Critical Thinking: Week 6
Critical Thinking: Week 6 TVR 251
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This 1 page Class Notes was uploaded by Josie Cyrus on Sunday March 6, 2016. The Class Notes belongs to TVR 251 at Ithaca College taught by Ben Crane in Winter 2016. Since its upload, it has received 10 views. For similar materials see Critical Thinking and Mass Communication in Film at Ithaca College.
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Date Created: 03/06/16
Critical Thinking: Week 6 I. Truth a. Definitions i. Transcendent/Spiritual Truth: Knowledge in the mind of God and being one with the universe 1. The Upanishads taught this truth 2. Big “T” truth: has to be accepted on faith ii. Practical Truth: What all the available evidence, interpreted rationally, obliges us to believe. 1. Suggests flexibility and possibility of something else also the truth of science 2. Little “t” truth II. Confirmation Bias – a type of selective thinking where one tends to search for confirmation of one’s beliefs, and to ignore or undervalue evidence that contradicts one’s beliefs. a. Ex: similarities between Abe Lincoln and JFK III. Lottery Principle – given a large enough sample, extremely rare events are actually likely to occur. (Sometimes called “the law of very large numbers”) a. Ex: Finding Kennedy/Lady Di in Moby Dick IV. Clustering Illusion – the feeling that random events which occur in clusters are not really random events. a. Random.org (flip coin) & cancer cluster (Davis County Utah) V. Arguments a. Argument – a discussion that contains at least 2 statements, one of which is given as a reason for the other. There are 2 parts: i. Reasons (premises) ii. Conclusion(s) 1. To argue productively, try to divorce your emotions from your arguments. The purpose of arguments is persuasions. b. Most people want someone else’s agreement fully and without coercion. There’s no easier way to settle this dispute i. Most people hate to change their minds because they lose face and cannot admit when they’re wrong. 1. Critical Thinkers should always be ready to consider new evidence. c. Assertion or Claim: a conclusion, presented by itself without any reasons to support it. i. To persuade people; but that shows less respect to people.
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