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Bio 1103K: Week of March Feb. 29 Notes

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by: Nzinga Oby

Bio 1103K: Week of March Feb. 29 Notes Biol 1103k

Marketplace > Georgia State University > Biology > Biol 1103k > Bio 1103K Week of March Feb 29 Notes
Nzinga Oby

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These notes cover the lectures of 02/29, 03/02. In the syllabus, these lectures are titled Organic Chemistry and Cellular Responses to the Environment. Bolded, colored and enlarged words emphasize ...
Introductory biology I
David blaustein
Class Notes
Biology, Bio, intro to bio, GSU, Organic Chemistry, Cellular Responses
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This 8 page Class Notes was uploaded by Nzinga Oby on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to Biol 1103k at Georgia State University taught by David blaustein in Summer 2015. Since its upload, it has received 29 views. For similar materials see Introductory biology I in Biology at Georgia State University.


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Date Created: 03/06/16
LAB 2: 1. Carbs(monosaccharides­ glucose/benedict's/orange,disaccharides  (sucrose/yeast/benedict's), polysaccharides­ iodine/starch/black, 2. proteins(Biuret/purple), 3. lipids( Sudan IV/red) LAB 3: H20>H+ (acidic) + OH­ (base) 1. pH=log(1/H+),  2. Scale 0­­­­7(neutral,pure water)­­­­14, as acidity goes up,  pH goes down/ a higher number is more basic 3. A strong acid + a strong basis= Neutralization ( you get a  water + a salt) 4. Indicators, change of color with a change in pH, these 2  plates are 2 different colors what does that mean?** 5. Buffer, resists changes in pH, No change in plate color?** Carbon­ skeleton to which functional groups are attached Polymer­ subunits added to each other to make long chains: ex: amino acids(mono)­­­> proteins (poly)     nucleotides­­­> DNA function, unit and polymer of a hydrolysis reaction: to break down  proteins,DNA and polysaccharides  1. Condensation or dehydration ● reactions= method for forming bonds, building  molecules is forming bonds, mono to poly* ● Involves removing water from molecules     2.Hydrolysis reactions ● breaking bonds, hydro­ means water , ­lysis    means to split   ● Involves addition of water ● using water to break a bond, poly to mono  ○ ex: eating a steak and drinking water, passing benedict's test w/yeast’ Carbohydrates 1. Monosaccharides(simple sugars) glucose(6  carbon)**, ribose(5), fructose etc.  a. Function i. basic E molecule  ii. subunits of more complex  sugars iii. subunits of DNA and RNA  ( ribose & deoxyribose) 2. Disaccharides( two simple sugars added together) a. sucrose= fructose+glucose  b. lactose= glucose galactose c. i. Function: short term  storage  3. Polysaccharides= long chains of glucose  a. starch= long term E storage in plants  (spiral, is digestible) b. glycogen=long term E storage in  animals( branched,eaten and digested starch)  c. cellulose(another term for fiber, ONLY found in plants)= structural polymer in plants/the  cell wall is a structural polysaccharides/not used for energy; animals can digest starch but not cellulose  due ro different bonds(alpha vs beta) d. chitin= structural polymer in animals: exoskeleton in arthropods 4. Lipids a. Insoluble in water, nonpolar** b. long chains of ­CH2­ molecular groups  1. Oils(unsaturated ), fats (saturated), waxes a. 3  fatty acids + glycerol b. high  E molecule; storage in mammals  c. waxes = waterproofing  2. Phospholipids a. same  as fats, except a ­PO4 (phosphate)  group is added to glycerol instead of  one fatty acid b. resul t: i. p olar phosphate “head”=  hydrophilic ii. n onpolar fatty acid “tails”=  hydrophobic  c. cell  membrane component, trap water inside  and outside  3. Steroids a. four  fused rings with diverse functional  groups  