Popular in Lifespan Development: Child-Adult
verified elite notetaker
Popular in Psychlogy
This 15 page Class Notes was uploaded by Ashley Notetaker on Sunday September 13, 2015. The Class Notes belongs to PSYC 225 at Northern Illinois University taught by Elizabeth Rusnak in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 37 views. For similar materials see Lifespan Development: Child-Adult in Psychlogy at Northern Illinois University.
Reviews for Chapter 4
Report this Material
What is Karma?
Karma is the currency of StudySoup.
You can buy or earn more Karma at anytime and redeem it for class notes, study guides, flashcards, and more!
Date Created: 09/13/15
Birth and Physical Development During the First 3 Yrs Ch 4 The Newborn Baby Size and Appearance Body Systems Medical and Behavioral Assessment The Apgar Scale Assessing Neurological Status The Brazelton Scale Neonatal Screening for Medical Conditions States of Arousal Neonatal Period First 4 weeks of life A time of transition from intrauterine dependency to independent existence Size and Appearance Neonate Newborn baby up to 4 weeks old On average 20in long and 7 12 lbs 95 measure 18 to 22in long and weigh from 5 12 to 10 lbs Males tend to be slightly longer and heavier Firstborns tend to weigh less Lose up to 10 of their weight in the rst few days loss of uids Begin regaining weight around day 6 and are back to birth weight by the 10th to 14th day New babies have distinctive features like a large head and a receding chin The head may also be long and misshapen after birth Due to the fontanels soft spots not being fully fused yet which allows for easier delivery Fuse together around 18 months Many newborns have a pinkish color May have lanugo fuzzy prenatal hair Most are covered with vernix caseosa quotcheesy varnishquot an oily protection against infection Body Systems Systems and functions controlled by mother s body prior to birth Blood circulation Nourishment Eimination of waste Temperature regulation The infant s systems and functions begin the transition to operating on their own during the rst 46 hours after delivery Blood circulates wholly within the neonate s body The neonate s heartbeat at rst is fast and irregular Blood pressure does not stabilize until about 10 days after birth Most infants start to breathe as soon as they are exposed to air Anoxia Lack of oxygen which may cause brain damage Hypoxia Reduced oxygen supply may also cause permanent brain injury lnfants lungs have onetenth as many air sacs as adults do Makes them more susceptible to respiratory problems At birth babies instinctively suck to take in milk Gastrointestinal secretions digest it Meconium A stringy greenishblack waste matter formed in the fetal intestinal tract Secreted by infants the rst few days after birth Newborn babies have no control over their bladder and bowels Body temperature is regulated by the layers of fat infants developed during the last two months of fetal development as well as by body movements Neonata Jaundice Condition in many newborn babies caused by immaturity of liver and evidenced by yellowish appearance Can cause brain damage if not treated promptly Affects roughly 50 of babies Medical and Behavioral Assessment The Apgar Scale Standard measurement of a newborn s condition Assesses appearance pulse grimace activity and respiration 39 TABLE 41 ipgar Scale Sign a Appearance EEEOF Blue plate edy pink Entirely pink extremities btue Pulse heart rate Alesth Slew lbelew 10G Rapid lever 10D Grimace No response Grimace Caughng re ex irritability sneezing crying Activity muscle tone Limp Weak inactive Strong active E SPlratiW WEE hing Absent Irregular stew God crying Brazelton Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale NBAS Neurological and behavioral test to measure neonate s responses to the environment Assesses Motor organization activity levels bringing hand to mouth Re exes State changes irritability excitability ability to be quieted Attention and interactive capacities alertness and responses to visual and auditory stimuli lndications of CNS instability tremors and changes in skin color States of Arousal Babies have an internal clock which regulates cycles of eating sleeping elimination and perhaps moods State of Arousal An infant s physiological and behavioral status at a given moment in the periodic daily cycle of wakefulness sleep and activity lnborn and highly individualized Most new babies sleep for 75 of the day Wake up every 34 hours to eat Sleep alternates between quiet regular and active irregular sleep Active sleep is roughly the equivalent of REM sleep Appears rhythmically in cycles of