same rules to discover and understand the natural world can be applied to society o Government should rule according to Society. o Ideas of the enlightenment reached literate people first. o What Little Red Riding Hood Tells us? Lower class people became to play major role in development and enlightenment. Know about French revolution through stories and theatres. Little Red riding hood is originally the French story of 18 century. This original version is closely related to the condition of people living in France in 18 century which is harsh life, many deaths. French revolution first major political and world event. - What is the Recipe for revolution: -? 4 o Leadership o Mass support o Intellectual resources or ideas o Discontentment resulting in setting up goals o Opportunity - Ideas of the Enlightenment: - o Power of state is contingent; requires consent of the governed (not absolute) o Purpose of government is protection of natural rights (Life, liberty and property). o Natural rights set limits on authority of government; determine its legitimacy o Loss of legitimacy of state = duty of people to overthrow and/or rebel. o Liberty is a value more important than order. Lecture 3: - - Conflicting Ideas and the promise of revolution o Louis XIV (r. 1643 – 1725); The Sun King Example of absolute rule. He calls himself Sun king because he was center of France like Sun is center of universe. - Characteristics of Absolute States: - o Divine right – right can be questioned o All power can be Crushed o Standing army are key but expensive 5 o Creation of new state bureaucracies to approve taxes to generate revenue. Revenue is used to fund armies. - Voltaire (1694 – 1778) o Men are equal o The ideal form of government is democracy tempered with assassination. o Politics with some sort of humor - Salons and the Spread of the enlightenment o Salon was like a book club, they had book reading time and then they share ideas. o In many cases Salons were organized by Women, and it was during the time when Women were excluded from formal meetings. - The French Estate System st o 1 Estate – Clergy 130,000 members owned 10-15% land Exempted from all taxes Gathered funds from tithes. nd o 2 Estate – Nobility 300,000 members Owned 40-50% land Majority important positions o 3 Estate – Everyone else Middle Class Peasants 6 Owned 30-40% land (Small Plots) Their Wealth was held in Cash (No status associated with Cash, because you have it one and don’t the other day). o The Estate system becomes a source of Discontentment o Every Estate has 1 vote. st o 1 Estate has major rdle in voting which is discontentment for 3 estate people which feel have no voice. o 3rd estate wanted power, they wanted to have Voice. - KING LOUIS XVI (r. 1774 – 1793) o When he comes to the throne he inherits economic crisis. o When he comes to the throne France is in horrific financial crises, the state was bankrupt. o By the end of the war almost half of the finance was required to pay debt on interest. o Prices for food especially Bread had sky rocketing Prices. 50% of the money earned was used to buy Bread. o 3 issue was the severe unemployment. 1 third of the workforce in France was unemployed o In 1789, trying to Stabilize France he calls the estate’s general to increase taxes, because he will need general’s permission to do so. 7 o General asked why do we have so much debt? , he did not ask how much debt. o He was not prepared to answer the question so he sends his guards to shutdown the entrance. o They moved to a different location and continued the conversation (moment of opportunity) o Their were mostly people of the 3 estate because they were the most discontent. - OATH OF THE TENNIS COURT (June 1789) rd o 3 estate called themselves the national assembly. o They formed a constitution. It was the intent to established a shared power. 572 SIGNATURES WERE PRESENT ON THE CONSTITUION. o This resulted in mass support, another recipe of revolution. - Storming of the Bastille (14 July 1789) - Its important because it the symbol of the power of the - monarchy. o 98 lives were lost in the attack. - The Great Fear: Women March to Versailles (1789) o Bonfire o Women march to Versailles destroying everything in their way. They destroyed things they felt were against the new law. o National assembly was concerned about the Great Fear, sothey created a document 8 Declaration of the rights of Man and Citizens (1789). o It is similar to the US declaration of Independence, and it is because Thomas Jefferson was the US ambassador in Paris and he was consulted. o They Wanted to keep the opening statement short so that they can print it and circulate it among citizens. o The document was like collecting unique identities. - Olympe de Gouges (1748 – 1793) o She read the document and she was not happy with the way women were treated. o So she writes the document in her words giving women equal rights to that of men. o She saw this as a moment of opportunity - Constitution of 1791 o Create limited monarchy Constitutional Monarchy (British Model) o Limit Power to Church Church was no more independent land holder Education taken out of church. Church officials required to take oath to become civil servants. o This Constitution was a blow to privilege of Monarchy o This Two documents articulated the future of France 9 o The French Royalty as Beasts o LOUIS XVI realizes that this situation as become out of control so he flies to eastern France were Counter revolution was taking place. o They started making number of unplanned stops on their way to Eastern France, which was going to get them to trouble. They were Disguised. o They were recognized on one of the stops and they were sent to Paris were they were arrested (House arrest) - Trail of king Louis XVI (December 1792) o They were no longer constitutional monarchy but republic. o The accusations were corruption, abusive power. o