b. all  synthesized from cholesterol  c. cell  membrane constituent  d. hormo nes= intercellular messengers 4. Proteins,  diverse functions** i. e nzymes(a type of protein):speeds up and guides chemical reactions ii. s tructure: hair, skin, claws,  spider webs iii. e nergy: milk protein iv. m ovement: muscles  1. A mino acids a. s ubunits of proteins  b. 2 0 amino acids common  to living organisms  c. s tructure: i. c entral carbon  atom amino group (­NH2)  carboxylic acid  (­COOH) hydrogen group (­H) “R”­ groups  2. P roteins= long chains of  amino acids (50 or  more)**** a. p rimary structure=  linear sequence of  amino acids  b. s econdary  structure=uniform  twisting of chains:  spiraling or pleating c. t ertiary structure=  three dimensional  conformation d. q uaternary structure=  complexes of several  chains  i. s tructure: due to amino acid  sequence,  function  determined by  structure. YOU  DON'T HAVE THE  FUNCTION IF YOU  DON'T HAVE THE  STRUCTURE**   Nucleic Acids ● Chains of nucleic acids function as genes ● Genes specify the amino acid sequence of proteins  Nucleotides= similar but not identical nucleic acids  ● ribose nucleotides  ● deoxyribose nucleotides  ■ Three Parts to nucleic acids:** 1. five carbon sugar (ribose  or deoxyribose) 2. phosphate group 3. nitrogen containing “base”  (4 different bases) Link nucleic acids together: ● condensation reaction between phosphate group and  (deoxy)ribose group Millions of units form either  1. DNA= deoxyribonucleic acid OR 2. RNA= ribosenucleic acid a. Code for amino acids is based on sequence of  bases** Other Nucleotides: ● cyclic nucleotides= intracellular messengers ● E carriers in cell= di­ and triphosphate nucleotides ● coenzymes= assist enzymes (nucleotide+vitamin) Implications of Large Size  1. Farther distance for instructions to travel  2. Nutrient demand increases but amount that can enter is  limited by Surface Area  a. To enlarge­­­­­­> increases size via cell  division Coverings of Cells  ● Cell Wall: plants, bacteria, fungi ○ coats cell membrane  ○ stiff, non living** ○ do not control what goes in and out porous**  ○ composed of: i. plants­ mainly cellulose* ii. fungi­chitin iii. bacteria­ chitin like compounds amino  acids  ○ Put a plant cell in water and it will NOT burst because of  the cell wall, an animal cell will burst ○ secreted across cell membrane  ○ for support and protection  ● Cell Membrane  ○ Functions i. isolate cell contents (intracellular  fluid) from the external environment {phospholipid =  isolation}* ii. regulate flow of materials into and  out of cell {regulation= proteins}* iii. communication with other cells:  “recognition molecules”{recognition=glycoproteins}* ○ Structure: Fluid mosaic model (sea of lipids with a mosaic of proteins)   ○ Movement across cell membrane: i. Particles move down concentration  gradient= no E required (downhill w/gradient, red  wagon, high to low) ● Diffusion  ○ F= Kd A(c1­ c2)/dist. ■ Kd­  diffusion constant ■ c1,  c2­ high and low concentration ● i nverse: size goes down, rate of  diffusion goes up**lt ● i f distance goes up, diffusion  goes down. NOT good for long  distances  ● t he more SA, the more rapid the  diffusion ○ simple diffusion ○ facilitated  diffusion(need help w/movement) ○ carrier­mediated facilitated diffusion( need a protein set  up to move it from high to low)  ● Osmosis= water diffusion  [through semipermeable (dialysis bags)**  membranes] ○ when solute goes up­> water goes down ● s olute terms:  isotonic,hypertonic,hypotonic ○ h ypo(high)­­­­>hyper(low) ○ i f one side is hyper, the  other is hypo ii. Particles move up (against)  concentration gradient= E input is required  ● active transport  ● endocytosis IN  (membrane,vesicles) ○ pinocytosis,  very small ○ phagocytosis,  very big  ● exocytosis OUT  (membrane,vesicles)


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