about 1 hour Accounts for 50 of a newborn s total sleep time Decines to less than 30 of daily sleep by age 3 and continues to decrease steadily throughout life Nighttime sleep periods gradually lengthen as babies are awake more during the day and need less sleep Some infants sleep through the night as early as 3 months By 6 months an infant typically sleeps for 6 hours straight at night Brief nighttime waking is normal The typical 2yearold sleeps about 13 hours including naps Babies sleep rhythms and schedules vary across cultures Reducing Infant Mortality Worldwide 6 million infants die each year 60 during the 1St month 75 of those are in the rst week 2550 in the rst 24 hours Infants are more likely to die on the rst day than at 1 month Eightysix percent of all neonatal deaths are due to Severe infections such as sepsis or pneumonia tetanus and diarrhea 36 Preterm delivery 27 Asphyxia at birth 23 Many of these are preventable Infant Mortality Rate Proportion of babies born alive who die within the 1St year Faen continuously in the US since the beginning of the 20th century From 100 to 67 infants for every 1000 born alive More than half take place in the rst week Twothirds occur during the neonatal penod In the United States infant death is due to Birth defects Disorders related to prematurity and low birth weight Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS Maternal complications of pregnancy Complications of the placenta umbilical cord and membranes In 2005 more than twothirds of all infant deaths were of preterm babies Though only 08 of infants were born weighing less than 1000 grams these infants represented nearly half of all infant deaths RacialEthnic Disparities in Infant Mortality African American babies are 2 12 times as likely to die in their rst year as Caucasian and Hispanic babies Greater prevalence of low birth weight and SIDS American Indian and Alaskan Native infant mortality is about 112 times that of Caucasian babies Due to SIDS and fetal alcohol syndrome May be due to racial or ethnic disparities in access to and quality of health care but behavioral factors like obesity smoking and alcohol consumption also play a part Sudden Infant Death Syndrome SIDS Sudden and unexplained death of an apparently healthy infant Leading cause of postneonatal infant death in US Peaks between 2 and 3 months Most common among African American American Indian and Alaskan Native babies Boy babies Preterm babies Babies whose mothers are young and received late or no prenatal care Most likely results from a combination of factors Underlying biological defect Prenatal exposure to smoke In the absence of risk factors SIDS is rare Babies who die from SIDS frequently have multiple risk factors Six gene mutations affecting the heart Defects in the brain stem Low levels of serotonin Ways to reduce risk Seeping with a fan Pacing babies on their backs to sleep Not letting infants sleep on soft surfaces adult beds sofas or chairs etc Use paci ers No connection between immunizations and SIDS Deaths from Injuries Fifth leading cause of death in infancy in the United States Third leading cause of death after the rst 4 weeks After SIDS and birth defects lnfants have the second highest rate of death from unintentional injuries among children and adolescents Twothirds of deaths from unintentional injury during the 1St year are from suffocation From ages 1 to 4 traf c accidents are the leading cause of unintentional injury deaths followed by drowning and burns Boys are more likely than girls to be injured and to die from their injuries African American infants are 2 12 times more likely to die of injuries than Caucasian infants More than 3 times as likely to be victims of homicide 90 of all injury deaths are due to suffocation motor vehicle traf c drowning and residential res or burns Many occur at home Some injuries reported as accidental may be in icted by caregivers Immunizations for Better Health More than 78 children worldwide now receive routine vaccinations in their 1St year But in 2005 25 million vaccinepreventable deaths occurred among children under 5 years old The majority in Africa and southeast Asia In the United States 774 of 19 to 35montholds had completed a recommended series of childhood vaccines 90 had completed most of the recommended vaccines Concerns about vaccinations Autism or other neurodevelopmental disorders Evidence suggests this is not a concern Too much for the infant immune system to safely handle Multiple vaccinations actually strengthen the immune system Principles of Development Cephalocaudal Principle Principe that development proceeds in a headto toe direction