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ANSC 1000: Ppt 4 - Genetics

by: Hannah B.

ANSC 1000: Ppt 4 - Genetics ANSC 1000

Hannah B.
GPA 3.5

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About this Document

Fourth powerpoint from Dr. Huntington's Intro to Animal Science class
Introduction to Animal Sciences
Dr. Carolyn Huntington
Class Notes
Huntington, auburn, Auburn University, Animal Science, Intro to Animal Science, Introduction to Animal Sciences, ANSC 1000, Beef Unit, Labs, Beef Labs, Beef Production, au, Swine, Sheep, Veterinary, powerpoint, Genetics
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This 5 page Class Notes was uploaded by Hannah B. on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to ANSC 1000 at Auburn University taught by Dr. Carolyn Huntington in Spring 2016. Since its upload, it has received 21 views. For similar materials see Introduction to Animal Sciences in Animal Science and Zoology at Auburn University.

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Date Created: 03/06/16
GENETICS Introduction zygote is a fertilized egg starting point of most life cycles zygote divides many times to produce an adult organism adult produces gametes that combine to start the process over again Cells outer membrane, cytoplasm, and nucleus Two Processes of Nuclear Division mitosis: simple division of one cell into two; the two daughter cells receive an exact copy of genetic material of parent cell meiosis: genetic material halved so that diploid complement is reformed by fertilization gamete formation in animals chromosomes separated in both processes Background nucleus contains rod-like chromosomes “colored body” with staining constrictions where point of attachment lie = centromere chromosomes are in pairs, and each has genes (inheritance) when cells divide, chromosomes do as well Species and Chromosomes each species has a characteristic number of pairs of chromosomes poultry = most swine = fewest humans = 23 total chromosomes = 46 Mitosis continuous process with Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, and Telophase mother and daughter cells have exactly the same genetic components interphase: period of cell growth and normal activity between mitosis in the cell cycle; cells that do not need to replicate will spend their time in this stage, otherwise it will copy all of it’s DNA so the cell has two complete copies of its DNA before it begins the process of mitosis prophase: first and longest stage of mitosis; the chromosomes become visible and the centrioles separate and move to opposite poles of the cell metaphase: second stage of mitosis; the chromosomes line up across the center of the cell and become connected to the spindle fiber at their centromere anaphase: third stage of mitosis; the sister chromatids separate into individual chromosomes and are pulled apart telophase: fourth and last stage of mitosis; the chromosomes gather at opposite ends of the cell and lose their distinct rod-like shapes; two new nuclear membranes then form around each of the two regions of DNA and the spindle fibers disappear cytokinesis: process that follows the last stage of mitosis; with two complete copies of the DNA now in two different regions of one cell, the cell membrane will pinch and divide the cytoplasm in half; results in two individual cells that are identical to the original cell; each of the two new cells have a complete copy of the DNA and contain all of the organelles that the original cell had Page 1 of 5 Meiosis prophase one: one diploid cell; spindle fibers form; nuclear membrane dissolves; homologous chromosomes condense and pair; crossing over occurs metaphase one: homologous chromosomes line up along the equator of the cell; spindle fibers attach to chromosomes anaphase one: homologous chromosomes move to the opposite poles of the cell telophase one and cytokinesis: nuclear membrane forms; spindle fibers dissolve; two haploid cells are formed prophase two: starts with two haploid cells; nuclear membrane dissolves; spindle fibers form; chromosomes condense metaphase two: chromosomes line up across the center of the cell; spindle fibers attach to chromosomes anaphase two: centromeres divide, releasing chromatids; chromatids move to the opposite poles of the cells telophase two and cytokinesis: nuclear envelope forms around each set of chromosomes; spindle fibers dissolve; ends with four haploid cells occurs: in the primordial germ cells near the outer wall of the seminiferous tubules of each testicle; near the surface of each ovary Gametogenesis production of sex cells occurs in the testicle or ovary gametes from the testicle are sperm (spermatogenesis) gametes from the ovary are ova (or eggs — oogenesis) each newly formed gamete contains only one of the original chromosome pair when gametes recombine to form zygotes, original no. of chromosomes restored, not 2x Spermatogenesis process in males where each meiosis produces four equally sized sperm cells cells from testes produce primary spermatocyte primary and secondary spermatocytes undergoes division spermatid: lose much cytoplasm and develop a tail; mature into sperm by spermatogenesis Oogenesis the primary (like the male) contains a tetrad the first maturation division after the primary oocyte is formed produces a larger nutrient containing cell (secondary oocyte) and a smaller cell (first polar body) each of these cells is a dyad the second maturation division produces the ovum, and the second polar body each contains two chromosomes the first polar body may also divide, but all polar bodies die and are reabsorbed the ovum contains only half of the original chromosome pair (one chromosome) Page 2 of 5 Fertilization when a sperm and ovum unite, each contributes one chromosome to the resulting pair of chromosomes (ovum is fertilized and now called a zygote) fertilization is the union of the sperm and ovum along with the establishment of the paired condition of the chromosomes zygote is termed diploid (double or paired chromosomes) gametes are haploid (one single unpaired chromosome) gametogenesis reduces the number of chromosomes in a cell to half the diploid number fertilization reestablishes the normal diploid number (diplo means double) DNA and RNA chromosomes consist of DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) two strands of nucleotides as “double helix” segments of DNA are genes sequence of DNA codes for particular protein location of gene on chromosome = locus What is a Gene? basic unit of inheritance short section of a chromosome, which is a long strand of DNA segments of DNA one of chromosome pair comes from sire and one from dam Genes and Chromsomes chromosomes