The Social Class decided how will you be executed - Louis arrives in Hell o Artist are still not sure that they did the right thing by killing him. o Artist made paintings depicting not to feel bad because he was happy in hell. - Pre – revolution Female Fashions o Next Project was Cultural project. o There is change in a way people address one another. o They treated everyone equal. o Dress changes during this cultural project. o This was seen as a marker of the old way. 10 o Clothing should be made out of cotton that will be available to everyone. o Change was a marker for new vision for society. LECTURE 4: - - Egalite for all: The Haitian revolution o Sources of discontentment High unemployment Economy Lack of representation in states general High prices o National assembly showed leadership o 576 signatures at the tennis court was the example of mass support in French Revolution. o “Louis arrives in hell” was a historic artifact, it was an important piece in the national assembly. o People started calling each other citizens. o Playing cards were introduced in 1793, during the French revolution. o So now instead of kings and queens they had symbols on cards that signify liberty, equality and fraternity. o The cap was a common symbol, it is Phrygian Cap, it first emerged in late roman empire and it was a symbol of their free status. o Calendar of Revolutionary France Time has begun new with revolution. 11 It began with the declaration of republic in 1792. Sunday disappears from new calendar. There is a day of rest every 10 days. They abolished Christmas THEY WANTED TO FO TOWARD SECULARISM AND SO DECHRISTIANISE o Temple of Reason (1793) Important buildings were renamed. o Music The national assembly created new revolutionary songs. About 1300 songs were created. The songs dealt with the different subject matters. It was not only for entertainment but also for teaching, these songs had important messages. There were many Patriotic songs The third estate is we in the song we will win The songs mainly focused on third estate. o The people who were against the goals of revolution were called Traitors. o In April 1793 new committee was formed and it was called for public safety. 12 members of the committee had the task to rule out the Traitors. Its goal was to maintain order. 12 o EXTERNAL THREATS – France was in war with these countries. England Poland Spain All these countries had monarchy - The Reign of terror (1793 – 1794) o Maximillian Robespierre was a man of action o He gave firing speeches o This was known as the Radical phase. o He said Virtue and Terror are important, together it can continue our revolution. o In the Final month of reign of terror 1900 people were killed they were all against the revolution. o Many were put to prison o The Purifying Pot (1793) It was a cartoon that depicted him identifying people against the revolution, and separating them. - Execution of Robespierre 28 July 1794 Is the revolution over? What now? By 1794 France started to secure military victories, and so external threats reduced and so Robespierre policies did not work and he was arrested by the public safety committee and the reign of terror came to end. Charges – indiscriminate use of Violence, killings. 13 His execution was the end of the Radical Phase. - His execution led to the period of confusion on who will be the new leader. - Solution 1 – The Directory (Shared Power) (1795- 1799) o Five people leading the country at once is a mess. So indeed it was a bad idea. - Solution 2 – Napoleon Bonaparte (1769-1821) o He was associated with lot of military victories; he was the symbol of success. He was born in Corsica; he was educated in France. o He seized his power in 1799 when he returned from Egypt. o He then crafts his model on approach to government. o Domestic policy, Foreign policy and cult of personality o You have to have these three things if you don’t want Divine rule. o Cult of personality: - It’s the purposeful manufacture of a public image of perfect success. o Creating the Modern French state He wanted to clean house and put everything in order. He became the emperor in 1804. He addresses the sticky issue of religion. He is not that much interested in religion. He 14 sees religion as a glue that winds people together. He declares catholic as favored religion in France. He changes the calendar. Law – Napoleonic Code (1804) Education will be Secular and public Improve infrastructure and reduce price of bread. He wanted to satisfy people’s basic needs. o Imperial Busts: - Cult of personality. He takes control of the media. He doesn’t want to report Suicides and military losses in newspaper, just spread the good news. He has produced 1000s of images of himself around the state. He wanted to represent himself as: - He is the man hard at work. He is the man of the people. Infallible military leader o Arc de Triomphe (Paris, 1806) Idea was to use architecture to celebrate success and to satisfy his goals of cult of personality. o First Painter of the Empire – Jacques-louis David (1748-1825). 15 He made paintings which included everything Napoleon told him to include. The World Napoleon made: - - He became leader because he had good military successes. - Napoleon invested lot of money in cult of personality. - He put a bus in all villages. - In all the painting he sat only once, otherwise in all painting he was standing. - He wanted to tell people the story of his leadership through paintings. - The Painting Emperor in his study showed his personality as hard worker, the man of action. - His stance says that he is in control. - Napoleon crossing the Alps (Painting), showed his leadership. - Napoleon at the battle of Eylou (Painting) , It lasted 2 days, Russia lost 15000 and France lost 25000 troops, there was no clear winner. - Recasting tragedy, to highlight personal feelings. - Coronation of Napoleon, his favorite painting. The crowning was usually done by pope, but painting showed that this power was taken by the Napoleon. The Church submitting to Emperor. Napoleon Approaching Moscow (Russia) - He wanted to expand his Empire. - He sent his army to Russia to take on Moscow. 