Upper parts of the body develop before lower parts of the trunk Proximodista Principle Principe that development proceeds from within to without Parts of the body near the center develop before the extremities Growth Patterns Chidren grow faster during the rst 3 years than they ever will again Especialy during the rst few months By 5 months the average US baby boy s birth weight has doubled 16 lbs By 1 year it has more than tripled 25 lbs Gains about 5 12 lbs by 2rml birthday 31 lbs and 3 lbs by 3ml 34 lbs Height increases 10in during the 1St year 30in lncreases 5in during the 2rml year 3ft and 25in the 3ml year 39in Girls follow a similar pattern but are slightly smaller Body shape and proportions change as they grow as well Teething usually begins around 34 months First tooth may not arrive until between 5 and 9 months By their 1St birthday babies generally have 6 to 8 teeth By 2 12 they have about 20 teeth Nutrition Breast or Bottle Breast is almost always best for infants Recommended that babies be exclusively breast fed for 6 months About 75 of US women breastfeed but only 32 are still nursing exclusively after 3 months Only 12 of infants are exclusively breastfed for 6 months Should start at birth and continue for at least 6 months Bartick amp Reinhold 2010 If 90 of US mothers complied with breastfeeding recommendation it could potentially prevent 911 infant deaths and save 13 billion a year in medical costs Bartick Stuebe Schwarz Luongo Reinhold amp Foster 2013 Compared to 90 of women breastfeeding exclusively for six months current breastfeeding rates result in 4981 cases of breast cancer 53847 cases of hypertension 13946 cases of myocardial infarction heart attack 4396 additional premature deaths before age 70 Current rates result in 174 billion in cost to society resulting from premature death 7337 million in direct costs 1261 million indirect morbidity costs The only acceptable alternative to breastfeeding is ironforti ed formula based on cow s milk or soy protein which contains supplemental vitamins and minerals At 1 year babies can switch to cow s milk lncreases in breastfeeding in the US are most notable among Black women Teenage women Poor women Working women Women with no more than a high school educann Don t usually continue breastfeeding due to Postpartum maternity leave Fexibe scheduling Lack of breaks to pump anacy Lack of education about the bene ts Breastfeeding is not advised for mothers who Are infected with AIDS or other infectious diseases Risk can be reduced by treatment during the rst 14 weeks of life Have untreated active tuberculosis Have been exposed to radiation Are taking any drugs not safe for the baby The Brain and Re ex Behavior Central Nervous System Brain and spinal cord Spinal Cord A bundle of nerves running through the backbone Major Parts of the Brain The cerebrum is divided into two hemispheres Left hemisphere language and logical thinking Right hemisphere visual and spatial functions Lateraization Tendency of each of the brain s hemispheres to have specialized functions Corpus Callosum Tough band of tissue which joins the two hemispheres and allows them to share information and coordinate commands Grows dramatically during childhood reaching adult size by age 10 Cerebral Cortex The outer surface of the cerebrum Regions governing vision hearing and other sensory information grow rapidly in the rst few months reaching maturity by 6 months The frontal cortex responsible for abstract thought mental associations remembering and deliberate motor responses grows very little during this period and remains immature for several years Early Re exes Re ex Behavior Automatic involuntary innate responses to stimulation Controlled by the lower brain centers Human infants have roughly 27 major re exes Many are present at birth or soon after Primitive Re exes Related to instinctive needs for survival and protection or may support the early connection to the caregiver Sucking rooting Moro and grasping re exes Postura Re exes Reactions to changes in position or balance Parachute re ex Locomotor re exes Resembe voluntary movements that do not appear until months after the re exes have disappeared Walking and swimming re exes Most early re exes disappear during the rst 6 to 12 months Those that remain serve protective functions Early Sensory Capacities Touch and Pain Touch is the rst sense to develop most mature sensory system for the rst several months Rooting re ex Neonates DO feel pain Capacity for pain perception may emerge by the third trimester of pregnancy Become more sensitive to pain during the rst few days Proonged or severe pain can do