are in pairs, therefore genes are in pairs when the chromosomes are paired in diploid cells they are homologous chromosomes the genes at each loci on one chromosome strand matches to the corresponding loci on the other chromosome the transmission of genes to offspring depends entirely on the transmission of these chromosomes to the offspring DNA contains deoxyribose sugar, phosphate, and one of four bases this combination is called a nucleotide nucleotides together to form a strand that is half of the DNA molecule Adenine (A) pairs with Thymine (T) and Guanine (G) pairs with Cytosine (C) Coding genes code for proteins (made of 20 amino acids) amino acids are coded by DNA triplet sequence (3 nucleotides) analogous to letters of a word triplet sequence of DNA = letter amino acids = letters of a word protein = word Protein Synthesis transcription (step one): synthesis of RNA from DNA in the nucleus by matching bases involves messenger RNA (mRNA) - similar to DNA but single stranded triplet sequence for one a.a. in mRNA = codon transcribes encoded message & leaves nucleus to ribosome (protein synthesis) second step: transfer RNA (tRNA) is coded by DNA in nucleus & moves out to cytoplasm identifies and unites with one amino acid (specific union) contain anticodon complementary to mRNA mRNA attaches to ribosome for translation of message into protein triplet codon of mRNA associates with anticodon of tRNA with specific a.a. Page 3 of 5 begins at one end of mRNA and continues along the length amino acids have peptide bonds fully formed protein dissociates Sex Chromosomes X&Y chromosomes exist as a pair in which one does not correspond entirely to the other in terms of where the loci are present the Y chromosome is shorter than the X X&Y Chromosomes determine the sex (gender) of an animal (female=XX, male=XY) male determines sex of the offspring All Birds are Different in chickens and turkeys, the female determines the sex (female has one Y chromosome) Homozygous & Heterozygous the genes at corresponding loci may correspond to each other in a way that they control a trait, or they may contrast correspond = homozygous, differ = heterozygous Alleles genes that occupy corresponding loci in homologous chromosomes, but that affect the same character in different ways are alleles genes that are alike & affect the character developing the same way are identical alleles Dominant and Recessive Genes pls tell me you already know this…. the one that shows up is dominant (over the recessive one that is prevented) Genotypic vs. Phenotypic genotypic is genetic makeup (BB, Bb, bb) phenotypic is physical appearance (black or red) Six Types of Mating three kinds (homozygous dominant, homozygous recessive, and heterozygous) BBxBB, BBxBb, BBxbb, BbxBb, Bbxbb, bbxbb Multiple Gene Pairs assume there are two gene pairs to be considered, each independently affecting a particular trait (ex. BbPp) Gene Interactions linear interaction: with another gene in the same chromosome exist in lower animals (Drosophila fruit fly), not farm animals allelic interaction: with its corresponding gene in a homologous chromosome epistatic interaction: with genes in nonhomologous chromosomes internal environmental factors: hormones external environmental factors: nutrition, temperature, amount of light Allelic Interactions each gene occupying the same locus on homologous chromosomes may influence the trait individually (effect depends on dominance or recessive) may also be called dominance interactions when unlock genes occupy corresponding loci, complete dominance may exist only dominant gene is expressed overdominance: a condition where the heterozygous animals are superior to either of the homozygous conditions (show better vigor, more milk, better fertility) heterosis: heterozygotes of breed crosses are more vigorous than straight-bred parents hybrid vigor: greater vigor or productivity of crossbreds Page 4 of 5 Lack of Dominance there may also be a lack of dominance in which the heterozygous animal shows a different phenotype then either homozygous animal; intermediate result ex. sheep ear length (LL=long ears, ll=earless, Ll=short ears) one homozygote is superior; heterozygote is intermediate; other homozygote is inferior Additive Gene Action lack of dominance can also be considered additive gene action occurs when each gene has an expressed phenotypic effect Partial Dominance heterozygote expressed phenotype intermediate to either homozygote but most resembles homozygote dominant Epistatic Interaction when a gene or gene pair alters or masks the expression of genes on another chromosome a gene that interacts with a gene that is not allelic (same locus, homologous chrom) Interactions Between Genes and Environment genes interact with both internal and external environments external includes: temperature, light, altitude, humidity, disease, and feed supply some breeds (Brahman) can withstand high temperatures better than others while some breeds (Scotch Highland) can withstand the extreme cold better than others feed supply: one of the most important environmental factors easy keepers: can survive when feed is in short supply for long periods of time when the environment has a large effect on production traits, genetic improvement is low nutrition: environmental factor that accounts for growth difference Biotechnology use of living organisms to improve, modify, or produce industrially important products genetic engineering: removing, modifying, adding genes to DNA alters hereditary traits research allows us to identify and manipulate DNA at molecular and cell level superovulation: produce greater than normal number of eggs; breed donor and flush uterus; transfer to recipient female; reverse of A.I. sexing of semen, embryo splitting (cloning), embryo transfer ranked by AAAS as 1/4 major scientific advancements in 20th century (billion$ industry) Genetic Applications enzymes are “genetic scissors” cut DNA at designated places, reconstruct unique combinations inject genes from other animals of same or different species performed in vitro: artificial environment not likely to gain widespread utilization transgenic pigs; genes from other species nuclear fusion: union of nuclei from two sex cells; two eggs or sperm can occur gene therapy: insert genes into cell to treat or cure disease; alter WBC for immunity Somatotropin protein hormone produced in anterior pituitary to stimulate growth directs energy in feed for growth and milk supplemental BST to dairy cows increases F.I. and milk production PST up litter size, down time to market, improves FE, down carcass far Future Directions we can do more! 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