16 - The governor of Moscow orders burning of the city, because Napoleon was coming. - There was damage done to farmers of Russia by people in order to stop Napoleon. - There was no shelter and food. - He started with 600,000 men and he came back with 30,000, he failed in Russia, this was huge loss. - The Napoleon is sent to Exile. - He escapes the first exile, and then he comes back to France where is losses his final battle of Waterloo. - After which he died through stomach cancer. Congress of Vienna - Great Britain, Russia, Prussia and Austria called themselves holy alliance, they came together to deciding on future of France. - They redrew the map, they push France back to the borders in 1792. - Step 2 – They create confederation of German states, its job was to hold France to its border and not to let it expand. - Step 3 – Restore the French Monarchy. Louis XVIII came to throne. - It was known as conservative re….. that means back in time. Legacies of the French Revolution - Weakened the political influence of aristocracy and clergy. - The idea of limited monarchy. 17 - Phrygian caps. - Haiti was the first country to get ignited from the the French revolution. - French colony – Plantation economy - 1/3 of the total French trade was with Haiti rd - 2/3 of France tropical imports were from Haiti. The HAITIAN Revolution: - - Grands Blancs – Independence from France. They own Properties and lands, they wanted to be independent from France. - Petits Blancs – Property owners. They don’t like that because they were not born in France they were excluded from many economic things. - Gens de Couleur – mixed (Black and white), they wanted full citizenship, access to public office. - Slaves – Freedom from France not independence (VERY IMPORTANT). - Boukman Dutty – A prayer of call to action, known as Boukman’s Prayer. - Avengers of the New World o Toussaint (1743-1803) o Jean-Jacques Dessalines (1758-1806) o He was really effective as a leader inspite of being Slave, he was literate, and catholic. o Haiti’s wealth was based on human capital. o Toussaint was an example of humanity. o They fought Spanish, British and French army for 12 years 18 o Haitian revolution is the most profound revolution. o They chanted slogans of equality, fraternity and humanity. o The people travelling in Ships use to spread news. o Saint domain was sugar capital of the world. o Toussaint born on plantation and grows on plantation. o He becomes free in 1770. o He had Businesses and contacts in US. Legacies of the French Revolution: - - Weakened Political influence of aristocracy and clergy. - France transformed into modern state. - Saint-Domingue and France came to build a relation and SD was the first country to get influenced. SD was really important to France because of trade and economy. Haitian Revolution: - - Discontentment (Most powerful to least powerful) o Grands Blancs – European warm whites, wanted independence from France. o Petits Blancs – Native Warm Whites, Born in SD. They wanted Power. 19 o Gens de Couleur – Mixed race people. They wanted full citizenship. Their color was an issue for full citizenship. o Slaves – Wanted Freedom from slavery but not independence. o Moment of opportunity – Boukman’s Prayer, this prayer was a tool to bring prayer together. It was a tool to enlightenment. o Toussaint was a priest. He had the trust of people. The prayer he delivered was the call to action. He was able to turn events into mass event. o Toussaint is put in prison and he is sent to France were he dies through pneumonia. o Jean – Jacques comes to the throne after him. - Film notes: - o The Black people had to show respect to whites. o Blacks were first to ask for independence and full citizenship. They sent petition to France. o Colonial whites felt they were betrayed by the governor. o Boukman was a slave and a priest. o Voodoo people were kidnapped. Boukman wanted to make strategy with voodoo people. o One night the Slave Africans attacked their master. o It was the hatred that came out. o The most important plantations in Americas, went waste. Sugar and coffee plants. 20 o Toussaint was no longer a Slave, he had different mindset, he was the owner of 2-3 plantations. o The white people also started revolting. They killed many black people. o Toussaint’s talent and intellectual set him apart. o French Commissioner’s arrived from Paris to maintain peace. o The Settlement if for freedom and some other reforms. o With his letter he announces his presence and his commitment. o He particularly focused on Spain. o Toussaint forces captured 3 cities within 8 months. o Empire of French, British and Spain were fighting for this small ideas. o Soon nearly million black slaves became French citizens. o They didn’t like that there was a black general beating white army. o Toussaint was awarded general position; no Black had reached so far. o In 1797, he isolated the civil commissioner. o Just month after conquering Egypt he marched towards Paris, which became threat to Toussaint. o Most Slaves wanted to grow crops for food rather than trade. 21 o SD erupted in anger and fear after Toussaint surrendered. o The Black people burnt towns to depart French army. o It Worked! - An Independent Haiti: - o 1 Black republic in the world. o 1 independent nation in Latin America. o Final defeat of Napoleon’s troops by General Dessalines o 2ndindependent nation in western hemisphere. - Haitian Constitution: - o Slavery is forever abolished. o Property is sacred, its violation shall be severely prosecuted. o Haitian Constitution last term for exam. o 22
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