longterm harm to newborns Early Sensory Capacities Smell and Taste Sense of smell and taste also begin developing in the womb lnfants have a preference for pleasant odors Attracted to the smell of their mother s milk Certain taste preferences are largely innate Prefer sweet tastes over sour bitter or salty tastes Rejection of bitter tastes may be a survival mechanism Taste preferences developed in infancy may last into early childhood Early Sensory Capacities Hearing Hearing is functional before birth May help foster the relationship with the mother Auditory discrimination develops rapidly after birth Threedayod infants can tell new speech sounds from those they ve heard before By 1 month infants can distinguish between similar sounding syllables like quotbaquot and pa Hearing loss occurs in 13 out of every 1000 live births Early Sensory Capacities Sight Vision is the least developed sense at birth Visua perception and the ability to use visual information becomes more important as infants become more alert and active Newborns have smaller eyes incomplete retinal structures and an underdeveloped optic nerve Eyes focus best from 1 foot away Periphera vision is narrow more than doubling between 2 and 10 weeks Visua acuity at birth is roughly 20400 improving to 2020 by about 8 months Binocular vision usually does not develop until 4 or 5 months Milestones of Motor Development Milestones Achievements that develop systematically Systems of Action lncreasingy complex combinations of motor skills Permit a wider or more precise range of movement and more control of the environment Denver Developmental Screening Test Screening test given to children 1 month to 6 years old to determine whether they are developing normally Gross Motor Skills Physica skills that involve the large muscles Rolling over or catching a ball Fine Motor Skills Physica skills that involve the small muscles and eyehand coordination Grasping a rattle or copying a circle 1 T BlE 4 5 Milestones of Metr Development Skill 5E Percent 9n Percent Helling ever 32 menthe 54 mentha rliairasilping rattle 33 mentha 39 menthe Sitting witheut augpert 59 months 681 menthe Standing while heldinge en 12 mentne 85 menthe Grasping with thumb and finger 82 months 102 rnenthe Standing alene well 115 menthe 13 menths walking well menthe mentha MileStones Building tewer ef twe CthiEE 148 menths 205 menthe Of MOtor Walking up stepe 166 months 216 mentha Jumping in place 233 months 24 years Realman circle 34 year 41 yeara J Development Head Control At birth most infants can turn their heads from side to side while on their backs Many can lift their heads enough to turn them while lying chest down Within the rst 23 months they lift their heads higher and higher By 4 months almost all infants can keep their heads erect while being held or supported in a sitting position Milestones of Motor Development Hand Control Grasping Re ex Around 3 12 months most infants can grasp an object of moderate size Have trouble with small objects Then they grasp an object with one hand and transfer it to the other Between 7 and 11 months their hands become coordinated enough to pick up a tiny object Pincer grasp By 15 months the average baby can build a tower of two cubes Shortly after the 3ml birthday the average toddler can copy a circle fairly well Milestones of Motor Development Locomotion After 3 months the average infant begins to roll over deliberately First from front to back then back to front Average baby can sit without support by 6 months and assume that position without help by 8 12 months Between 6 and 10 months most babies begin to creep or crawl The average baby can stand around 7 months Stand alone around 11 12 months Soon after standing alone most infants take their rst steps During the 2ml year children begin to climb stairs one at a time Waking down stairs comes later Also being to run and jump By age 3 12 most children can balance brie y on one foot and begin to hop Motor Development and Perception Sensory and motor activity seem fairly well coordinated from birth Visua Guidance Use of the eyes to guide movements of the hands or other parts of the body Depth Perception Ability to perceive objects and surfaces three dimensionally Kinetic cues Haptic Perception Abiity to acquire information about properties of objects such as size weight and textures by handling them Deveops between 5 and 7 months
Are you sure you want to buy this material for
You're already Subscribed!
Looks like you've already subscribed to StudySoup, you won't need to purchase another subscription to get this material. To access this material simply click 'View Full Document'